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Notes  and  Queries,  Jan.  28,  1911. 


Sw.   U,  M 




"When  found,  make  a  note  of." — CAPTAIN  CUTTLE. 

JULY — DECEMBER,  1910. 




Notes  and  Queries,  Jan.  28,  1911. 





ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2, 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  2,  1910. 

CONTENTS.-No.  27. 

NOTES  •— Tottel,  Puttenham,  and  Turbervile,  1-Sir  W. 
Jones  and  the  Representation  of  Oxford  University,  3 
— T  L.  Peacock  on  Fashionable  Literature,  4— The 
National  Flag  5— Sir  Thomas  Cooke,  Mayor  of  London 
—"Bullion"— Portable  Railway-" Pepita,"  a  Pattern 
— J.  R.  Smith  :  Dr.  W.  Saunders,  6. 

OUERIES:— George  J.'s  Statue  at  Hackwood— Garibaldi 
and  his  Flag— William  Penn's  Letters— Andronicus 
Lascaris— Donne's  Poems,  7— Spexhall  Church— Poem  on 
Death  of  George  II.— Cornelius  de  Witt-'  Sir  Edward 
Seaward's  Narrative '—The  Circle  of  Loda— Doge's  Hat 
—'The  Duenna  and  Little  Isaac'— Huguenot  Church  at 
Provins— Prince  Eugene  of  Savoy— Commonwealth  Grants 
of  Arms,  8— Parish  Registers  burnt  in  1337— Stones  in 
Earlv  Village  Life— Prior's  Salford  Church  — Clergy 
retiring  from  the  Dinner-Table— Heworth-Edw.  Hatton 
—Sir  Isaac's  Walk— Episcopal  Visitations— Chapel  le 
Frith— M.  de  Calonrie's  House  in  Piccadilly,  9-Prince 
Rupertr-Goldsmith  and  Hackney,  10. 

REPLIES :— Bubb  Dodington  and  his  Circle,  10— 'Rape  of 
Proserpine' —  London  Children's  Outdoor  Games  — 
"  Arabis"— "Teart"— Buff  and  Blue  as  Party  Colours,  11 
—Flax  Bourton— Duncan  Liddel  and  Jo.  Potinius— Wall- 
Papers,  12  — "Montjoy  et  St.  Dennis"— "Worth"  in 
Place-Names— "The  Cock  Tavern "— Kempesfeld,  13— 
"Onion"— Grey  Family— Earthenware  Tombstone,  14— 
"  Literary  Gossip,"  15  —  Strettell-Utterson  —  Column's 
'Man  of  the  People '—Robin  Hood's  Men— "Bmche"— 
Hampden  and  Ship  Money,  16— Firegrate  Folk-lore— 
The  Ravensbourne— Door-knocker  Etiquette,  17— Comets 
and  Princes  — Chevalier  de  Laurence—  "Pull"— "Tht 
Fortune  of  War,"  18. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— "The  Cornish  Coast '—' Pride  and 
Preiudice '  Abridged—'  A  Collection  of  Eastern  Stories ' 

.—'The  Time  of  the  Singing  of  Birds'— The  Prince  of 
Wales  Prayer-Books— '  L'Interme'diaire.' 


I  NOTICED  some  time  ago,  when  searching 
for  certain  material  in  George  Turbervile's 
'Tragical  Tales  and  other  Poems,'  1587, 
that  the  author  often  imitated  the  songs  and 
sonnets  in  TottePs  '  Miscellany,'  and  that 
occasionally  his  verse  was  almost  identical 
with  quotations  from  the  *  Miscellany z 
which  I  had  been  able  to  identify  in  Putten- 
ham's  'Arte  of  English  Poesie.'  Then  I 
called  to  mind  the  fact  that  the  time  of  the 
composition  of  Puttenham' s  book  is  still  a 
matter  for  intelligent  speculation,  and  I 
compared  the  date  of  its  publication,  1589, 
with  that  of  Turbervile's  'Tragical  Tales,' 
1587.  And  I  thought  what  a  good  thing 
it  would  be  if  I  could  find  the  latter  quoted 
in  Puttenham.  But  I  was  doomed  to 
disappointment,  for  I  could  find  no  evidence 
to  show  that  Puttenham  had  read  the 

At  this  time  Mr.  R.  B.  McKerrow  very 
kindly  lent  me  his  copy  of  Turbervile's 
'  Epitaphes,  Epigrams,  Songs,  and  Sonnets,' 
1567,  and  informed  me  that  he  had  traced 
two  quotations  from  it  in  Puttenham.  To 
make  a  long  story  short,  I  determined  to 
work  through  the  book  thoroughly,  and  I 
very  soon  learned  that  these  '  Songs  and 
Sonnets  '  shed  much  light  on  the  mysterious 
'  Arte  of  English  Poesie  ?  and  on  Turbervile's 
method  of  composition.  Turbervile  is  the 
"  common  rimer  "  who  is  most  often  censured 
by  Puttenham,  no  fewer  than  ten  passages 
from  his  book  being  dealt  with  in  '  The  Arte 
of  English  Poesie.' 

,  Turbervile  is  mentioned  only  once  by  name 
in  Puttenham  (Arber,  p.  75),  the  passage 
reading  as  follows  : — 

"  And  in  her  Majesties  time  that  now  is  are 
sprong  up  an  other  crew  of  Courtly  makers  Noble 
men  and  Gentlemen  of  her  Majesties  owne 
servauntes,  who  have  written  excellently  well  as 
it  would  appeare  if  their  doings  could  be  found 
out  and  made  publicke  with  the  rest,  of  which 
number  is  first  that  noble  Gentleman  Edward 
Earle  of  Oxford.  Thomas  Lord  of  Bukhurst, 
when  he  was  young,  Henry  Jx>rd  Paget,  Sir 
Philip  Sydney,  Sir  Walter  Rawleigh,  Master 
Edward  Dyar,  Maister  Fulke  Grevell,  Gascon, 
Britton,  Turberville  and  a  great  many  other 
learned  Gentlemen,  whose  names  I  do  not  omit 
for  envie,  but  to  avoyde  tediousnesse,  and  who 
have  deserved  no  little  commendation." 

Knowing  that  Turbervile  was  thus  com- 
mended, I  did  not  expect  to  find  that  he 
is  the  "  rimer  "  who  is  belittled  and  held  up 
to  censure  more  often  than  any  other  poet 
or  poetaster  dealt  with  by  Puttenham ; 
and  even  now  I  cannot  find  an  explanation 
for  the  difference  between  the  commenda- 
tion and  the  censures  that  follow,  all  of  which 
indicate  in  the  very  plainest  terms  that 
Turbervile  was  far  from  being  a  master  of  his 
craft,  that  he  was  an  imitator  or  mimic  of 
other  men's  work,  and  that  his  verse  is,  in 
truth,  very  little  better  than  doggerel. 

Now  all  this  seems  strange,  because  the 
faults  alleged  against  Turbervile  are  faults 
to  be  found  in  all  poets,  good  and  bad,  who 
wrote  about  that  time ;  and  Puttenham 
need  not  have  gone  outside  Tottel's  '  Mis- 
cellany '  for  similar  examples  for  his  book. 
Why  does  he  open  his  criticism  of  bad  verse 
with  a  quotation  from  Turbervile,  and  close 
it  with  a  succession  of  quotations  from  the 
same  author,  and  then  at  the  end  of  his 
book  hark  back  to  Turbervile's  writings  ? 
If  this  attack  on  Turbervile  is  new  to  us,  it  is 
hardly  likely  that  it  passed  unrecognized  by 
his  contemporaries  ;  and  it  would  seem  that 
Puttenham  had  quarrelled  with  Turbervile 
some  time  after  he  wrote  the  words  of  com- 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  2, 1910. 

mendation.  Puttenham  is  a  mysterious 
personage  about  whom  we  should  like  to 
know  something  more  than  the  few  bare 
details  that  have  been  ascertained  up  to 
the  present  ;  and  therefore  it  is  just  possible 
that  some  day  somebody  may  be  able  to  point 
us  to  one  or  more  replies  to  Puttenham  by 
Turbervile's  friends,  or  even  to  something 
by  Turbervile  himself,  in  work  known  to  have 
been  written  subsequent  to  the  production  of 
'  The  Arte  of  English  Poesie.'  And  then 
we  may  get  to  know  more  about  the  singu- 
larly able  critic,  but  wretched  poetaster, 
who  wrote  the  latter  work. 

The  first  two  quotations  I  shall  deal  with 
are  those  which  were  pointed  out  to  me  by 
Mr.  McKerrow. 

Puttenham  says  there  uannot  be  a  fouler 
fault  in  a  poet  than  to  falsify  his  accent  to 
serve  his  cadence,  or  by  untrue  orthography 
to  wrench  his  words  to  help  his  rime.  To 
do  either  is  a  sign  that  the  poet  or  maker 
is  not  copious  in  his  language,  or  (as  they 
are  wont  to  say)  not  half  his  craft's  master  ; 
that  he  is  but  a  bungler,  and  not  a 
poet : — 

"  as  he  that  by  all  likelyhood.  having  no  word  at 
hand  to  rime  to  this  word  [joy],  he  made  his  other 
verse  ende  in  [Roy]  saying  very  impudently  thus, 

O  mightie  Lord  of  love,  dame  Venus  onely  joy, 

Who  art  the  highest  God  of  any  heavenly  Roy." 
Arber,  p.  95. 

This  quotation  (altered)  is  dealt  with 
again  on  p.  259,  where  it  is  cited  as  an 
instance  of  '  Soraismus,'  or  '  The  mingle 
mangle,'  the  false  orthography  being  dealt 
with  a  second  time  as  an  inexcusable  vice, 
ignorant,  and  affected, 

"  as  one  that  said  using  this  French  word  Roy, 
to  make  ryme  with  another  verse,  thus  : 

O  mightie  Lord  of  love,  dame  Venus  onely  joy,    • 

Whose    Princely    power    exceedes    ech    other 
heavenly  roy. 

In   neither    case   is  Turbervile    correctly 
quoted,    and    this    circumstance   seems    to 
mark  malice.     Turbervile  wrote  : — 
O  Mightie  lorde  of  love  ! 
Dame  Venus  onely  joy, 

Whose  princely  powre  doth  farre  surmount 
all  other  heavenly  roy. 

'  The  Lover  to  Cupid  for  Mercie,'  &c. 
Collier's  reprint,  p.  80. 

The  verse,  says  Puttenham,  is  good,  but  the 
term  peevishly  affected  ;  and  at  p.  95  he 
says  "  roy"  was  never  yet  received  in  our 
language  for  an  English  word. 

Now  Puttenham' s  censure,  after  all, 
amounts  to  this  only,  that  Turbervile 
wrenched  a  word  to  help  his  rime,  and  that 
he  had  no  authority  for  using  "  roy.'?  But 
I  turn  to  that  portion  of  '  The  Mirror  for 

Magistrates '  which  John  Higgins  wroter 
printed  in  1575  and  again  in  1587,  or  before 
Puttenham's  book  appeared,  and  I  find 
"  roy  "  twice  : — 

What  thousand  tongues   (thinke  you)   could  telt 

our  joy  ! 
This  made  our  hearts  revive,  this  pleas'd  our  Roy. 

'  Legend  of  Lord  Irenglas,'  st.  16. 
Without  disdayne,  hate,  discorde  or  anoye  : 
Even  as  our  father  raign'd,  the  noble  Roy. 

'  Legend  of  King  Forrex,'  st.  4. 

Under  Macrologia  or  Long  language  we 
find  : — 

"  So  said  another  of  our  rimers,  meaning  to  shew 
the  great  annoy  and  difflcultie  of  those  warres  of 
Troy,  caused  for  Helenas  sake. 
Nor  Menelaus  was  unwise, 
Or  troupe  of  Troians  mad, 
When  he  with  them  and  they  with  him, 
For  her  such  combat  had." 

Arber,  p.  264. 

This  is  correctly  quoted  from  the  sonnet 
headed  '  In  Praise  of  Ladie  P.'  (Collier, 
p.  248). 

We  are  told  : — 

"  These  clauses  (he  with  them  and  they  with 
him)  are  surplusage,  and  one  of  them  very, im- 
pertinent, because  it  could  not  otherwise  be  in- 
tended, but  that  Menelaus,  fighting  with  the 
Troians,  the  Troians  must  of  necessitie  fight' 
with  him." 

In  Tottel's  '  Miscellany,'  p.  158,  a  similar 
case  of  "  surplusage  n  occurs,  and  in  a  poem 
from  which  Puttenham  quotes  with  approval 
elsewhere  : — 

But  gase  on  them  and  they  on  me  as  bestes  are- 
wont  of  kinde. 

'.The  Lover  refused  lamenteth  his  Estate.' 

As  very  much  of  Turbervjle's  work  in  his 
*  Songs  and  Sonnets  *  is  directly  founded  on 
poems  in  Tottel's  '  Miscellany,'  I  have  no 
doubt  he  caught  up  his  phrasing  from  Tottel 
in  this  case.  But  you  never  find  Putten- 
ham speaking  slightingly  of  anything  in 
Tottel,  although  he  deals  with  twenty- 
seven  passages  to  be  found  in  that  book,, 
some  of.  which  are  quoted  twice  and  even 
three  times.  - 

Most  of  the  quotations  in  Puttenham  are 
from  effusions  of  his  own,  which  ungrateful 
and  ill- discerning  men  have  allowed,  with, 
the  exception  of  one  poor  remnant,  to  be 
drowned  in  the  black  waters  of  oblivion. 
One  hardly  knows  whether  to  weep  or  to 
laugh  at  these  examples  of  his  muse  j  and 
the  suspicion  often  haunts  one's  mind  that  the^ 
terse,  eloquent,  and  clear-headed  prose* 
writer  is  making  a  May-game  of  his  reader. 
These  quotations  come  in  strings ;  they  are 
often  contrasted  with  passages  from  the  best 
writers  ;  and  occasionally  the  productions. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

of  poets  like  Surrey,  Wyatt,  and  Sir  Philip 
Sidney  are  alluded  to  merely  to  enable 
Puttenham  to  cite  something  of  his  own, 
which  he  makes  you  clearly  understand  is  to 
be  preferred  to  things  that  are  to  be  found 
in  the  works  of  the  persons  named.  And 
then  he  will  deal  with  one  of  "  your  ordinary 
rimers  ?)  It  is  all  done  so  pleasantly,  and 
the  assurance  of  the  critic  in  the  merit  of 
his  own  verse  is  so  superbly  self-confident, 
that  one  feels  compelled  not  only  to  accept 
with  good-humoured  toleration  what  he 
says,  but  also  to  forget  his  "  side,"  and 
only  remember  his  supreme  ability  as  a 

Following  one  of  these  strings  of  his 
own  verse,  pp.  187-8,  we  come  to  Endiadis 
or  the  Figure  of  Twinnes,  a  manner  of 
speech  which  seems  to  make  two  phrases 
of  one  : — 

'"  And  as  one  of  our  ordinary  rimers  said. 
Of  fortune  nor  her  frowning  face, 
I  am  nothing  agast. 
In  stead,  of  [fortunes  froivning  face.]  " 

The  "  ordinary  rimer  "  is  George  Turber- 
vile  again,  but  why  he  should  be  dragged 
in  thus  needs  explanation,  because  no  fault 
is  to  be  found  in  the  manner  of  his  speech 
that  does  not  occur  frequently  in  all  writers 
of  poetical  compositions,  who  use  the  form, 
with  more  or  less  judgment,  to  give  euphony 
to  their  verse.     But  some  of  Puttenham's 
readers    would    know    who    was    aimed    at, 
and  it  may  be  that  in  this  case,  as  in  others, 
the  poet  is  purposely  misquoted. 
Turbervile  wrote  : — 
I  will  not  be  agast 
Of  Fortune  nor  her  frowning  face. 

'  That  Lovers  ought  to  shunne  no  Paines 
to  attaine  their  Love,'  Collier,  p.  237. 

(To  be   continued.) 

SIR      WILLIAM     JONES     AND     THE 



Ix  1780  Jones,  who  was  not  knighted  until 
three  years  later,  offered  himself  as  a  candi 
date  for  the  representation  of  the  University 
of  Oxford  in  the  House  of  Commons.  But 
his  Liberal  opinions  and  his  detestation  of 
the  American  war  and  of  the  slave  -  trade 
were  too  frankly  expressed  to  be  agreeable 
to  the  electors,  and  he  withdrew  from  the 
contest  in  order  to  avoid  an  overwhelming 

Sir    Roger    Newdigate,    Bt.,    D.C.L.,    of 
University,    of    which     College    Jones    was 

himself  a  Fellow,   sat  for   Oxford  from   31 
January,  1750,  until  1780,  when  he  retired. 

The  University  was  represented  in  1780' 
by  Sir  William  Dolben,  Bt.,  D.C.L.,  some- 
time Student  of  Christ  Church,  and  Francis 
Page,  D.C.L.  of  New  College.  Sir  William, 
great-grandson  of  John  Dolben,  Arch- 
bishop of  York,  represented  Oxford  during 
seven  Parliaments,  from  3  February,  1768, 
until  1806,  when  he  retired.  He  always 
gave  his  steady  support  to  Wilberforce's 
measures  for  the  abolition  of  the'  slave- 
trade.  Francis  Bourne  assumed  the  name 
of  Page  on  inheriting  the  Oxfordshire  estates 
of  his  great-uncle  Sir  Francis  Page,  the  judge. 
He  was  junior  member  for  Oxford  from 
23  March,  1768,  until  1801. 

The  following  letter  is  not  among  those 
printed  by  Lord  Teignmouth  in  his  life  of 
Sir  William  Jones  (1806),  vol.  i.  pp.  358-83  : 

Lamb  Building,  Temple,  29  April,  1780. 

I  beg  you  will  accept  a  Latin  Ode,  lately 
written  in  imitation  of  Collins  by  a  person 
who  has  a  high  respect  for  you,  and  who  has 
disguised  his  name  in  the  form  of  an  anagram 
under  that  of  Julius  Melesigonus.  The  writer  is 
not  ashamed  to  confess  that  this  little  poem 
contains  his  own  political  sentiments  with  some 
poetical  amplification  and  colouring.  Very  few 
copies  have  been  printed,  to  save  the  trouble 
of  making  many  transcripts. 

I  had  fully  intended  to  send  you  a  copy  of  this 
ode,  without  giving  you  any  further  trouble  ;: 
but  I  have  just  received  a  piece  of  news,  which 
induces  me  to  trouble  you  with  one  short  question ». 
Sir  Roger  Newdigate  having  declared  his  intention 
of  vacating  his  seat  for  Oxford,  the  university 
will  at  the  general  election  be  called  upon  to  chuse 
one  of  their  members  e  qremio  Academice  to 
represent  them,  and,  "  to  protect  in  the  legis- 
lature the  rights  of  the  republick  of  letters,"  for 
which  purpose,  as  Sir  W.  Blackstone  observes,  the 
franchise  of  sending  members  was  first  granted  to 
our  learned  body.  Now,  the  great  attention 
and  kindness,  which  you  have  shown  me,  Sir,, 
tempt  me  to  ask  you,  who  are  well  able  to  inform 
me,  whether  the  writer  of  the  enclosed  poem,, 
if  his  friends  were  to  declare  him  a  candidate, 
would  have  any  chance  of  respectable  support 
from  such  members  of  the  University,  as  would 
trust  the  defense  of  their  rights,  as  scholars  and 
as  Englishmen,  to  a  man  who  loves  learning  as 
zealously  as  he  does  rational  constitutional 
Liberty.  If  the  little  personal  influence  that  he 
has  at  Oxford,  joined  to  his  avowed  affection  for 
the  genuine  freedom  of  our  English  constitution, 
would  make  it  improbable  that  he  should  be  at 
all  supported,  it  would  be  absurd  in  him  to  harbour 
a  thought  of  making  so  fruitless  an  attempt  ; 
but  if  there  were  a  prospect  even  of  an  honourable 
nomination,  it  would  be  an  honour,  which  no 
other  man  or  society  of  men  could  confer.  I 
entreat  you  to  excuse  this  liberty,  and  to  believe 
me,  with  infinite  respect,  Sir, 

Your  much  obliged  and  ever  faithful  servant 


To  Dr.  Adams,  Master  of  Pembroke  Colledge. 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [11  s.  n.  JULY  2>  1910. 

Johnson's  friend  Dr.  William  Adams  was 
Master  of  Pembroke  College  and  Canon 
-of  Gloucester  from  1775  until  his  death  in 
1 789.  He  was  also  for  some  time  Archdeacon 
of  LlandafL  The  Ode  to  Liberty  had  been 
printed  in  the  preceding  March  under  the 
title  of  'Julii  Melesigoni  ad  Libertatem.* 
Tne  assumed  name  is  formed  by  a  trans- 
position of  the  letters  of  Gulielmus  Jonesius. 

A.  R.  BAYLEY. 


THIS  hitherto  unpublished  fragment,  to 
which  allusion  has  already  been  made  in 
the  pages  of  *  N.  &  Q.,'  is  the  only  work  of 
its  author  which  alludes  to  writers  and 
periodicals  under  their  own  names,  and  as 
such  is  an  invaluable  addition  to  our  know- 
ledge of  Peacock's  views  as  well  as  a  charac- 
teristic specimen  of  his  style.  It  is  contained 
an  vol.  36,815  of  the  MSS.  in  the  possession 
of  the  British  Museum.  Admirers  of  Peacock 
will  find  his  likes  and  dislikes  portrayed  in 
the  same  trenchant  style  that  the  novels 
•display,  and  the  explanation,  perhaps,  of 
difficulties  which  have  arisen  owing  to 
suppression  of  names.  The  first  part  of  it 
is  as  follows  : — 

"  The  fashionable  metropolitan  winter,  which 
begins  in  spring  and  ends  in  autumn,  is  the 
^season  of  happy  reunion  to  those  ornamental 
varieties  of  the  human  species  who  live  to  be 
amused  for  the  benefit  of  the  social  order.  It  is 
"the  season  of  operas  and  exhibitions,  of  routs 
^,nd  concerts,  of  dinners  at  midnight  and  suppers 
at  sunrise.  It  is  the  period  of  the  general  muster, 
the  levy  '  en  masse  '  of  gentlemen  in  stays  and 
Sadies  in  short  petticoats  against  their  arch  enemy 
Time.  But  these  are  the  arms  with  which  they 
assail  the  enemy  in  battalion  :  there  are  others 
with  which  in  moments  of  morning  solitude  they 
are  compelled  to  encounter  him  single-handed  ; 
and  one  of  these  weapons  is  the  reading  of  light 
and  easy  books  which  command  attention  with- 
out the  labour  of  application,  and  amuse  the 
idleness  of  fancy  without  disturbing  the  sleep  of 

"  This  species  of  literature  which  aims  only  to 
amuse  and  must  be  very  careful  not  to  instruct  had 
never  so  many  purveyors  as  at  present :  for 
"there  never  was  any  state  of  society  in  which 
there  were  so  many  idle  persons  as  there  are  at 
present  in  England,  and  it  happens  that  these 
udle  persons  are,  for  the  most  part,  so  circum- 
stanced that  they  can  do  nothing  if  they  would, 
and,  in  the  next  place,  that  they  are  united  in  the 
links  of  a  common  interest  which,  being  based  in 
delusion,  makes  them  even  more  averse  than  the 
-well  -dressed  vulgar  always  are  from  the  free 
exercise  of  reason  and  the  bold  investigation  of 

"  That  the  faculty  of  amusing  should  be  the 
•only  passport  of  a  literary  work  in  the  hands  of 
; general  readers  is  not  very  surprising  even, 

especially  when  we  consider  that  the  English  are 
the  most  thinking  people  in  the  universe,  but  that 
the  faculty  of  amusing  should  be  as  transient  as 
the  gloss  on  a  new  coat  does  seem  at  first  view  a 
little  singular  :  for  though  all  fashionable  people 
read  (gentlemen  who  have  been  at  college  ex- 
cepted),  yet  as  the  soul  of  fashion  is  novelty,  the 
books  and  the  dress  of  the  season  go  out  of  date 
together,  and  to  be  amused  this  year  by  that 
which  amused  others  twelve  months  ago  would 
be  to  plead  guilty  to  the  heinous  charge  of  having 
lived  out  of  the  world 

"  The  stream  of  new  books,  therefore,  floats  over 
the  parlour  window  and  the  drawing-room  table 
to  furnish  a  ready  answer  to  the  grunt  of  Mr. 
Donothing  as  to  what  Mrs.  Dolittle  and  her 
daughters  are  reading,  and  having  served  this 
purpose,  and  that  of  putting  the  monster  Time 
to  a  temporary  death,  flows  peacefully  on  towards 
the  port  of  Lethe. 

"  The  nature  of  this  lighter  literature  and  the 
changes  which  it  has  undergone  with  the  fashions 
of  the  last  twenty  years  deserve  consideration  for 
many  reasons,  and  afford  a  subject  of  specula- 
tion which  may  be  amusing  and,  I  would  add, 
instructive,  were  I  not  fearful  of  terrifying 
my  readers  in  the  outset.  As  every  age  has  its 
own  character,  manners,  and  amusements,  which 
are  influenced  even  in  their  lightest  forms,  by  the 
fundamental  features  of  the  time,  the  moral 
and  political  character  of  the  age  or  nation 
may  be  read  by  an  attentive  observer,  even  in  its 
lightest  literature,  how  remote  soever  '  prima 
facie  '  from  morals  and  politics. 

"  The  newspaper  of  the  day,  the  favourite 
magazine  of  the  month,  the  tour,  the  novel,  and 
the  poem  which  are  most  recent  in  date  and  most 
fashionable  in  name,  furnish  forth  the  morning 
table  of  the  literary  dilettante.  The  springtide  of 
metropolitan  favour  floats  these  intellectual 
deliciae  into  every  minor  town  and  village  in  the 
kingdom,  where  they  circle  through  their  little 
day  in  the  eddies  of  reading  societies. 

"  It  may  be  questioned  how  far  the  favour  of 
fashionable  readers  is  a  criterion  of  literary  merit. 
It  is  certain  that  no  work  attracts  any  great  share 
of  general  attention  which  does  not  possess 
considerable  originality  and  great  power  to 
interest  and  amuse.  But  originality  will  some- 
times attract  notice  for  a  little  space,  as  Mr. 
Romeo  Loates  attracted  some  three  or  four 
audiences  by  the  mere  force  of  excessive  absur- 
dity ;  and  the  records  of  the  Minerva  Press  will 
shew  that  a  considerable  number  of  readers  can 
be  both  interested  and  amused  by  works  com- 
pletely expurgated  of  all  the  higher  qualities  of 
mind.  And  without  dragging  reluctant  dullness 
back  to-day,  let  us  only  consider  the  names  of 
Monk  Lewis  and  of  Kotzebue-^— they  have  sunk 
in  a  few  years  into  comparative  oblivion — and 
we  shall  see  that  the  condition  of  a  fashionable 
author  differs  very  little  in  stability  from  that  of 
a  political  demagogue. 

"  Mr.  Walter  Scott  seems  an  exception  to  this. 
Having  long  occupied  the  poetical  throne,  he 
seems  indeed  to  have  been  deposed  by  Lord 
Byron,  but  he  has  risen  with  redoubled  might 
as  a  novelist,  and  has  thus  continued  from  the 
publication  of  '  The  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel  ' 
the  most  popular  writer  of  his  time — perhaps 
the  most  universally  successful  in  his  own  day  of 
any  writer  that  ever  lived.  He  has  the  rare  talent 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  2,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

of  pleasing  all  ranks  and  classes  of  men,  from  the 
peer  to  the  peasant,  and  all  orders  and  degrees  of 
mind,  from  the  philosopher  to  the  man-milliner 
'  of  whom  nine  make  a  taylor.'  On  the  arrival 
of  '  Bob  Boy,'  as  formerly  on  that  of  '  Marmion,' 
the  scholar  lays  aside  his  Plato,  the  statesman 
suspends  his  calculations,  the  young  lady  deserts 
her  hoop,  the  critic  smiles  as  he  trims  his  lamp, 
thanking  God  for  his  good  fortune,  and  the 
weary  artisan  resigns  his  sleep  for  the  refreshment 
of  the  magic  page. 

"  Periodical  publications  form  a  very  prominent 
feature  in  this  transitory  literature  : — To  any  one 
who  will  compare  the  Beviews  and  Magazines  of 
the  present  day  with  those  of  thirty  years  ago, 
it  must  be  obvious  that  there  is  a  much  greater 
diffusion  of  general  talent  through  them  all  and 
more  instances  of  greater  individual  talent  in 
the  present  time  than  at  the  former  period  ;  and 
•at  the  same  time,  it  must  be  equally  obvious  that 
there  is  much  less  literary  honesty,  much  more 
illiberality  and  exclusiveness,  much  more  sub- 
division into  petty  gangs  and  factions,  much  less 
classicality  and  very  much  less  philosophy.  The 
stream  of  knowledge  seems*  spread  over  a  wider 
superficies,  but  what  it  has  gained  in  breadth  it  has 
lost  in  depth.  There  is  more  dictionary  learning, 
more  scientific  smattering,  more  of  that  kind  of 
knowledge  for  show  in  general  society — to  produce 
a  brilliant  impression  on  the  passing  hour  of 
literature,  and  less,  far  less,  of  that  solid  and 
laborious  research  which  builds  up  in  the  silence 
of  the  closet  and  is  the  destroyer  of  perishable 
fashions  of  mind,  the  strong  and  permanent 
structure  of  history  and  philosophy. 

"  The  two  principal  periodical  publications 
of  the  time — the  Edinburgh  and  Quarterly  Reviews — 
are  the  organs  and  oracles  of  the  two  great  political 
factions,  the  Whigs  and  Tories.  Their  extensive 
circulation  is  less  ascribable  to  any  marked 
superiority  either  of  knowledge  or  talent  which 
they  possess  over  their  minor  competitors  than 
to  the  curiosity  of  the  public  in  general  to  learn 
or  divine  from  these  semi-official  oracles  what  the 
said  two  parties  are  meditating.  The  Quarterly 
Review  and  The  Courier  newspaper  are  conducted 
on  the  same  principle  and  partly  by  the  same 
contributors.  These  are  the  hardy  veterans  of 
corruption.  The  British  Critic  and  The  Gentleman's 
Magazine  are  its  awkward  squad ;  The  Anti- 
jacobin  Review  and  The  New  Times  are  its  con- 
demned regiment. 

"The  country  gentleman  appears  to  be  in  the 
habit  of  considering  reviews  as  the  joint  pro- 
ductions of  a  body  of  men  who  meet  at  a  sort  of 
green  board  where  all  new  literary  productions, 
are  laid  before  them  for  impartial  consideration 
and  the  merits  of  each  having  been  fairly  can- 
vassed, some  aged  and  enlightened  censor  records 
the  opinion  of  the  council  and  promulgates  its 
definite  judgment  to  the  world.  The  mysterious 
we  '  of  the  invisible  assassin  converts  his  poisoned 
dagger  into  a  host  of  legitimate  broadswords. 
Nothing,  however,  can  be  more  removed  from  the 
facts.  Of  the  ten  or  twelve  articles  which  com- 
prise The  Edinburgh  Review,  one  is  manufactured 
on  the  spot,  another  comes  from  Aberdeen,  another 
from  Herefordshire,  another  from  the  coast  of 
Devon,  another  from  bonny  Dundee,  etc.,  etc., 
without  any  one  of  the  contributors  ever  knowing 
the  names  of  his  brethren  or  having  any  com- 
munication with  any  one  but  the  editor.  The 

only  point  of  union  among  them  is  respect  for  the 
magic  circle  drawn  by  the  compasses  of  faction 
and  nationality,  within  which  dullness  and 
ignorance  is  sure  of  favour,  and  without  which 
genius  and  knowledge  are  equally  certain  of 
neglect  or  persecution.  The  case  is  much  the 
same  with  The  Quarterly  Review,  except  that  the 
contributors  are  more  in  contact,  being  all,  more 
or  less,  kind  slaves  of  the  Government,  and,  for 
the  most  part,  gentlemen  pensioners  clustering 
round  a  common  centre  in  the  terrible  shape  of 
their  paymaster,  Mr.  Gifford.  This  publication 
contains  more  talent  and  less  principle  than  it 
would  be  easy  to  believe  coexistent." 

A.  B.  YOUNG,  M.A.,  Ph.D. 

(To  be  concluded.) 

THE  NATIONAL  FLAG.  —  Through  the 
courtesy  of  Lord  Knollys,  the  question, 
which  was  long  disputed,  as  to  the  right  of 
British  subjects  to  fly  on  land  the  Union 
Jack,  now  known  as  the  national  flag,  was 
finally  settled  in  the  pages  of  '  N.  &  Q.'' 
It  is  therefore  of  interest  to  make  a  per- 
manent record  of  the  official  notice  just 
issued  respecting  the  days  that  have  been 
appointed  for  the  hoisting  of  the  Union'  Jack 
on  Government  buildings,  the  period  being 
from  8  A.M.  till  sunset : — 

Feb.  20. — Birthday  of  the  Princess  Boyal. 

March  18. — Birthday  of  Princess  Louise, 
Duchess  of  Argyll. 

March  31. — Birthday  of  Prince  Henry. 

April  14. — Birthday  of  Princess  Henry  of 

April  25. — Birthday  of  Princess  Mary. 

May  1. — Birthday  of  the  Duke  of  Connaught. 

May  6. — Anniversary  of  His  Majesty's  Accession. 

May  25. — Birthday  of  Princess  Christian. 

May  26. — Her  Majesty's  Birthday. 

June  3. — His  Majesty's  Birthday. 

June  23. — Birthday  of  the  Duke  of  Cornwall. 

July  6. — Anniversary  of  their  Majesties'  wedding 
and  birthday  of  Princess  Victoria. 

July  12. — Birthday  of  Prince  John. 

Nov.  26. — Birthday  of  the  Queen  of  Norway. 

Dec.  1. — Birthday  of  Queen  Alexandra. 

Dec.  14. — Birthday  of  Prince  Albert. 

Dec.  20. — Birthday  of  Prince  George. 

The  national  flag  is  also  to  be  hoisted  at  the 
opening  and  closing  by  His  Majesty  of  the  sessions 
of  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  and  on  any  day 
appointed  for  the  official  celebration  of  His 
Majesty's  birthday,  should  such  celebration  not 
take  place  on  June  3. 

The  Boyal  Standard  is  only  to  be  hoisted  when 
the  King  or  the  Queen  is  actually  present  in  the 
building,  and  never  when  their  Majesties  are 
passing  it  in  procession. 

The  official  reference  to  the  Royal  Stand- 
ard confirms  the  intimation  given  to  us  in 
June,  1908,  by  Lord  Knollys. 

Our  beloved  Alexandra,  the  Queen-Mother, 
has  a  special  flag  of  her  own,  recently 
designed.  This  was  flown  for  the  first 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [11  s.  n.  JULY  2, 1910. 

time  from  Buckingham  Palace  (where  she 
is  in  residence)  on  Wednesday,  the  22nd  of 
June  ;  it  is  based  on  a  combination  of  the 
British  and  Danish  standards,  a  large 
cross  being  a  prominent  feature. 


[With  '  N.  &  Q.'  for  30  June,  1900,  was  issued 
a  Supplement  containing  a  coloured  illustration 
of  the  National  Flag,  and  an  article  by  Mr.  W.  H. 
St.  John  Hope.  This  Supplement  has  been  re- 
printed, and  can  be  obtained  from  the  office. 
Various  questions  connected  with  the  National 
Flag  are  discussed  at  9  S.  v.  414,  440,  457,  478  ; 
vi.  17,  31,  351,  451,  519  ;  -vii.  193  ;  viii.  67,  173  ; 
ix.  485  ;  x.  31,  94,  118  ;  xii.  327,  372,  398,  454, 
508  ;  10  S.  ix.  128,  154,  174,  255,  292,  396,  502, 
514  ;  x.  72,  130,  193,  331.  At  10  S.  ix.  502  is 
printed  the  letter  we  received  from  the  Tender 
Secretary  of  State  at  the  Home  Office  respecting 
the  use  of  the  National  Flag.] 

— The  '  D.N.B.*  article  on  this  civic  worthy 
is  not  very  satisfactory.  He  is  described 
.therein  as  "  Lord  Mayor,'1  which  is  certainly 
an  anachronism.  It  is  also  stated  in  the 
original  issue  of  the  '  D.N.B/  that  he  "  was 
elected  Alderman  of  Vintry  Ward  in  1454," 
and  discharged  from  his  office  of  Alderman  of 
Broad  Street  Ward  in  December,  1468,  but 
reinstated  in  "  the  following  year."  Now 
.his  election  for  Vintry  took  place  on  4 
October,  1456  (Journal  6,  fo.  107);  he  was 
removed  to  Broad  Street  in  1458,  discharged 
by  command  of  the  king  (Edward  IV.) 
21  November,  1468  (Journal  7,  fo.  182), 
and  again  elected  Alderman  (but  of  Bread 
Street,  not  Broad  Street)  in  October,  1470 
— not  1469,  as  "  the  following  year  "  of  the 
text  suggests  (Journal  7,  fo.  225b).  Some  of 
these  corrections  are  made,  at  my  instance, 
in  the  new  issue  of  the  'D.N.B.'  The 
writer  of  the  article  has  missed  the  fact  that 
Cooke  was  M.P.  for  London  in  the  Parlia- 
ment of  1460  ;  and  although  he  refers  to  him 
as  a  member  of  the  Parliament  of  1470, 
he  does  not  note  that  he  represented  the 
City  then,  as  at  the  earlier  date. 

"Sirn  John  Stockton  is  a  misnomer  in 
the  case  of  the  Mayor  to  whom  Cooke  acted 
as  Deputy  in  1470-71,  as  he  was  not  knighted 
until  after  Edward's  victory  at  Tewkesbury. 

I  do  not  know  upon  what  authority  Cooke 
is  stated  to  have  been  one  of  the  leaders  of 
the  Yorkist  party  in  the  City.  All  his 
later  associations  were  with  the  Lancastrians. 
He  had  married  the  daughter  of  Philip 
Malpas,  who  was  a  leading  Lancastrian ; 
he  was  ejected  from  his  Aldermanry  by  Ed- 
ward IV.,  and  restored  to  it  during  the 
short  interval  (1470-71)  of  Henry  VI.'s 
Restoration,  being  again  turned  out  on 

Edward's  return.  It  is  true  that,  as  is 
pointed  out  in  the  '  D.N.B./  he  was  made  a 
K.B.  by  Edward  IV.  in  May,  1465  ;  but  so 
also  at  the  same  time  was  John  Plomer,  who 
was  removed  from  his  Aldermanry  (and 
charged  with  treason,  on  account  of  his 
Lancastrian  sympathies)  in  1468,  a  few 
months  before  Cooke  himself.  It  is,  of 
course,  possible  that  Cooke  may  have  been 
a  leader  first  on  one  side  and  then  on  the 
other  ;  but,  if  so,  I  should  like  to  have 
more  certain  evidence  of  bis  early  Yorkist 
sympathies  than  the  article  in  the  '  D.N.B.' 
supplies.  ALFRED  B.  BEAVEN. 


"  BULLION."— The  'N.E.D.'  tells  us  that 
this  word  is  first  recorded  in  the  Statutes  of 
the  Realm,  A.D.  1336,  where  it  is  spelt 
bullion,  as  now.  It  is  further  said  that  this 
form  "appears  to  point  to  identity  with 
F.  bouillon,'1  which  is  derived  from  F. 
bouillir  (A.F.  boillir),  to  boil. 

This  solution  is  as  good  as  settled  by  the 
fact  that,  in  another  MS.  of  the  above 
Statutes,  the  word  is  actually  spelt  boillon, 
the  connexion  of  which  with  the  A.F.  boillir 
cannot  easily  be  missed. 


PORTABLE  RAILWAY. — I  am  sorry  not  to 
find  in  the  '  N.E.D.'  a  reference  to  the 
patent  granted  5  Feb.,  1770,  to  "  Richard 
Lovell  Edge  worth,  of  Hare  Hatch  (Berks), 
Esq.  :  For  a  new  invented  Portable  Railway, 
or  Artificial  Road,  to  move  along  with  any 
Carriage  to  which  it  is  applied."  No  doubt 
that  sort  of  thing  is  re -invented  every  few 
years.  (See  '  Sixth  Report  of  Deputy 
Keeper,'  App.  II.  160.)  Q.  V. 

"  PEPITA,"  A  PATTERN. — A  recent  cause 
celebre  reminds  me  that  "  pepita  "  is  the 
name  of  the  well-known  pattern  of  small 
black-and-white  squares  in  Eastern  Europe 
(in  heraldry :  Chequy  sable  and  argent), 
and  that  it  was  called  after  a  famous  dancer 
of  the  name  of  Pepita  more  than  forty  or 
fifty  years  ago.  I  have  heard  English  school- 
boys call  it  "sponge  bags,"  as  these  useful 
articles  are  very  often  made  of  a  fabric  of 
the  same  pattern.  L.  L.  K. 

J.  R.  SMITH  :  DR.  W.  SAUNDERS. — The 
only  reference  in  Mrs.  Frankau's  'John 
Raphael  Smith  *  (1902)  to  a  portrait  of  Dr. 
Saunders  is  Smith's  exhibit  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  1802  (No.  351).  There  is 
abundant  evidence  that  Smith  published 
an  engraving  of  this  portrait  by  himself, 
inasmuch  as  a  notice  of  it  appeared  in  The 
Monthly  Magazine,  July,  1803,  where  it  is 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

said  to  be  "  extremely  well  engraved.' 
In  Evans's  'Catalogue2  (No.  9291)  the 
portrait  is  described  as  three  quarters, 
sitting.  It  is  entirely  omitted  from  Mrs. 
Frankau's  '  Catalogue.''  When  the  engraving 
was  published  the  original  picture  was  in  the 
possession  of  Dr.  Curry,  physician  to  Guy's 
Hospital.  W.  ROBERTS. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to -affix  their- names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to.  them  direct. 

In  front  of  this  house  is  an  equestrian  figure, 
in  lead,  of  George  I.,  presented  by  him  to 
one  of  the  Dukes  of  Bolton  who  resided 
here  in  the  eighteenth  century.  I  think 
that  it  must  either  have  been  identical 
.with  or  have  closely  resembled  the  one  which 
I  remember  as  a  boy  in  Leicester  Square, 
and  which  came  to  such  an  ignominious  end. 

I  have  read  somewhere  that  there  was 
another  mounted  effigy  of  the  same  king, 
also  of  lead,  and  gilded,  which  stood  in 
front  of  Canons  in  Middlesex. 

Readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  have,  I  believe, 
made  a  study  of  the  question  of  royal  and 
other  statues  both  in  and  outside  of  London. 
I  wonder,  therefore,  if  they  could  refer  me 
to  any  sources  of  information  about  any  of 
these  figures,  or  could  tell  me  if  there  is 
any  statue  of  George  I.  now  surviving 
beyond  the  one  here. 

[Royal  and  other  statues  in  London  are  discussed 
at  considerable  length  at  10  S.  ix.  1, 102,  282, 363,  481 : 
x.  122,  211,  258,  290,  370,  491.] 

GARIBALDI  AND  HIS  FLAG. — The  late  Mr. 
Philip  Gilbert  Hamerton,  who  lived  long  in 
France,  near  Autun,  and  married  a  French- 
woman, wrote  in  his  charming  book  '  Round 
House*  a  very  strange  story  about 
Garibaldi  and  his  flag  during  the  Franco - 
German  War  of  1870. 

<i  n  T^u  idr  1  !aite^   his   arrival,"  says  Hamerton, 
Garibaldi  held  a  little  review  and  sat  in  a  carriage 

whilst  his  regiments  marched  past There  was 

unfolded  his  own  personal  Garibaldian  flag,  an 
invention  of  his  own,  a  very  original  invention  too, 
and.  one  not  by  any  means  calculated  to  reassure 
the  lovers  of  tranquillity.  It  was  all  red,  to 
begin  with,  red  as  the  Sanguinary  Revolution, 
this  is  a  colour  which  the  lovers  of  order 
Admire  only  when  it  is  worn  by  the  Princes  of 

^6vT     ijch<    On  ,the  flaS  were  none  ofc  the  devices 
heraldry,  no  •  lions,  nor   eagles,  nor  any  such 

picturings  of  the  old  illiterate  ages,  but  a  single 
word  in  great  legible  roman  capitals,  and  the  word 


And  when,  at  a  later  period,  I  heard  of  the 

smashing  and  crashing  that  was  effected  on  so  large 
a  scale  by  the  Communards,  of  the  falling  of  ruined 
palaces  and  streets,  of  the  upsetting  of  the  Vendome 
Column,  I  said  k  This  is  Garabaldi's  PatatracS  and 
that  word  on  the  banner  which  flapped  in  the 
November  wind  seemed  a  word  of  baleful  prophecy, 
a  sinister  suggestion  of  all  the  evil  that  was  to 
come."— Third  ed.,  pp.  389-90. 

Has  any  one  ever  seen  that  flag,  with  its 
queer  motto  ?     Is  it  mentioned  elsewhere  ? 
3,  Rue  de  la  Mairie,  Quimper,  Finistere. 

endorsement  and  co-operation  of  the  His- 
torical society  "of  Pennsylvania,  I  hope  to 
arrange  for  the  publication  of  the  complete 
works  of  William  Penn.  I  shall  therefore 
be  glad  to  receive  information  concerning 
any  of  Penn's  letters  •  in  public  or  private 
collections.  Please  reply  direct. 

Kentmere  Lodge,  Moylan,  Pennsylvania. 

TOPHANES^— Is  it  known  who  of  the  Lascaris 
family  had  the  Christian  name  Andronicus  ? 
I  possess  a  Greek  manuscript,  apparently 
of  the  fifteenth  century,  containing  various 
classical  poetical  works,  which,  as  appears 
from  repeated  internal  evidence,  was  written 
by  one  Alexander  for  Andronicus  Lascaris. 
Though  'the  manuscript  is  late,  I  wish  to 
find  out  all  I  can  about  its  provenance,  seeing 
that  it  apparently  purports  (a  unique 
feature)  to  give  the  actual  music  of  a  portion 
of  one  of  the  choruses  of  Aristophanes. 

Little  Holland  House,  Kensington,  W. 

DONNE'S  POEMS. — I  should  be  very 
grateful  if  any  of  the  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 
could  give  me  information  on  the  following 

In  '  N.  &  Q.'  for  28  May,  1892  (8  S.  i.  440), 
T.  R.  O'FL.,  commenting  on  Grosart's 
edition  of  Donne,  says  that  he  has  in  his 
possession  two  copies  of  the  '  First  and  Second 
Anniversary,'  1612.  T.  R.  O'FL.  was,  I 
suppose,  the  T.  R.  O'Flahertie  •  whose 

ibrary  would  appear  to  have  been  broken 
up,  as  I  have  met  with  MSS.  which  have 
come  from  it.  Could  any  one  tell  me  where 

[  could  now  see  a  co^Sy  of  this  edition  of 
1612,  which  is  the  first  edition  of  the  Second 
Anniversary  ?  I  have  examined  and  col- 

ated  the  1611  edition  of  the  First  Anni- 
versary, but  I  cannot  find  that- of  161 2» 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  IL  JULY  2, 1910. 

Could  any  one  tell  me  where  the  Hazle 
wood-Kingsburgh  MS.,  of  which  Grosart 
made  frequent  use  in  his  edition  of  Donne's 
poems,  now  is  ?  I  have  seen  a  description 
of  it  at  the  British  Museum,  but  cannot  trace 
its  whereabouts. 

I  should  be  obliged  for  information  re 
garding  any  MSS.  of  Donne's  poems  other 
than  those   which   I   know    of   in   London 
Oxford,  Cambridge,  Dublin,  and  Harvard 
and  for  permission  to  collate  such. 

H.  J.  C.  GRIERSON. 

University  of  Aberdeen. 

SPEXHALL  CHURCH. — Our  ancient  round 
tower  fell  in  1720.  Our  squire  is  about  to 
raise  it  up  again,  and  he  and  his  architect 
would  be  grateful  if  they  could  look  at  any 
picture  or  print  of  the  tower  as  it  formerly 
stood.  If  any  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.s  possess- 
ing the  information  would  kindly  com- 
municate with  me,  I  should  be  very  grateful. 
J.  GARFORTH,  Rector. 

Spexhall  Rectory,  Halesworth,  Suffolk. 

are  in  possession  of  a  MS.  poem  (96  lines) 
'  On  the  Death  of  the  King '  (George  II.). 
The  opening  lines  are  as  under  : — 
Reclined  on  Camus'  rushy  fringed  banks, 
Which  slowly  roll'd  along  his  silent  stream, 
Striking  her  pensive  breast,  sad  Granta  thus 
Burst  forth  into  complaints.    Ye  sisters  nine,  &c. 
The  poem  is  in  a  contemporary  hand.     Can 
readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.1  assist  us  in  tracing  its 
author  ?  CHAS.  J.  SAWYER,  LTD. 

23,  New  Oxford  Street. 

CORNELIUS  DE  WITT. — Can  any  one  suggest 
how  I  can  find  the  intervening  generations 
between  Cornelius  de  Witt  (murdered  with 
his  brother  John  de  Witt  in  1672)  and  John 
Albra  de  Witt  ?  I  cannot  give  the  exact 
date  of  the  latter,  but  his  wife  Mary  was  born 
in  1734,  and  died  in  1814.  John  Albra  de 
Witt  was  a  sugar  merchant  in  London. 


Swallowfield  Park,  Reading. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me 
information  as  to  this  work  ?  It  has  run 
through  several  editions  ;  the  one  before  me 
is  1841.  It  is  edited  by  Miss  Jane  Porter, 
who  was  a  novelist,  and  is  mentioned  in 
the  *D.N.B.,J  and  professes  to  be  a  copy 
of  the  diary  of  the  above  Sir  Edward, 
which  was  written  in  the  years  1733-49. 

Sir  Edward  was  shipwrecked  on  some 
unknown  islands  near  the  Mosquito  Coast  of 
Central  America,  and  discovered  there  a 
pirates'  hoard. 

Can  any  one  inform  me  whether  this 
narrative  is  true,  or  whether  it  is  due  to  the 
imagination  of  Miss  Porter  or  the  friend  who 
lent  her  the  alleged  diary  ?  Kindly  reply 
direct.  H.  WILSON  HOLMAN. 

4,  Lloyd's  Avenue,  E.G. 

[Sir  Edward  Seaward  is  an  imaginary  character.] 

THE  CIRCLE  OF  LODA. — Will  any  reader  of 
'N.  &  Q.'  acquainted  with  Northern  myth- 
ology kindly  volunteer  information  con* 
cerning  the  Circle  of  Loda  ?  It  was,  I 
believe,  a  circle  of  stones  used  as  a  place 
of  worship  among  the  Scandinavians. 

A.  B.  YOUNG. 

DOGE'S  HAT. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
tell  me  the  correct  word  for  the  hat  or  cap 
of  office  worn  by  a  Doge  of  Venice,  as,  for 
instance,  in  Giovanni  Bellini's  '  Portrait  of 
Leonardo  Loredano  in  his  State  Robes  * 
in  the  National  Gallery  ?  M.  W.  B. 

I  have  an  oval  stipple  engraving  (8^  in. 
by  7^  in.)  with  this  title,  engraved  by 
W.  P.  Carey  from  a  painting  by  T.  Row- 
landson.  "  The  duenna  **  is,  I  think,  Mrs. 
Billington.  Who  impersonated  "  Little 
Isaac  JJ  ?  Who  was  the  author  of  this  play  2 

118,  Sutherland  Avenue,  W. 

was  issued  this  spring,  by  a  Mr.  Williamson, 
in  which  was  described  the  rise  of  the 
Huguenot  Church  at  Provins,  Seine  et 
Marne.  If  any  readers  know  in  what 
periodical  it  appeared,  or  anything  about 
it,  they  will  much  oblige  the  undersigned  by 
giving  the  wished-for  information. 

(Mile.)  A.  IHIRION. 

35,  Paulton's  Square,  S.W. 

PRINCE  EUGENE  OF  SAVOY. — With  regard 
to  the  lists  of  public  statues  which  have 
appeared  in  'N.  &  Q.?  of  late,  what  has 
become  of  the  statue  of  this  famous  general, 
who,  in  conjunction  with  Marlborough, 
gained  some  of  the  most  decisive  and 
splendid  victories  in  our  military  history  ? 
[t  was  by  Kent,  and  there  are  two  drawings 
of  it  in  the  Crace  Collection,  British  Museum. 
[t  stood  in  Carlton  House  Gardens. 

Wroxton  Grange,  Folkestone. 

Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries 
for  the  1st  of  April,  1897,  contains  grants  of 
arms  to  William  Howe,  1651,  John  Cooke, 
1653,  and  Thomas  Moore,  1654.  I  have  been. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2,  i9io.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


informed  that  none  of  the  republican  grant 
now  remain  in  the  Heralds'  College.  D 
they  exist  elsewhere,  either  in  the  origina 
grants  or  in  any  other  form  ?  It  is  not  to  b( 
questioned  that  a  large  number  of  grant 
were  issued  during  that  period,  and  it 
almost  certain  that  some  of  the  arms  no* 
in  use  had  their  origin  in  this  source. 

L.  S.  M. 

any  record  to  be  found  of  the  destruction 
by  fire  of  the  registers  in  a  parish  church 
soon  after  16  October,  1837  ?  This  church 
was  probably  in  Sussex,  and  perhaps  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Lewes. 

HENRY  W.  POOK,  Col. 
121,  Hither  Green  Lane,  Lewisham,  S.E. 

part  did  large  stones  play  in  early  village 
life  ?  They  must  have  had  some  signifi- 
cance, to  judge  by  the  care  that  was  taken 
of  them  and  the  fact  that  they  entered  into 
the  construction  of  place-names.  Here  in 
Eastern  Hertfordshire,  for  example,  we  have 
three  places  which  derive  part  of  their 
titles  from  still  existing  stones — Standon 
(or  Stondon,  as  it  was  originally  called), 
Walton-at-Stone,  and  Stonebury,  the  last 
now  only  a  farm-house.  There  are  two 
other  -stans,  Stanstead  and  Stanborough, 
but  there  appear  to  be  no  stones  visible  in 
connexion  with  them. 

The  subject  has  perhaps  been  dealt  with 
before ;  if  so,  references  will  be  valued. 

W.  B.  GERISH. 
Bishop's  Stortford. 

[Stones  are,  of  course,  widely  connected  with 
pre-Christian  religion  and  astronomy.] 

MONUMENTS.— In  1874  the  Rev.  Thos. 
Procter  Wadley,  Rector  of  Naunton  Beau- 
champ,  co.  Worcester,  prepared  a  paper, 
under  the  name  of  "  Vestigans,"  upon  the 
above.  I  possess  a  copy,  privately  printed 
in  recent  years,  but  wish  to  know  if  the 
paper  ever  appeared  in  the  proceedings  of 
any  local  society.  R.  S.  B. 

TABLE. — In  'Esmond'  Thackeray  alludes 
to  the  custom  of  the  clergy  retiring  from 
the  dinner-table  at  the  entrance  of  the 
sweets.  What  was  the  significance  of  the 
custom  ?  When  did  it  commence,  and  fall 
into  desuetude  ?  Did  the  prohibition  extend 
to  bishops  and  archbishops  ? 


of  your  readers  kindly  say  what  was  the 
origin  of  the  name  Heworth,  a  suburb  of 
York  ?  It  is  styled  ' '  Heuuarde  '•*  in  Domes- 
day Book  :  Orm  had  land  there.  SADI. 

EDW.  HATTON. — Who  and  what  was  he  ? 
There  is  a  portrait  of  him  engraved  by 
W.  Sherwin.  XYLOGRAPHER. 

SIR  ISAAC'S  WALK. — In  the  business  part 
of  Colchester  there  is  a  thoroughfare  known 
as   Sir  Isaac's  Walk.     Who   was  the  local 
celebrity  whose  name  is  thus  celebrated  ? 
M.  L.  R.  BRESLAR. 

INQUIRY. — Can  any  correspondent  refer 
me  to  publications  containing  articles  of  the 
following  bishops  ? — 

Bell,  of  Worcester,  1540. 

Wakeman,  of  Gloucester,  1541. 

Hoper,  of  Gloucester,  1550. 

Brooks,  of  Gloucester,  1554. 

Cheyney,  of  Gloucester,  1562. 

Bullingham,  of  Gloucester,  1581. 

Goldsborough,  of  Gloucester,  1598. 

Ravis,  of  Gloucester,  1604. 

F.    S.    HOCKADAY. 
Highbury,  Lydney. 

CHAPEL  LE  FRITH.  —  Could  any  of  your 
correspondents  give  me  trustworthy  infor- 
mation as  to  the  meaning  of  "  le  Frith  " 
in  the  place-name  Chapel  le  Frith  ?  I  have 
been  told  that  the  name  means  "  Chapel  in 
the  Wood,'*  but  my  informant  could  not 
explain  how  this  meaning  was  arrived  at. 
Here  in  Devon  we  are  familiar  with  the  word 
vraith,  and  in  Somerset  they  have  vreath, 
which  is  usually  applied  to  the  brushwood 
cut  for  firing.  Is  it  possible  that  frith  may 

e  the  harder  northern  pronunciation  of  the 
ame  word  ?  OSWALD  J.  REICHEL. 

Alaronde,  Lympstone. 

["Le"  is  probably  "near,"  as  explained  earlier  in 
N.  &  Q.'] 

in  that  excellent  work  *  Round  About 

Piccadilly  and  Pall  Mall '  Mr.  H.  B.  Wheatley 
t  p.  37  identifies  Nos.  146  and  147  as  cover- 
ng  the  site  of  the  handsome  building  erected 
>y  Charles  Alexandre  de  Calonne  when  he 

fled  to  this  country  in  1787.  It  may  be  of 
nterest  to  note  that  the  contents  of  the 

mansion  were  sold  13  May,  1793,  and  eleven 
ollowing  days  by  Skinner  &  Dyke,  on  the 
jremises,  "  the  extremity  of  Piccadilly.'* 
?he  pictures  were  not  included  in  this  cata- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [11  s.  IL  JULY  2, 1910. 

logue,  so  presumably  they  were  sold  at  the 
date  named  by  Mr.  Wheatley — March,  1795. 
Was  this  sale  also  held  on  the  premises  ? 
-It  is  said  ('  Memorials  of  Christie's,'-  W. 
Roberts,  i.  19)  to  have  been  conducted  by 
the  same  firm.  ALECK  ABRAHAMS. 

PRINCE  RUPERT. — There  is  a  legend  that 
the  Prince,  riding  by  Shepperton  Church, 
fired  a  pistol  at  the  weathercock  and  hit  it. 
This  being  considered  an  accident  he  fired 
again,  and  brought  the  weathercock  down. 
I  cannot  find  any  authority  for  this  story, 
and  ask  for  help.  J.  J.  FREEMAN. 

that  Oliver  Goldsmith  in  1762  was  lodging 
in  Canonbury.  Is  there  any  record  extant 
of  the  celebrated  dramatist  showing  his 
occasional  visits  to  the  neighbouring  village 
of  Hackney.  Milton  and  Charles  Lamb  are 
connected  with  this  old  borough,  and  I  am 
anxious  to  discover  whether  Samuel  Johnson 
and  Goldsmith  and  their  coterie  paid  occa- 
sional trips  to  its  rustic  shrines. 

M.  L.  R.  BRESLAR. 


(10  S.  xii.  461,  504;  11  S.  i.  70,  443.) 
I  HAVE  a  long  series  of  letters  from  Charles 
Ray  (domestic  chaplain  to  Robert  Butts, 
Bishop  of  Ely)  from  1722  to  1750,  written 
to  his  cousin,  my  great-grandfather,  Samuel 
Kerrich,  D.D.,  Vicar  of  Dersingham,  Nor- 
folk. In  the  course  of  a  long  letter,  dated 
29  August,  1741,  Ray  says  :  "  The  Dialogue 
between  Earle  and  Doddington  is  admired 
in  that  it  is  so  like  Earle's  manner  of  ex- 
pressing himself."  I  have  no  means  of 
ascertaining  whether  this  peculiar  example 
of  the  literature  of  the  time  has  ever  ap- 
peared in  print.  It  is  as  follows  : — 


DODDINGTON.     1741. 

E.     My  Dear  Pall  Mall,  I  hear  you  are   got  in 

And  please  the  Duke  by  your  late  damnd 


I  live  with  Walpole— You  live  at  his  Grace's, 
And  thus  thank  Heaven  we  have  exchangd 

our  Places. 
D.     Yes— on  the  great  Argyle  I  often  wait, 

At  charming  Sudbrook,  or  in  Bolton  Street : 
In  Wit,  or  Politics,  he  is  good  at"  either, 
.     We  pass  our  independent  Hours  together  ! 







By  G-d  that 's  heavenly !  so  in  turn  you  talk, 
And  round  the  Groves  at  charming  Sudbrook 

walk  ; 

And  hear  the  Cuckow  and  the  Linnet  Sing, 
Lord    G-d  ! — that 's    vastly  pleasant    in  the 


Dear  Witty  Marlborow  street,  for  once  be  wise , 
Nor  Happiness  you  never  knew  despise. 
You  ne'er  enjoyd  the  Triumph  of  Disgrace, 
Nor  felt  the  Dignity  of  Loss  of  Place. 
Not  lost  my  Place  !   yes  but  I  did  by  G-d  ! 
Tho'  yr  Description  on't  is  mighty  Odd  : 
/  felt  no  Triumph,  found  no  Dignity, 
/  cryd,  and  so  did  all  my  Family. 
Wliat !  shed  a  Tear  because  you  lost  a  Place  ! 
Sure  tliou  art  the  lowest  of  the  lowest  Race, 
God's  !   is  there  not  in  Politics  a  time, 
When  keeping  Places  is  the  greatest  Crime  ? 
Yes,  Yes,  that  Doctrine  I  have  learnt  long 


I  once  resign'd  my  Place  about  the  Prince, 
But  then  I  did  it  for  a  better  Thing, 
And  got  by  that  the  Green  Cloth  for  the  King. 
Thou  hast  no  Taste  for  popular  Applause, 
Which   follows   those   that   join   in   Virtue's 

Cause  : 

Argyle  and  I  are  prais'd  by  every  Tongue, 
The  Burden  of  each  free  born  Briton's  Song  ! 
You,    and   the    Duke. — d'ye   think   you   are 

popular  ? 

By  G-d  they  lye  that  tell  you  that  you  are  : 
Walpole  now.  has  got  the  Nation's  Voice 
The  People's  Idol,  and  their  Monarch's  Choice  ! 
When  the  Excise  Scheme  shall  no  more  be1 


When  the  Convention  shall  no  more  be  nam'd, 
Then  shall  your  Minister  and  not  till  then, 
Be  popular  with  unbrib'd  Englishmen. 
The    Excise    and    the    Convention  !      D-mn 

your  Blood  ! 
You  voted  for  them  both,  and  thought  them 

good  : 

Or  did  not  like  the  Triumph  of  Disgrace, 
And  gave  up  your  Opinion,  not  your  Place. 
To  Freedom  and  Argyle  I  turn  my  Eyes  1 
For  them  I  fell,  for  them  I  hope  to  rise, 
And  after  Years  in  Ignominy  spent, 
I  own  my  Crime, — I  blush, — and  dare  repent. 
Sr  of  Repentance  there's  one  charming  kind, 
But  that's  the  voluntary  and  resign'd  : 
Yours  is  a  damn'd  enforc'd  Reluctance, 
A  Newgate  Malefactor's  after  Sentence  : 
Who  sighs  because  he  has  lost  the  power  to 


As  you  repent,  that  you're  no  longer  in. 
But  since  we  are  Rhiming,  pray  for  once  hear 


Whilst  I  like  other  Poets  prophesy  : 
Whenever  Walpole  dies,  (and  not  before) 
Then  shall  Arg— e  come  into  power  : 
And  when  he  shall  be  paid  his  long  Arrear, 
And  got  once  more  £9000  P'  year. 
\Vhen  every  Campbell  that  attends  his  Grace, 
Shall  be  restor'd  to  Parliament  and  Place, 
WThen  every  Scotch  man  in  his  train  is  serv'd, 
One  English  man  may  chance  to  be  preferrd. 
This  is  a  truth,  I  know  it  to  my  Cost, 
Tis  he  can  tell  it  who  has  felt  it  most. 


ii  B.  ii.  JULY  2,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


ESE (11  S.  i.  328,  398). — I  have  compiled, 
but  not  yet  published,  a  classified  list  of 
Italian  pictures  (earlier  than  1580)  with 
subjects  relating  to  ancient  mythology  and 
history ;  so  I  am  able  to  assert  that  Paul 
Veronese  never  painted  '  The  Rape  of 
Proserpine.'  The  subject  occurs  in  the 
School  of  Lionardo,  and  was  also  treated 
by  Dosso  Dossi  (Mells  Park),  Padovanino 
(Venice  Academy),  and  Jacopo  Bassano 
(Doria  Panfili  Gallery).  A  beginner  may 
have  taken  the  last-named  picture  (photo- 
graphed by  Anderson,  No.  5363)  for  a  Paul 
Veronese.  S.  REINACH. 

Paris,  4,  Rue  de  Traktir. 

(11  S.  i.  483).— From  PRINCIPAL  SALMON'S 
list  I  miss  the  following  : — 

1.  Woggle,   a   game   on,  the   principle   of 
cricket,   but  played  with  a  short  piece  of 
wood  instead  of  a  ball,  and  holes  instead  of 

2.  Tip -cat,    which   I   saw   played   a   few 
days  ago  in  a  City  lane. 

3.  Prisoners'  base.  WM.  H.  PEET. 

"  ARABIS  "  :  "  THLASPI  "  (11  S.  i.  406).— 
' '  Arabis  "  is  presumably  the  Greek  'Apa/fts. 
It  could  not  be  for  "  [in]  Arabis  locis," 
though  strange  things  have  happened  before 
now  in  botanical  nomenclature.  0Aao-7ri? 
(or  explained  by  Pape  and  Liddell 
and  Scott  as  a  kind  of  cress,  the  seeds  of 
which  were  crushed  and  used  as  mustard. 
They  offer  a  derivation  from>  (crush). 
Liddell  and  Scott  give  as  a  further  sug- 
gestion ' '  shepherd's  purse."  Bishop  Cooper, 
'  Thesaurus  Linguae  Romanse  et  Britannicae,' 
1573,  has,  s.v.  Thlaspi  (which  is  there  spelt 
Thlapsi),  "  An  herbe  called  also  Nasturtium 
tectorum,  Capsella,  and  Scandulacium.  It 
hath  the  smacke  of  mustarde  seede,  and 
therefore  it  is  called  Sinapi  rusticum." 
Bailey's  '  Forcellini '  calls  thlaspi  "  mithridate 
pustard."-  ' '  Drabe  "  is  described  in  Faber's 
'  Thesaurus  '  as  "  nasturtium  orientale." 

To  determine  the  precise  equivalents  in 
modern  scientific  classification  to  the  terms 
employed  by  Greeks  and  Romans  to  de- 
scribe their  own  fauna  and  flora  is  a  very 
difficult  business.  An  interesting  work  in 
this  line  is  Prof.  D'Arcy  Thompson's 
'.Glossary  of  Greek  Birds,'  published  some 
years  ago  by  the  Clarendon  Press.  But  one 
may  sympathize  with  the  practical  method 
said  to  have  been  followed  as  an  under- 
graduate by  a  distinguished  Cambridge 
classical  scholar,  who,  as  the  legend  runs, 

when  under  examination  made  a  point  of 
translating  every  Greek  or  Latin  name  for  a 
bird  by  siskin,  and  every  name  for  a  tree 
(or  plant  1)  by  galingale. 


[Replies  also  acknowledged  from  MB.  JOHN 

"TEART"  (11  S.  i.  466,  497).— This  word 
is  in  use  in  North  Wiltshire  at  the  present 
time  (Lhave  heard  it  several  times  recently) 
with  the  significance  of  something  "  sharp.'* 

It  is  described  in  '  A  Glossary  of  Words 
used  in  the  County  of  Wiltshire,'  by  Y.  E. 
Dartnell  and  the  Rev.  E.  H.  Goddard  : 

1,  painfully    tender — sore,    as    a    wound  ; 

2,  stinging,  as  a  blister  ;    3,  tart,  as  beer 
turning  sour. 

See  also  Aubrey,  '  Nat.  Hist.  Wilts,'  p.  22, 
"it  is  so  cold  and  tort"  applied  to  a  river, 
and  "  it  is  so  acrimonious,''1  p.  28. 

T.  S.  M. 

I  have  met  with  the  word  "  teart  "-  in 
Gloucestershire,  where  it  means  something 
that  smarts  or  is  painful.  If  any  one  is 
suffering  from  a  wound  or  a  sore  spot,  the 
question  there  will  be,  not  "  Does  it  hurt  ?  " 
but  "Is  it  teart  ?  n  as  an  expression  of  sym- 
pathy. J.  BAGNALL. 

Is  not  this  word  the  adjective  "  teart  " 
used  as  a  substantive  ?  The  word  (pro- 
nounced "  teert  ")  used  to  be  continually 
heard  in  Gloucestershire  when  I  lived  in 
the  Cotswold  district,  and  can  hardly  have 
become  obsolete  yet.  A  painful  cut,  boil, 
or  wound,  too  tender  to  be  touched,  was 
always  described  as  "  terrible  teart."  The 
stinging  sensation  inflicted  by  severe  cold 
would  often  draw  forth  some  such  greeting 
as  "  Zharp  this  marnin',  zur,  yent  it  ?  I 
d'vind  it  main  teart  to  the  vengers.'* 

Church  Fields,  Salisbury. 

i.  486). — I  am  glad,  in  response  to  W.  M.'s 
request,  not  only  to  point  to,  but  supply, 
an  early  allusion  to  Mrs.  Crewe's  historic 
toast,  which  should  fairly  be  held  to  settle 
the  matter  as  against  either  "  that  rascal 
Wraxall  "  or  any  subsequent  narrator  who 
trusted  to  hearsay  or  memory.  In  Parker's 
General  Advertiser  of  20  May,  1784,  it  was 
recorded  : — 

"  Mrs.  Crew's  Ball  in  honour  of  Mr.  Fox's 
victory,  was  the  most  pleasant  and  jovial  ever 
given  in  the  circle  of  high  life  ;  and  united  all  the 
charms  of  elegance,  ease,  and  conviviality.  The 
company  (which  included  the  Prince  of  Wales) 
was  select,  though  numerous,  and  assembled 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  2, 1910. 

about  ten  o'clock  in  blue  and  buff  uniforms. . . . 
After  supper  Captain  Morrice  was  placed  in  the 
chair,  and  sang  the  '  Baby  and  Nurse  '  in  his 
very  best  stile,  and  the  Fair  Assembly  chorussed 
with  the  most  heartfelt  spirit.  The  Ladies  then 
drank  his  health,  and  cheered  him  three  times 
with  true  festive  glee  ;  upon  which  Captain  M., 
after  thanking  the  fair  company  for  the  honour  of 
their  charming  approbation,  gave  as  a  toast — 

Buff  and  Blue,  and  Mrs.  Crew  ; 
which  Mrs.  Crew  very  smartly  returned  in  a  glass 
with — 

Buff  and  Blue,  and  all  of  you." 

This  disposes  of  the  more  romantic  story 
of  how  the  Prince  of  Wales  (afterwards 
George  IV.) 

"  after  supper  concluded  a  speech  sparkling 
with  gallantry  by  proposing,  amidst  rapturous 
acclamation  : 

Buff  and  Blue, 

And  Mrs.  Crewe. 
To  which  the  lady  merrily  replied  : 

Buff  and  Blue, 

And  all  of  you." 

But  it  is  easy,  of  course,  to  see  how  a  tale;pf 
this  kind  grows  with  gossip. 


FLAX  BOURTON  (11  S.  i.  389,  438,  497). — 
The  explanation  of  a  place-name  does  not 
depend  upon  whether  it  is  acceptable  or  not. 
It  depends  solely  upon  evidence. 

The  guess  that  Bourton  is  short  for 
Bournton  is  idle  ;  for  if  this  were  the  case, 
such  a  spelling  could  be  found.  And  there 
would  then  be  evidence,  and  speculation 
would  cease. 

Meanwhile,  we  know  that  the  name  is 
not  uncommon.  There  is  a  Bourton  in 
Berkshire,  and  another  in  Gloucestershire, 
both  found  in  Anglo-Saxon  charters. 

In  Birch,  '  Cartularium  Saxonicum,'  i.  516, 
in  a  charter  dated  821,  we  find  "  Scriuen- 
ham,  Burgtun,'1  &c.  This  refers  to  Bourton 
near  Shrivenham,  Berkshire,  in  which  Bour- 
stands  for  burg,  another  spelling  of  burh, 
which  is  now  spelt  borough.  It  therefore 
means  *'  borough -to  wn.n 

In  the  same,  iii.  37,  we  find  "  to  burhtune"; 
where  burhtune  is  the  dative  of  burhtun,  as 
above.  The  reference  is  to  Bourton-on- 
the-Water  in  Gloucestershire.  Hence  this 
likewise  means  "  borough -to\vn.n 

These  two  independent  examples  at  once 
establish  the  probability  that  the  same 
explanation  is  applicable  to  other  cases. 

The  spelling  with  ou  proves  nothing  at  all ; 
Burton  is  a  form  that  arose  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  Bourton  is  a  later  form, 
commoner  in  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries.  This  is  easily  verified  by  referring 
to  the  'N.E.D.*  or  to  Stratmann.  In 

Chaucer's  'Wife  of  Bath's  Tale,'  D.  870, 
we  find  the  plural  burghes ;  and  in  '  Lyd- 
gate's  Minor  Poems,'  p.  210,  we  find  the 
plural  bourghes.  The  modern  pronunciation 
is  no  sure  guide,  because  in  a  large  number 
of  instances  it  has  been  affected  by  the 
insinuating  influence  of  the  usual  spelling. 

Any  one  who  desires  further  information 
will  find  it  in  Ellis's  great  work  on  '  English 
Pronunciation  *  ;  he  convincingly  shows 
that  the  Anglo-Saxon  u  was  replaced  by  the 
Norman  ou  in  hundreds  of  instances,  chiefly 
in  the  thirteenth  century  or  later. 


(11  S.  i.  447).  —  Dr.  Irving,  in  a  brief 
sketch  of  Duncan  Liddel  contained  in  his 
'  Lives  of  Scottish  Writers, *  implies  that  he 
wrote  various  mathematical  and  astro- 
nomical treatises  as  well  as  the  medical 
publications  which  generally  appear  after 
his  name.  The  *  Propositiones  Astronomicse  l 
was  no  doubt  one  of  the  treatises  to  which 
Irving  refers.  His  sketch,  however,  deals 
mainly  with  the  medical  works  which  Liddel 
produced.  Potinius  is  not  mentioned ; 
neither  is  Schindler  nor  Volcer.  Even 
Moreri  apparently  knows  them  not. 

Is  there  not  some  mistake  about  Schindler? 
No.  10  in  MR.  ANDERSON'S  query  appears 
to  be  the  title  of  some  sort  of  funeral  oration 
or  order  of  service  at  the  death  of  Schindler 
in  1604.  Yet  in  Darling's  *  Cyclopaedia 
Biblio graph  ica  *  it  is  distinctly  stated  that 
Prof.  Valentine  Schindler  of  Helmstadt  did 
not  die  until  1611,  some  years  after  Liddel 
had  returned  to  Scotland.  Which  of  the 
two  dates — 1604  or  1611 — is  correct  ?  Or 
were  there  two  professors  named  Schindler 
in  succession  at  Helmstadt  ?  W.  SCOTT. 

WALL-PAPERS  (11  S.  i.  268,  350).— The 
printing  of  paper  for  wall  coverings  seems 
to  have  become  an  established  industry  in 
England  at  the  close  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  Houghton,  *  A  Collection  for  Im- 
provement of  Industry  and  Trade,*  30  June, 
1699,  states  : — 

"  The  next  in  course  is  printing,  which  is  said  to 
be  known  in  China  and  other  eastern  countries  long 
before  it  was  known  in  Europe  :  But  their  printing 
was  cutting  their  letters  upon  blocks  in  whole  pages 
or  forms,  as  among  us  our  wooden  pictures  are  cut : 
And  a  great  deal  of  paper  is  now-a-days  so  printed 
to  be  pasted  upon  walls,  to  serve  instead  of  hang- 
ings ;  and  truly  if  all  parts  of  the  sheet  be  well  and 
close  pasted  on,  it  is  very  pretty,  clean,  and  will 
last  with  tolerable  care  a  great  while;  but  there 
are  some  other  done  by  rolls  in  long  sheets  of  thick 
paper  made  for  the  purpose,  whose  sheets  are 
pasted  together  to  be  so  long  as  the  height  of  a 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  2,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

room;  and  they  are  managed  like  woollen  hangings; 
and  there  is  a  great  variety  with  curious  cuts  which 
are  cheap,  and  if  kept  from  wet,  very  lasting." 

In  1702  wall-paper  is  advertised  in  The 
Postman : — 

"  At  the  Blue  Paper  Warehouse  in  Aid  erm  anbury 
(and  nowhere  else)  in  London,  are  sold  the  true 
sorts  of  figur'd  Paper  Hangings,  some  in  pieces  of 
12  yards  long,  others  after  the  manner  of  real 
Tapistry,  others  in  imitation  of  Irish  stitch,  flower'd 
Damasks,  &c." 

In  1752  The  Covent  Garden  Journal 
states  : — 

"Our  printed  paper  is  scarcely  distinguished 
from  the  finest  silk,  and  there  is  scarcely  a  modern 
house  which  hath  not  one  or  more  rooms'  lined  with 
this  furniture." 


NIS ??  (11  S.  i.  447).— At  the  Battle  of  Agin- 
court  in  1415,  when  a  certain  knight  of 
France  hurled  himself  and  his  horsemen  upon 
the  English  archers,  his  battle-cry  was 
"Montjoie!  St.  Denis!"  This  incident, 
derived  from  contemporary  chroniclers,  and 
related  in  several  popular  English  histories, 
proves  that  the  French  war-cry  must  have 
been  in  use  long  before  Shakespeare's  day. 
See  Brewer's  'Dictionary  of  Phrase  and 
Fable,'  p.  856.  According  to  Brewer,  even 
the  kings  of  England  had  as  their  war-cry 
"  Montjoie  St.  George."  W.  S.  S. 

"WORTH"  IN  PLACE-NAMES  (11  S.  i, 
389,  458). — A  more  probable  derivation  of 
the  word  is  that  from  O.E.  weorthan,  pre- 
served in  Scott's  "Woe  worth  the  chase,'s 
&c.  It  thus  corresponds  to  the  Norfolk 
a  Being,  familiar  to  readers  of  '  David  Copper  - 
field,  and  more  satisfactorily  explains  such 
words  as  Padworth,  Tadworth,  the  place 
of  toads  or  frogs.  Cp.  Molesworth  ? 

H.  P.  L. 

CENTURY  :  "  THE  COCK  TAVERN  "  (10  S. 
xii.  127,  190,  254,  414  ;  11  S.  i.  190,  472).— 
There  is,  I  think,  a  slight  error  in  MR.  UDAL'S 
interesting  reminiscences  of  "  The  Cock " 
in  Fleet  Street.  He  says  that  "the  gilt 
effigy  "  (claimed  to  be  of  Grinling  Gibbons's 
carving)  "reappeared  in  its  old  place  over 
the  doorway  "  of  the  premises  occupied  on 
the  south  side  of  Fleet  Street,  which  were 
built  in  the  place  of  the  old  tavern  on  the 
north  side.  The  Cock  sign,  however,  outside 
22,  Fleet  Street,  is,  I  believe,  but  a  facsimile 
of  the  original,  now  in  the  grill-room. 
This  I  learnt  from  personal  inquiries  some  ten 
years  ago,  and  I  was  informed  that  a  portion 
of  the  original  bird  had  been  cut  away,  for 

the  purpose  of  more  conveniently  fixing  it 
in  its  place. 

A  few  years  before  the  reign  of  the  "  plump 
head  waiter,'*  a  pleasant  picture  of  the 
tavern  is  afforded  by  a  peep  into  '  The 
Epicure's  Almanack  '  of  1815  : — 

"  How  we  came  to  think  of  the  Cock  at  Temple 
Bar,  by  daylight,  we  cannot  tell.  It  has  the  best 
porter  in  London,  fine  poached  eggs  and  other 
light  things  seldom,  called  for  before  seven  or 
eight  hi  the  evening.  There  are  two  good  reasons 
for  this  :  Istly,  the  room  at  Mid-day  is  almost  as 
dark  as  Erebus,  so  that  the  blazing-faced  Bar- 
dolph  himself  would  hardly  be  able  to  quaff  a 
tankard  by  the  light  of  his  own  countenance. 
2ndly,  the  situation  of  the  Cock  is  just  half  way 
between  the  heart  of  the  city  and  the  purlieus  of 
Covent  Garden  and  Drury  Lane ....  One  box  at 
the  end  of  the  room  is  occupied  by  a  knot  of 
sages  who  admit  strangers  into  their  fraternity 
on  being  presented  with  a  crown  bowl  of  punch. 
Mine  host  used  to  smoke  his  pipe  among  them 
nightly.  Marsh,  the  oyster-man,  attends  here 
the  whole  season  with  his  Natives,  Miltons  and 
Pyfleets  :  he  hath  the  constancy  of  the  swallow, 
and  in  the  opening  of  the  shells  the  dexterity  of 
the  squirrel.' 

But  some  considerable  time  before  Tenny- 
son patronized  the  chops  and  steaks  and  the 
port  of  the  old  tavern,  to  say  nothing  cf  its 
oysters,  and  long  before  the  poet  jocularly 
resented  on  a  certain  occasion  the  omnibus 
conductor's  remark  "  Full  inside "  as  he 
entered  the  vehicle  after  a  meal  in  which  the 
flavour  of  the  meat  was  quite  independent 
of  sauces,  William  the  head  waiter  had 
been  known  to  habitues  of  the  place.  A 
writer  in  The  Sportsman's  Magazine  of, 
I  think,  the  year  1857  (p.  104),  says  that  he- 
"  had,  like  others,  no  thought  superior  to  the 

Cock  stout  from  the  glass William  knew  our 

ways,  and  Charles  was  getting  into  them.  We  are 
inclined,  however,  to  give  our  more  particular 
directions  to  James.  We  think  the  Cock  chops 
superior  to  the  steaks,"  &c. 

Charles,  who  for  twenty  years  had  been 
well  known  to  a  large  circle  of  barristers  and 
journalists  who  dined  daily  at  "  The  Cock,'* 
and  whose  real  name  was  Edward  Thorogood,. 
died  in  July,  1905,  having  been  the  successor,, 
as  head  waiter,  of  Tennyson's  "  William." 


Wroxton  Grange,  Folkestone. 

KEMPESFELD,  HAMPSTEAD  (11  S.  i.  409,. 
478).— PROF.  SKEAT  and  the  'N.E.D.' 
had  already  been  consulted,  and  it  is  accepted 
that  A.-S.  cempa  became  Middle  English 
kempe,  meaning  a  fighter,  a  warrior  ;  but 
one  desires  to  find  out  whether  in  some  cases 
land  named  from  association  with  the  words 
owes  its  origin  to  having  been  occupied  or 
owned  by  a  warrior  of  the  local  manor r 
soldiers  provided  by  the  manorial  lord, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        tn  s.  n.  jews.  mo. 

or  from  the  ownership  of  one  having  Kemp 
for  his  surname.  Of  course  after  the  fif- 
teenth century  places  newly  named  "Kemp's 
field  "  would  denote  such  designation  to  be 
due  to  possession  or  holding  ;  but  when  the 
field-name  dates  from  a  much  earlier  period, 
it  would  seem  likely  that  the  land  was 
attached  to  an  official  post  rather  than  to  an 
individual.  For  instance,  Parker's  Field 
and  Parkershouse  would  be  the  official  holding 
of  the  parker  or  park-keeper.  The  point  is 
one  upon  which  the  late  Prof.  Copinger 
might  have  thrown  the  light  of  historical 
facts.  Camping  fields  were  what  might 
now  be  termed  "sport-grounds"  or  "re- 
creation fields,"  not,  as  might  be  supposed, 
places  where  warriors  pitched  their  tents. 
It  should  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  many 
of  the  place-names  now  beginning  with 
Kemp,  Kem,  or  Ken  were  certainly  not 
named  from  association  with  a  Kempe,  the 
earlier  spellings  being  such  as  Kemys  or 

In  the  absence  of  evidence  of  a  manorial 
warrior  holding  his  field,  like  a  knight,  by 
virtue  of  his  fighting  services,  I  would  note 
that  in  1205  Kempe  the  "  Bowmaker " 
had  a  grant  of  a  small  holding  until  the  King 
could  provide  for  him  by  marriage.  In  this 
case  the  lands  were  to  be  worth  50  shillings 
annually,  and  were  worth  51.  10s.  6d.  in 
1277,  by  which  time  they  belonged  to  the 
burgesses  of  Newcastle,  Northumberland. 
This  Kempe  seems  to  have  been  so  named 
from  actually  being  a  warrior,  acquiring  his 
lands  by  both  using  his  bow  and  making 
bows  for  other  royal  archers. 


§1,  Vancouver  Road,  Forest  Hill,  S.E. 

Some  years  ago  I  remember  writing  to  a 
friend  whose  singular  address  was  Camps - 
bourne,  Hornsey— the  place  being  numbered, 
but  without  the  addition  of  "Street"  or 
!<  Terrace."  N.  W.  HILL. 

i.  485). — It  may  not  be  amiss  to  add  the 
Scottish  "ingan"  to  the  forms  already 
given.  Two  literary  examples  of  standard 
value  illustrate  the  usage  in  the  Lowlands  of 
Scotland.  The  earlier  occurs  in  Allan 
Ramsay's  satire  'The  Last  Speech  of  a 
Wretched  Miser,'  in  which  the  victim  is 
made  to  utter  this  confession  : — 

Altho'  my  annual  rents  would  feed 
Thrice  forty  fouk  that  stood  in  need, 
1  grudg  d  myself  my  daily  bread  ; 

And  if  frae  haine, 
My  pouch  produc'd  an  ingan  head, 
To  please  my  wame. 

The  other  notable  example  of  the  form  is 
in  the  second  chapter  of  '  A  Legend  of 
Montrose,'  where  Dugald  Dalgetty,  discussing 
the  religious  difficulties  he  encountered  on 
the  Continent,  states  his  dissatisfaction 
with  the  Dutch  pastor  who  reminded  him 
that  Naaman,  an  honourable  cavalier  of 
Syria,  had  followed  his  master  into  the 
house  of  Rimmon.  The  redoubtable  captain 
proceeds  with  his  sturdy  apologia  as  follows  : 

"  But  neither  was  this  answer  satisfactory  to 
me,  both  because  there  was  an  unco  difference 
between  an  anointed  King  of  Syria  and  our 
Spanish  colonel,  whom  I  could  have  blown  away 
like  the  peeling  of  an  ingan,  and  chiefly  because 
I  could  not  find  the  thing  was  required  of  me  by 
any  of  the  articles  of  war  ;  neither  was  I  proffered 
any  consideration,  either  in  perquisite  or  pay,  for 
the  wrong  I  might  thereby  do  to  my  conscience.'' 

In  the  '  Scottish  Dictionary  *  Jamieson 
gives  the  variant  "  ingowne "  from  the 
MS.  '  Registers  of  the  Council  of  Aberdeen,' 
v.  16,  his  entry  standing  thus  :  "  '  Requirit 
to  tak  out  the  ingownis  quhilk  ves  in  the 
schip  in  poynt  of  tynasle,'  i.e.,  on  the  very 
point  of  being  lost."  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

Another  pronunciation  of  "onion"  used 
to  be  "  inguns."  I  recollect  it  as  a  child  ; 
1  am  now  close  on  sixty  years. 

In  '  Gaieties  and  Gravities,'  by  James  and 
Horace  Smith,  1826,  there  is  an  amusing 
tale  about  the  steamboat  from  London  to 
Calais,  and  there  you  read  these  words  of  the 
young  Cockney  :  "I  ?ve  got  a  cold  beefsteak 
and  inguns  in  this  here  ?ankerchief." 


GREY  FAMILY  (11  S.  i.  469).— Under 
Kent  in  G.  E.  C.'s  'Complete  Peerage' 
it  is  stated  that  Richard  Grey,  Earl  of  Kent, 
died  3  May,  1524,  "  at  his  house  in  Lumberd 
Street,  London,  at  the  sign  of  the  George." 
The  next  successor  to  the  title,  Sir  Henry 
Grey,  de  jure  Earl  of  Kent,  died  24  Septem- 
ber, 1562,  "at  his  house  called  Graye 
Hassetts  in  the  Barbican.  " 

Would  not  the  Inquisitions  post  mortem 
help  MB.  McMtiRRAY  ? 

The  Greys  of  Werke  held  property  in 
Aldersgate  Street  in  the  seventeenth  century. 

E.  A.  FRY. 

COADE  AND  ARTIFICIAL  STONE  (11  S.  i.  189, 
255,  312,  356,  409,  454). — This  correspond- 
ence has  diverged  somewhat  from  the  subject 
of  my  original  inquiry,  which  thus  far  has 
not  been  answered.  An  earthenware  head- 
stone, of  something  like  orthodox  dimensions, 
exists  in  St.  Mary's  Churchyard,  Nottingham, 
bearing  inscriptions  dated  in  1707  and  1714, 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  2,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


.and  I  still  anxiously  await  information  as 
to  whether  earlier,  or  even  as  early,  examples 
exist  elsewhere.  The  first  correspondent 
to  reply  claimed  familiarity  with  all  the 
churchyards  in  the  Potteries,  yet  had  never 
seen  any  earthenware  memorial  sufficiently 
large  to  be  described  as  a  tombstone  or 
headstone.  Moreover,  no  correspondent 
definitely  cites  early  examples  of  any  type. 

On  the  other  hand,  Church,  in  his  work 
on  '  English  Earthenware,'-  states  that 
earthenware  headstones  exist  in  several 
churchyards  in  the  Potteries  (Burslem  and 
Wolstanton  being  mentioned)  bearing  in- 
scriptions dated  from  1718  to  1767 — an  odd 
one  being  as  late  as  1828.  As  Church's 
'  Handbook  *  was  published  but  a  quarter 
of  a  century  ago  (in  1884,  to  be  exact),  it  is 
.inconceivable  that  none  of  them  survives 
,to-day.  A.  STAPLETON. 

39,  Burford  Road,  Nottingham. 

A  monument  to  Edward  Wortley  Montagu, 
made  of  Coade's  Lithodipyra,  is  in  the  west 
walk  of  the  Cloisters  of  Westminster  Abbey. 

A.  H.  S. 

"  LITERARY  GOSSIP  "  (11  S.  i.  208,  333).— 
MR.  WALTER  SCOTT'S  contention  that  this 
description  of  newspaper  article  existed  in 
substance,  if  not  in  name,  ' '  well  back  into 
the  eighteenth  century n  might,  I  think 
easily  be  made  to  read  "to  the  beginning 
of  the  eighteenth  century.'1  Speaking  of 
Cave's  founding  of  The  Gentleman's  Maga- 
zine in  1730-1,  the  '  D.N.B.'  says  :— 

"  The  periodical  was  to  comprise  varieties  of  all 

kinds Some  of  the  early  numbers  were  said  to 

be  printed  by  'Edward  Cave,  jun.,'  an  imaginary 
nephew,  others  '  printed  for  R.  Newton,'  and, 
sometimes,  he  falsely  described  himself  as  '  Sylva- 
nus  Urban,  of  Aldermanbury,  Gent.'  His  maga- 
zine was  a  vast  improvement  upon  the  gossiping  and 
abusive  papers  of  the  time." 

N.  W.  HILL. 

New  York. 

The  term  "  Literary  Gossip "  is  surely 
sufficiently  elastic  to  include  'The  State  of 
Learning,'  a  page  of  announcements  and 
personal  paragraphs  contained  in  'The 
History  of  the  Works  of  the  Learned  or  an 
Impartial  Account  of  Books  Lately  Printed 
in  all  Parts  of  Europe.  With  a  particular 
relation  of  the  State  of  Learning  in  each 
country.'  The  volume  before  me  contains 
the  twelve  monthly  parts  of  1700,  but  it 
was  first  published  January,  1699.  Are  not 
the  following  extracts  "literary  gossip  "  ? — 

"The  Abbot  Fontanini,  Library  keeper  to  the 
Imperial  Cardinal,  is  upon  finishing  his  *  History 
pf  Aquileia,'  which  will  contain  a  collection  of 

the  inscriptions  of  that  city  and  of  the  adjacent 
parts,  most  of  which  were  never  before  printed  ; 
together  with  the  Profane  and  Ecclesiastical 
History  of  Aquileia  and  all  Friuli,  in  folio." 

"All  Mr.  Dryden's  Plays  much  corected,  are  in 
the  Press,  and  will  be  published  within  two 
months  in  two  volumes  in  folio."  r 

If  it  is  not  already  familiar  to  them, 
"Claudius  Clear,'*  or  the  contributors  who 
have  discussed  this  matter,  are  welcome  to  the 
sight  of  this  volume.  ALECK  ABRAHAMS. 

There  is  abundant  evidence  to  support 
Mr.  W.  SCOTT'S  contention  that 

"Although  as  a  heading  'Literary  Gossip'  may 
not  have  been  in  use  until  the  second  half  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  it  is  clear  that  the  information 
denoted  by  that  title  was  common  long  before  the 
century  began." 

A  very  striking  example  can  be  afforded 
from  a  single  issue  of  Mist's  Weekly  Journal, 
or  Saturday's  Post,  which,  at  the  time,  was 
under  the  editorial  control  of  Defoe.  On 
18  November,  1721,  after  opening  its  budget 
of  London  news  and  gossip  with  the  lament, 

"  The  Town  was  never  known  to  be  so  thin 
within  the  Memory  of  Man;  not  half  of  the 
Members  are  come  up,  and  we  see  a  Bill  upon 
almost  every  Door," 

it  gave  inter  alia  the  following  items  of 
literary  intelligence  : — 

"Ambrose  Philips,  Esq.,  a  Westminster  Justice, 
has  a  new  Tragedy  upon  the  Stocks,  to  be  launched 
this  Winter.  'Twas  this  Gentleman  who  obliged 
the  Town  with  the  beautiful  Translation  of  the 
Andromache,  by  Laurie,  and  we  are  in  hopes  he 
has  chosen  another  piece  by  the  same  author. 

"Sir  Richard  Steele  proposes  to  represent  a 
Character  upon  the  Stage  this  season,  that  was 
never  seen  there  yet :  This  Gentleman  has  been  two 
Years  a  dressing,  and  we  wish  he  may  make  a  good 
Appearance  at  last. 

"  The  celebrated  Mr.  Pope  is  preparing  a  correct 
Edition  of  Shakespear's  Works ;  that  of  the  late 
Mr.  Rowe  being  very  faulty. 

"Our  Muscovite  Merchants  have  Advice  that 
M.  Servani,  who  some  years  ago  had  his  Education 
in  this  City,  and  made  very  great  Improvement  in 
all  polite  Literature,  is  coming  over  hither  with 
a  Commission  from  his  Czarish  Majesty." 

There  was  also  a  literary  flavour  about 
these  accompanying  pieces  of  theatrical 
gossip  :— 

"  We  hear  that  the  Theatre  in  the  Hay-Market 
where  lately  the  French  Strolers  us'd  to  perform, 
will  be  opened  in  a  little  time,  for  the  Diversion 
of  the  City  and  Liberty  of  Westminster.  The 
Actors,  as  well  as  the  Plays,  they  say,  will  be 
entirely  new,  and  the  whole  to  be  under  the 
Management  and  Direction  of  that  noted  Pro- 
prietor, Aaron  Hill,  Esq. 

"The   Company   at    Drury-Larie    have    reviv'd 
four  plays  this  Season,  and  design  to  raise  up  the 
incomparable  Tragedy  of  Phiedra  and  Hippolytus." 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  JULY  2, 1910. 

STBETTELL-UTTEBSON  (11  S.  i.  448,  477). — 
From  a  list  of  auction-sale  catalogues 
ranging  from  1637  to  1841  it  appears  that 
three  important  book-sales  took  place  in 
London  in  1832.  Two  of  these  were  con- 
ducted by  Sotheby  &  Son,  and  the  third 
by  Evans.  The  library  disposed  of  by 
Evans  was  that  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Valpy,  a 
distinguished  educationist,  and  head  master 
for  many  years  of  Reading  Grammar  School. 
The  sale  continued,  or  was  advertised  to 
continue,  for  ten  days.  Dr.  Valpy' s  library 
was  sold  in  his  lifetime.  Having  retired 
from  the  mastership  of  Reading  School 
owing  to  age  and  infirmity,  he  went  to  reside 
with  a  son  in  London,  and  in  consequence  of 
this  change  got  rid  of  his  library.  Does 
this  catalogue  render  any  assistance  to  MB. 
CLEMENTS  ?  It  does  not  quite  tally  with 
the  one  he  mentions,  but  comes  pretty  near 
it.  Dr.  Valpy,  it  should  be  stated,  was  a 
great  admirer  of  Shakespeare.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  must  be  remembered  that  E.  V. 
Utterson  possessed  a  First  Folio  Shake- 
speare. W.  SCOTT. 

ABEBDEEN,  1782  (11  S.  i.  467). — In  vol.  ii. 
of  '  Public  Characters,'  published  in  1801, 
27  pages  are  devoted  to  the  early  life  and 
writings  of  George  Colman  the  younger,  who 
was  then  living.  No  reference  is  made  to 
the  poem  on  Fox  mentioned  in  '  Random 
Records,'  quoted  by  MB.  P.  J.  ANDEBSON  ; 
but  ^  mention  is  made  of  young  Colman' s 
writing  some  doggerel  verses  in  an  album, 
in  a  post-house  at  Lawrencekirk.  The  lines, 
20  in  number,  are  given,  but  some  of  them 
would  now  be  hardly  considered  fit  for 
publication.  They  commence  : — 
I  once  was  a  student  at  Old  Aberdeen  ; 
Little  knowledge  I  got,  but  a  great  deal  of  spleen. 

These  album  lines  are  said  to  have  been 
Colman's  first  attempt ;  and  as  in  '  Random 
Records l  he  says  he  wrote  the  poem  on 
Fox  immediately  after  returning  from 
Lawrencekirk,  that  must  have  been  his 
second  attempt. 


(11  S.  i.  346,  493).— It  may  not  be  entirely 
uninteresting  to  add  to  MB.  A.  RHODES' s 
reply  that  in  the  churchwardens'  accounts 
of  Stratton,  Cornwall,  there  is  mention  made 
of  persons  who  went  by  the  name  of  "  Robyn 
hode  and  his  men. "  In  1536  the  church 
received  of  "  John  Marys  and  his  company 
that  playd  Robin  Hoode  U.  18s.  4d.,'?  and 

in  1538  the  still  larger  sum  of  3/.  Os.  Wd. 
These  were  munificent  gifts  for  ecclesiastical 
purposes  in  those  days.  They  probably 
indicate  that  the  players  and  those  who 
hearkened  to  them  were  adherents  of  th& 
ancient  faith  with  no  ideas  of  change,  but 
they  could  not  be  in  any  sense  a  guild  at- 
tached to  the  church.  Robin  Hood,  though 
a  highly  popular  character,  not  only  in 
England,  but,  as  we  have  been  informed, 
in  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland  also,  was  by 
no  means  a  saintly  person,  and  neither  he 
nor  his  followers  were  calculated  to  make  a 
religious  impression  on  their  neighbours. 

The  body  of  young  men  referred  to  were 
probably  light-hearted  fellows  who  devoted 
themselves,  when  time  was  not  pressing, 
to  the  amusement  of  their  fellow-townspeople.. 
Times  were,  however,  rapidly  approaching 
when  the  entertainment  of  others  became 
regarded  as  something  in  itself  unholy,  for 
we  find  that  so  early  as  1543  Martha  Rose 
and  Margaret  Martin  paid  three  shillings 
for  the  "  wode  of  Robyn  Hode  is  howse.'1 
It  is  impossible  to  say  whether  it  had  been 
pulled  down  by  some  local  authority,  or 
whether  the  owner  had  demolished  it 
because  the  sports  he  had  organized  in 
former  years  had  ceased  to  give  pleasure. 

N.  M.  &  A. 

"BBOCHE"  (11  S.  i.  389,  475).— From  a 
case  reported  in  a  Year-Book  of  6  Edward  II.,. 
upon  which  I  am  at  present  working,  one 
gathers  that  a  broche  was  a  sword  of  some 
kind,  and  not  a  lance.  It  is  said  of  a  man 
accused  of  murder  that  he  struck  his  victim 
on  the  head  "  dune  espeie  qest  appelle 
Broch  et  lui  fist  une  playe  del  longur  de 
iiij  pouz.n  Objection  is  taken  that  the  in- 
dictment does  not  specifically  state  whether 
"  le  laminal  [v.L,  in  another  report,  le 
aumail]  feust  ou  de  feer  ou  dasser,"  &c. 

W.    C.    BOLLAND. 

Lincoln's  Inn. 

HAMPDEN  AND  SHIP  MONEY  (11  S.  i.  426, 
492). — Concerning  the  actual  amount  of  the 
ship  money  attempted  to  be  levied  upon 
Hampden,  "  Junius  "  had  a  pregnant  word 
to  say  in  his  Letter  to  the  Printer  of  The 
Public  Advertiser  of  28  May,  1770  :— 

"  There  is  a  set  of  men  in  this  country,  whose 
understandings  measure  the  violation  of  law  by  the 
magnitude  of  the  instance,  not  by  the  important 
consequences  which  flow  directly  from  the  principle 
....  Had  Mr.  Hampden  reasoned  and  acted  like 
the  moderate  men  of  these  days,  instead  of  hazard- 
ing his  whole  future  in  a  law-suit  with  the  crown, 
he  would  have  quietly  paid  the  twenty  shillings 
demanded  of  him, — the  Stuart  family  would 
probably  have  continued  upon  the  throne,  and, 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


:at  this  moment,  the  imposition  of  ship-money 
would  have  been  an  acknowledged  prerogative 
of  the  crown." 


(11  S.  i.  349,  415). — The  passage  in  'Frost 
at  Midnight '  can  be  illustrated  from  Cowper 
('  The  Task,'  iv.  291-5)  :— 
Nor  less  amused,  have  I  quiescent  watched 
The  sooty  films  that  play  upon  the  bars, 
Pendulous,  and  foreboding,  in  the  view 
Of  superstition,  prophesying  still, 
Though    still    deceived,    some    stranger's    near 

L.  R.  M.  STBACHAN. 

[MRS.  B.  SMITH  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

THE  RAVENSBOUBNE  (11  S.  i.  468). — The 
earliest  reference  I  have  to  this  river, 
although  not  by  name,  is  1§46.  Philipott, 
In  his  '  Villare  Cantianum,'  1659,  says  of 
Deptford  that  it  was  "  so  called  from  the 
deep  Channel  of  Ravens -purg'd,  the  River 
that  here  slydeth  into  the  Thames.'*  He 
further  says  that  the  bridge  over  this  river 
was  repaired  in  the  twentieth  year  of  Ed- 
ward III.,  as  appears  by  a  record  in  the 
Tower  : — 

"  Quod  reparatio  Pontis  de  Depeford,  pertiuet  ad 
homines  Hundredi  de  Blackheath,  and  non  ad 
homines  Villarum  de  Eltham,  Moding-ham,  and 

Kilburne  in  his  'Survey,*  1659,  p.  73, 
describes  Deptford  as  lying  "  at  the  north- 
west side  of  the  County  by  the  River  Ravens - 
borne  and  Thames.'* 

In  December,  1700,  there  was  granted  a 
patent  by  King  William  III. 
"  to  supply  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Royal  Manors  oi 
East  Greenwich  and  Sayes  Court  with  good  and 
wholesome  Fresh  Water  from  the  River  Ravens 
bourne,  which  runs  between  the  said  Manors 
during  the  term  of  500  years." 

Hasted  says  that  the  Romans  were  wel 
•supplied  with  water  from  the  Ravensbourn< 
at  their  camp  on  Keston  Common,  where 
the  river  takes  its  rise. 

It  was  in  the  mouth  of  this  river  that  the 
•Golden  Hind  (in  which  Drake  circumnavigatec 
the  earth)  was  laid  up  by  command  of  Queer 
Elizabeth,  and  on  board  of  this  ship  her 
Majesty  visited  Drake  and  knighted  him. 



The  earliest  references  to  the  Ravens 
bourne  I  have  noted  are  as  under  : — 

"  A.D.  1208.  Through  an  inundation  of  th 
Thames,  the  whole  of  the  lands  on  the  banks  of  th 
Ravensbourne  were  flooded." — Dunkin's  '  History 
of  Deptford,'  p.  207. 

1373.  "  Humphry  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Here- 
ord,  Essex,  and  Northampton,  dying  16  Jan., 
373,  an  inquisition  taken  at  his  death  [Inq.  p.  m. 

6  Edw.  III.,  No.  10,  taken  at  Depford,  6  Feb., 

7  Edw.  III.,  1373]  showed  that  he  owned  '  also  a 
)lot    of     ground   near  the  water  called   Rendes- 
lourne.'  " — Streatfeild  and   Larking's    '  Hundred 

f  Blackheath,'  p.  6. 

1570.  "  There  was  lately  re-edefied  a  fayre 
Bridge  also,  over  the  Brooke  called  Ravensbourne, 
whiche  ryseth  not  farre  of  in  the  Heath  above 
Bromley." — Lambarde's' Perambulation,'  1st  Ed., 
1576,  p.  335. 

In  the  1826  edition  of  Lambarde  the  same 
reference  is  slightly  varied  : — 

'  . . . .  Over  the  Brooke  called  Ravensbourne, 
which  riseth  not  farre  off  at  Hollowoods  hill,  in  the 
sarish  of  Kestane,  and  setting  on  worke  some 
corne  milles,  and  one  for  the  glasing  of  armour, 
slippeth  by  this  towne  into  the  Thamyse,  carying 
continuall  matter  of  a  great  shelf e  with  it." 

CHAS.  WM.  F.  Goss. 
Bishopsgate  Institute. 

In  vol.  i.  of  '  Court  Minutes  of  the  Surrey 
and  Kent  Sewer  Commission,'  recently 
printed  by  the  London  County  Council,  in 
whose  custody  are  the  official  documents 
of  the  Commission,  the  first  entry,  dated 
3  January,  1569,  begins  :  "  Sessio  Sewero 
pro  conservacione  murorum  mariscorum  a 
Ravensborne  in  Comitatu  Kanciaad  eccle- 
siam  de  Putney  in  Comitatu  Surreia .  .  . . " 
There  are  other  mentions  of  the  stream 
through  the  volume,  for  the  publication  of 
which  gratitude  is  due  to  the  County  Council. 

My  grandfather  Thomas  Fox  bought 
property  at  Lewisham  about  1790  which  was 
partly  bounded  by  the  Ravensbourne  stream. 
Probably  this  is  not  a  sufficiently  early 
reference  for  MB.  PHILIP  NOBMAN  ;  but  I 
expect  the  title-deeds,  which  perhaps  are 
accessible,  would  give  references  of  an  earlier 
date.  W.  H.  Fox. 

City  of  London  Club,  B.C. 

[MR.  J.  HOLDEN  MAcMiCHAEL  also  thanked  for 

DOOB-KNOCKEB  ETIQUETTE  (11  S.  i.  487). 
The  summary  of  the  etiquette  of  door- 
knocking  in  the  Spanish  periodical  of  1836 
does  not  seem  very  wide  of  the  mark,  accord- 
ing to  my  recollections  of  thirty  years  later 
than  that  date.  Everybody  (in  London) 
had  a  door-knocker,  and  there  was  certainly 
a  more  or  less  generally  understood  code 
of  knocks.  I  remember  that  an  old  lady, 
who  was  born  at  the  very  beginning  of  the 
last  century,  always  said,  on  engaging  a  new 
footman  :  "  Let  me  hear  how  you  knock  n  ; 
and  according  to  his  proficiency  in  the  art 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  JCLY  2, 1910. 

of  rat -tat -tatting,  so  was  he  appraised.  A 
sonorous  and  insistent  reverberation  on  the 
front  door  was  in  those  days  considered  a 
sign  of  social  importance. 

In  '  The  Footman's  Directory  and  Butler's 
Remembrancer ;  or,  The  Advice  of  One- 
simus  to  his  Young  Friends,'  London, 
printed  for  the  Author,  and  sold  by  J. 
Hatchard  &  Son,  1823,  the  following  in- 
structions are  set  forth  : — 

"  In  knocking  at  a  gentleman's  door,  you 
should  not  ring  the  bell,  unless  you  see  it  written 
on  a  brass  plate  to  do  so,  except  it  should  be 
at  a  relation's  of  the  family  which  you  live  with, 
then  you  always  should  ring,  as  well  as  knock  ; 
and  also  at  your  own  door,  as  this  is  a  mark 
of  respect,  and  a  hint  to  the  family  and  servants 
that  some  of  the  family  are  come  home.  Knock 
loud  enough  to  be  heard,  as  some  of  the  halls 
and  kitchens  are  a  great  way  from  the  front  door." 

Kew  Green. 

MR.  RHODES'S  concluding  query  recalls 
to  my  mind  some  lines  of  Colman's  in  his 
*  Newcastle  Apothecary.'  They  may  be 
found  in  '  The  Literary  Class-Book,'  a 
volume  I  used  at  school  in  1853  : — 

"  Bolus  arrived,  and  gave  a  doubtful  tap, 
Between  a  single  and  a  double  rap. 
Knocks  of  this  kind 

Are  given  by  gentlemen  who  teach  to  dance  : 
By  fiddlers,  and  by  opera  singers  : 
One  loud,  and  then  a  little  one  behind, 
As  if  the  knocker  fell  by  chance 
Out  of  their  fingers." 


(11  S.  i.  448). — The  comet  which  appeared 
at  the  time  of  Caesar's  death  has  been 
identified.  It  is  believed  to  have  been  the 
same  as  that  seen  in  the  time  of  Justinian 
in  531  A.D.,  again  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II. 
in  1106,  and  again  in  1680.  Its  periodic 
time  is  supposed  to  be  about  574—5  years. 
It  is  not  expected  to  return  again  till  the  year 
2255.  See  Milner's  '  Gallery  of  Nature,' 

1848,  pp.  112-13. 

w.  s,  s. 

(11  S.  i.  486).— This  was  undoubtedly  the 
author  of  '  The  Empire  of  the  Nairs  '  and 
other  works.  See  '  D.N.B.,'  s.v.  James 
Henry  Lawrence.  C.  D. 

James  Henry  Lawrence,  Knight  of  Malta, 
known  as  the  Chevalier  de  Laurence,  was 
the  eldest  son  of  Richard  James  Lawrence, 
of  Fairneld,  Jamaica.  He  studied  at  Eton, 
but  completed  his  education  in  Germany. 
On  his  way  home  to  England,  in  1803,  he 
was  detained  in  France,  \*ith  many  other 

British  travellers,  by  order  of  Bonaparte 
on  the  outbreak  of  hostilities.  He  wrote 
several  works,  and  contributed  to  The 
Pamphleteer,  xxiii.  159,  an  article  entitled 
'  On  the  Nobility  of  the  British  Gentry  ;: 
or,  The  Political  Ranks  and  Dignities  of  the 
British  Empire,  compared  with  those  of 
the  Continent ;  for  the  Use  of  Foreigners  in 
Great  Britain,  and  of  Britons  abroad.' 
This  was  published  separately,  London, 
Nickisson,  1840,  12mo,  5s.,  and  is  evidently 
the  "work  on  heraldry"  mentioned  by 

Some  references  to  the  Chevalier  de 
Laurence  will  be  found  in  The  Gentleman's 
Magazine,  February,  1841,  p.  206. 


"PULL"  (11  S.  i.  407,  457).— From  my 
earliest  days  I  have  been  accustomed  to' 
hear  that  a  person  who  had  been  ill  was 
"Much  pulled  down"  or,  more  shortly, 
"pulled."  G.  W.  E.  R. 

"THE  FORTUNE  or  WAR"  (11  S.  i.  223, 
274). — In  what  is  now  named  York  Road, 
opposite  the  Maiden  Lane  Railway  Station, 
is  a  small  inn  or  public-house  called  "  Th3 
Fortune  of  War."  I  remember  when  this 
portion  of  York  Road  used  to  be  called 
Maiden  Lane.  Beginning  at  King's  Cross, 
it  crossed  Battle  Bridge,  and  passed  Maiden 
Lane  Station  and  "  The  Fortune  of  War," 
Barnsbury  Square  being  more  north  on  the 
right,  and  the  Roman  Road  crossing  Maiden 
Lane  diagonally. 

.  The  name  of  this  little  inn,  whatever  its- 
origin,  seems  peculiarly  appropriate  to  its 
situation  ;  for,  as  Thornbury  says,  London 
tradition  considers  that  Boadicea"'s  great 
battle  with  Suetonius  occurred  here  ( '  Old 
and  New  London,'  ii.  276).  Battle  Bridge 
would  commemorate  the  British  queen's 
last- battle,  in  which  she  lost  her  life  ;  Maiden 
Lane  recording  that  her  two  maiden  daughters 
(the  immediate  cause  of  the  war)  were  with 
her  in  her  chariot  (as  in  the  new  sculpture 
on  Westminster  Bridge),  and  there'  also 
perished  ;  while  the  Roman  Road,  running 
west,  would  be  the  route  by  which  Suetonius 
hurried  up  from  Wales  to  save  London. 

Pinks  mentions  that  an  elephant's  skeleton, 
Roman  coins,  and  a  Latin  inscription  men- 
tioning one  of  the  legions  in  this  battle,  have 
been  dug  up  in  Maiden  Lane  ;  and  Suetonius 
used  elephants  against  the  queen  of  the 
Iceni  ('History  of  Clerkenwell,'  1880,  17, 
358,  500,  502,  571). 

As  Boadicea's  object  was  to  attack  Roman 
London,  and  she  needed  water,  for  her  troops. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  situation  near  the  stream  at  King's 
Cross  was  exactly  suitable  for  her  purpose  ; 
and  in  George  III.'s  reign,  when  this  cross- 
way  was  laid  out,  it  was  proposed  to  call 
it  Boadicea. 

A  writer  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  has  pointed  out  that 
Suetonius  encamped  on  the  high  ground 
overlooking  London,  now  called  Barnsbury 
Square,  and  that  the  ditch  of  his  square 
camp  may  still  be  seen  at  the  back  of  at 
least  one  side  of  the  square — a  fact  which 
I  have  verified  by  personal  observation. 

Wheatley  says  that  old  records  refer  to 
this  road  as  Maiden  Lane  ( '  London  Past  and 
Present,'  1891,  ii.  455)  ;  and  Smyth  says 
that  the  Maiden  Way  began  on  the  Roman 
Road  (Archceologia,  1846,  xxxi.  280). 

This  cluster  of  place-names  and  corre- 
sponding topographical  features,  all  agreeing 
with  the  idea  that  this  district  was  the  scene 
of  the  last  great  attempt  of  Britain  to  throw 
off  the  yoke  of  Rome,  makes  the  local  inn 
name  of  "  The  Fortune  of  War  ''  a  very 
appropriate  one. 

Out  of  what  was  formerly  Maiden  Lane 
proceeds  a  smaller  turning  called  Forum 
Street.  L.  M.  R. 


The  Cornish  Coast  (South)  and  the  Isles  of  Stilly. 

By  Charles  G.  Harper.  (Chapman  &  Hall.) 
MB.  HARPER  has  a  long  row  of  books  about 
England  to  his  credit,  largely  illustrated  by  him- 
self ;  he  is  an  indefatigable  searcher  after  legend 
and  architecture,  and  his  latest  travels  have  pro- 
duced a  book  which  will  be  of  real  use  to  the  visitor 
and  tourist. 

We  cannot  say  that  we  can  always  endorse  his 
ideas  of  taste  and  humour,  and  he  indulges  in 
some  sweeping  condemnations,  e.g.,  of  golfers  — 
which  we  do  not  regard  as  justified.  However, 
these  are  matters  on  which  individual  opinion 
doubtless  differs,  and  most  people  can  profit 
by  the  author's  keenness  to  see  and  hear  notable 
things.  The  book  is  excellently  printed  in 
good  type,  and  the  illustrations,  though  somewhat 
sketchy,  are  generally  effective. 

Mr.  Harper's  equipment  as  a  traveller  is  pretty 
good,  but  he  makes  a  gross  mistake  in.  Latin  on 
p.  86.  "  Malo  quam  "  does  not  mean  "  rather 
than,"  and  a  schoolboy  would  not  need  to  reach 
Macaulay'  s  standard  to  correct  the  two  later 
lines.  They  should  be  concerned  with  "a 
wicked  man  "  in  the  ablative  case,  and  also  "  in 

Jane  Austen  :  Pride  and  Prejudice.  Abridged 
arid  edited  by  Mrs.  Frederick  Boas.  (Cambridge 
University  Press.) 

The  Cambridge  Review  has  given  utterance  to  a 
protest  by  one  of  our  younger  literary  hands 
against  this  book.  He  represents  a  feeling  which 
we  certainly  share.  The  young  schoolboy  or 
schoolgirl  has  .an  ample  selection  of  books  already 

from  which  he  can  learn  reading  and  composition. 
Good  story-books  which  he  will  enjoy  later — and 
this  applies  to  the  vigorous  adventure  of  Scott  as 
well  as  the  delicate  art  of  Jane  Austen — should 
surely  not  be  spoilt  by  their  employment  as  the 
lesson-books  of  an  earlier  age. 

Mrs.  Boas  has  reduced  the  book  to  "about  half 
its  original  size,"  and  added  a  few  notes.  The 
present  reviewer,  a  great  lover  of  Jane  Austen, 
cannot  view  the  result  with  equanimity,  and  hopes 
that  the  Cambridge  Press  will  cease  truncating 
classics.  He  very  much  doubts  if  Jane  Austen's 
works  are  suitable  for  the  young  at  all  ;  in  fact, 
many  grown-up  persons  find  them  unutterably 
dull.  If  this  is  so,  they  might  be  left  as  they  are- 
If  it  is  not  so,  the  negative  needs  proof  in  order  to 
excuse  a  volume  like  this. 

A  Collection  of  Eastern  Stories  and  Legends  for 
Narration  or  Later  Reading  in  Schools.  Selected 
and  adapted  by  Marie  L.  Shedlock,  with  a 
Foreword  by  Prof.-T.  W.  Rhys  Davids,  and  a 
Frontispiece  by  Wolfram  Onslow  Ford.  (Rout- 
ledge  &  Sons.) 

THIS  lengthy  title  is  rather  a  mouthful,  and  we 
should  have  been  just  as  well  pleased  if  the 
'Foreword'  had  been  omitted,  and  the  frontis- 
piece which  figures  opposite  the  title-page  also  left 
to  speak  for  itself.  The  chief  point  about  the 
stories  is  not  whether  they  are  veracious,  but 
whether  they  are  suitable  for  telling  to  children. 
As  Miss  Shedlock  has  already  tried  them  in  that 
way  with  success,  their  publication  is  clearly 
justified.  We  have  read  them  with  pleasure,, 
and  are  glad  to  think  that,  just  as  Western  art  is 
being  revivified  by  Oriental  influences — if  all  that 
we  read  is  true — so  the  tales  of  the  East  are 
being  added  to  our  store  of  legend.  Mr.  Marina- 
duke  Pickthall  and  other  close  students  of  the 
East  have  pointed  out  the  delightful  humour  of 
Oriental  tale-telling,  which  wins  some  of  the 
applause  here  devoted  to  the  novel.  Miss  Shed- 
lock's  selections,  which  represent  the  essence  of 
Buddhism  and  the  earnestness  of  that  creed,  have 
also  the  charm  of  humour,  and  of  that  power  of 
make-believe  which  modern  children  know, 
perhaps,  best  through  •  Mr.  Kipling's  '  Jungle- 

Miss  Shedlock's  '  Notes  on  the  Stories  '  at 
the  end  show  their  value,  and  are  much  to  the 
point.  All  the  stories  except  the  last  are  told  of 
the  Buddha  (To  Be),  or  the  Bodhisatta,  and  the 
first,  we  learn,  has  often  been  told  in  connexion 
with  a  story  of  Hans  Andersen's.  Thus  East  and 
West  meet  in  a  realm  in  which  they  have,  after  all,, 
much  in  common.  The  achievement  of  the 
simplicity  which  is  needed  for  effective  telling  is 
not  easy,  as  we  are  often  reminded  by  the  Christ- 
mas flood  of  new  fairy-tales,  and  we  congratulate 
Miss  Shedlock  on  her  success  in  an  art  which  has 
become  more  difficult  since  it  took  on  itself  the 
dignity  of  a  science. 

WE  confess  that  we  are  somewhat  tired  of 
anthologies  which  are  produced  by  competing 
publishers  in  reckless  profusion.  We  make  an 
exception,  however,  of  The  Time  of  the  Singing  of 
Birds,  which  Mr.  Frowde  publishes,  and  which  is 
the  result  of  the  joint  labours  of  M.  A.  P.,  M.  S.,. 
and  G.  M.  F.  Without  any  knowledge  of  the 
persons  these  initials  represent,  we  may  con- 
gratulate the  selectors  both  on  excellent  taste 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        tu  s.  11.  JULY  2, 1910. 

and  on  securing  some  poems  guarded  by  copy- 
right which  add  considerably  to  the  charm  of  the 

The  frontispiece  is  derived  from  Giotto  s  picture 
of  St.  Francis  and  the  birds  at  Assisi,  and  opposite 
the  first  little  poem  we  find  three  familiar  lines 
on  birds  from  a  master  of  ancient  Greece.  Two 
•chief  contributors  are  Mr.  Robert  Bridges  with 
six  pieces,  and  Father  Tabb  (whose  death  is  a 
distinct  loss  to  the  world  of  poetry)  with  seven. 
Of  Shakespeare  and  Tennyson  we  get  four  pieces, 
of  Wordsworth  seven,  of  Swinburne  three.  The 
single  poems  by  Francis  Thompson  and  Prof. 
Santayana  are  notable,  though  not  entirely 
successful  in  technique  ;  while  Mr.  Hardy's 
•*  Darkling  Thrush  '  shows  his  wonderful  power  of 
gloomy  vision. 

There  are  two  Indexes,  one  of  first  lines,  and 
.another  of  authors.  Such  aids  ought  to  appear  in 
•every  book  of  this  sort,  but,  as  they  do  not,  we 
mention  their  appearance  here. 

WE  receive  four  of  the  earliest  copies  of  the 
Oxford  issue  of  The  Prince  of  Wales  Prayer- 
Books,  embodying  the  alterations  necessitated 
lay  the  recent  accession  to  that  title  of  Prince 
Edward.  We  hope  that  this  form  will  last  for 
many  years.  The  books  are,  as  usual,  admirably 
produced  in  every  respect,  and  once  more  show 
that  careful  regard  both  for  taste  and  detail  which 
we  have  learnt  to  expect  from  the  Oxford  Uni- 
versity Press. 

THE  attractive  medley  of  historical,  scientific, 
and  literary  information  supplied  by  the  Inter- 
mizdiaire  is  as  discursive  as  usual.  Ancient  and 
modern  life  are  dealt  with  impartially.  Feigned 
marriage  by  capture,  which  has  barely  disappeared 
in  Corsica,  and  up-to-date  aviation  are  con- 
sidered equally  worthy  of  a  place  in  its  hospit- 
able pages.  Several  contributors  supply  notes  on 
mills  worked  by  the  tide,  others  describe  the 
signiorial  chapels  attached  to  churches,  or  the 
•"  trees  of  liberty  "  which  survive  from  the  days 
of  the  great  revolution.  In  an  answer  to  a  question 
relating  to  the  origin  of  Norman  apple-trees 
reference  is  also  made  to  the  bibliography  of 
apple-culture.  Nanot's  *  La  Culture  du  Pom- 
mi  er  &  Cidre  '  and  Truelle's  '  Les  Fruits  de 
Pressoir '  are  both  commended,  the  second 
•specially  so.  Genealogists  will  find  the  notes 
on  French  families  of  Scotch  or  xrish  origin  of 
interest.  Remarks  on  the  belief  that  lepers 
poisoned  wells  and  springs  touch  on  a  distressing 
and  humiliating  subject.  The  inveterate  heartless- 
ness  of  man  to  man  is  also  shown  when  the  depor- 
tation of  French  ecclesiastics  during  the  revolution 
is  in  question.  "  In  1793  it  was  decided  that  the 
deportes  should  be  conducted  to  Senegal  on  the 
coast  of  Africa  ;  it  was  thought  that  they  would 
return  less  easily  from  there  than  from  Switzer- 
land or  Spain.  Under  the  Terror  those  suspected 
were  menaced  with  being  sent  to  Madagascar,  and 
there  was  also  question  of  some  part  of  the 
Barbary  coast."  The  prisoners  were,  however, 
brought  together  at  Rochefort  and  embarked 
on  two  worthless  vessels,  the  Washington  and  the 
Deux  Associes,  which  could  not  put  to  sea  on 
account  of  the  presence  of  the  English  fleet. 
"'  Herded  together  between-decks,  receiving  in- 
sufficient and  unhealthy  food,  and  treated  with 
unheard-of  barbarism,  the  prisoners  died  by 
hundreds.  After  Thermidor  the  survivors  were 

landed,  and,  in  the  end,  set  at  liberty."  In 
1797,  when  the  Directory  was  preparing  the 
political  stroke  of  Fructidor,  "  a  corvette  was 
secretly  armed  at  Rochelle  to  transport  con- 
demned people  to  Senegal :  it  was  the  Vaillante, 
commanded  by  Lieutenant  Jurien  de  Graviere. 
The  day  that  the  pretended  conspiracy  was  dis- 
covered the  vessel  had  been  ready  for  a  month, 
but  at  the  last  moment  the  destination  was 
changed,  and  according  to  the  counsels  of  Les- 
callier,  Cayenne  was  chosen.  The  first  convoy 
only  included  politicians,  but  the  Decade  and  the 
Bayonnaise  took  to  Guiana  two  hundred  and  sixty- 
three  priests  ;  another  vessel  was  seized  by  the 
English,  and  as  leaving  the  ports  became  danger- 
ous, on  account  of  English  cruisers,  the  other 
deportes,  to  the  number  of  one  thousand  one 
hundred  and  seventy-two,  were  relegated  to  the 
islands  of  R6  and  Ole>on."  The  phrase  "  un- 
heard-of barbarism  "  can  scarcely  be  exact.  It 
was  impossible  for  the  men  of  the  eighteenth 
century  to  outdo  some  of  their  predecessors  in 
ferocity.  But  that  callousness,  combined  with 
lack  of  organization  in  providing  for  the  needs 
of  the  unfortunates  in  their  grip,  destroyed  many 
of  their  victims  slowly  and  miserably  is  not  to  be 

man of  the  Council  of  the  Sussex  Archaeological 
Society,  has  in  the  press  '  Sussex  hi  the  Great 
Civil  War  and  the  Interregnum,  1642-1660.'  The 
book  will  be  published  about  August  by  the 
Chiswick  Press,  and  will  be  fully  illustrated.  Any 

g'ofits  from  its  issue  will  be  given  to  the  Barbican 
ouse    Fund   of   the    Society    above   mentioned. 
Subscriptions  may  be  sent  to  Mr.  W.  T.  Cripps, 
Stanford  Estate  Office,  Brighton. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

WE  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
ommunications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print,  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately, 
nor  can  we  advise  correspondents  as  to  the  value 
of  old  books  and  other  objects  or  as  to  the  means  of 
disposing  of  them. 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
bo  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'" — Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "The  Pub- 
.ishers  " — at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  B.C. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
3ut  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
leading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head,  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

F.  SCHLOESSER  ("Habacuc  est  capable  de  tout"). 
—See  MR.  CURRY'S  reply,  10  S.  x.  314. 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  9,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  9,  1910. 

CONTENTS.— No.  28. 

NOTES:— The  Princes  of  Wales,  21-Swedenborg  MS. 
Missing,  22— Bristol  Booksellers  and  Printers,  28— Mar- 
lowe's '  Epitaph  on  Sir  Roger  Manwood  '—Sir  Matthew 
Philip  — The  Diphthong  "ou,"  24  — 'Alumni  Canta- 
brigienses  '—Designs  for  Somerset  House— Hatless  Craze, 
25— 'Canterbury  Tales ':  Early  Reference— Apprenticeship 
in  1723— Smollett's  "  Hugh  Strap"— Shropshire  Newspaper 
printed  in  London,  26. 

QUERIES:— Lieut.-Col.  Cockburn:  R.  Wright— Gilder- 
sleeve  Family— '  Shaving  Them '—Aldermen  of  London: 
Dates  of  Death— John  Wilkes— T.  L.  Peacock's  Plays- 
Virgil :  "Narcissi  lacrymam,"  27— 'Merry  Wives  of 
Windsor'— New  Bunhill  Fields,  Borough— Dame  Eliza- 
beth Irwin:  Genealogical  Puzzle— Authors  Wanted— 
Money  and  Matrimony— Christmas  Family  of  Bideford, 
03— City  Poll-Books-Genealogical  Tables— Barabbas  a 
Publisher— "  Abraham's  Beard,"  a  Game— Duchess  of 
Palata— St  Agatha  at  Wimborne  —  Botany  :  Flowers 
Blooming  —  Melmont  Berries  =  Juniper  Berries — Shen- 
stone  and  the  Rev.  R.  Graves— Thames  Water  Company 
—Folly:  Place-Name— " The  British  Glory  Revived,"  29. 

REPLIES  :  -Turkey  Captives,  30— The  Edwards,  Kings  of 
England,  31— Bath  King  of  Arms— Tbasts  and  Sentiments 
—Samuel  Mearnes— Paul  Kester— Initials  on  Russian 
Ikon,  32  —  "  Canabull  blue  silke  "  —  Court  Leet— Sir 
Anthony  Standen— Galfrid— Author  Wanted,  33— Edward 
=Iorwerth,  34—'  Jonathan  Sharp  '—George  Knapp,  35— 
Woe  Waters  of  Langton— Nelson's  Birthplace— Seven- 
teenth-Century Biography—  Elephant  and  Castle  in 
Heraldry,  36— Abraham  Farley— " Make "  or  "Mar"  in 
Goldsmith— General  Wolfe's  Death— B.  Rotch,  37— "God 
save  the  People ! "— Greir  Family— St.  Austin's  Gate— 
"  Googlie  "— Rumbelow,  38. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :— '  Political  Satire  in  English  Poetry ' 
— Reviews  and  Magazines. 

Booksellers'  Catalogues. 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 



THE  fact  of  the  heir  apparent  to  the  throne, 
who  was  born  on  the  23rd  of  June,  1894, 
being  created  Prince  of  Wales,  should  have 
a  record  in  '  N.  &  Q.*  The  announcement 
was  made  in, an  extraordinary  edition  of 
The  London  Gazette  of  Thursday,  the  23rd 
of  June,  as  follows  : — 

"  The  King  has  been  pleased  to  order  Letters 
Patent  to  be  passed  under  the  Great  Seal  for 
creating  His  Royal  Highness  Prince  Edward 
Albert  Christian  George  Andrew  Patrick  David, 
Duke  of  Cornwall  and  Bothesay,  Earl  of  Carrick, 
Baron  of  Renfrew,  Lord  of  the  Isles  and  Great 
Steward  of  Scotland,  Duke  of  Saxony  and  Prince 
of  Saxe  Coburg  and  Gotha,  Prince  of  Wales  and 
Earl  of  Chester." 

The   Daily   Telegraph  on   the   same   day 
gave  such  a  concise  list  of  all  who  have 
borne  the  title  that  it  should  find  a  place 
in  '  N.  &  Q.*  for  permanent  reference  : — 
Edward  (1284-1327). 

Born  at  Carnarvon.     Created  Prince  of  Wales  in 

February,  1301.     Became  Edward  II.  in  1327. 

Murdered  at  Berkeley  Castle. 

Edward  of  Windsor  (1312-1377). 

There  is  no  documentary  evidence  of  his 
investiture  as  Prince  of  Wales,  but  it  is  believed 
to  have  taken  place  during  the  Parliament  of 
York  in  1322.  Became  Edward  III.  in  1327. 

Edward  of  Woodstock,  the  Black  Prince  (1330- 


Created  Prince  of  Wales  1343,  "  par  assant  de 
touz  les  grauntz  d'Engleterre,"  during  the 
Parliament  of  Westminster.  The  flower  of 
English  chivalry.  He  predeceased  his  father. 

Richard  of  Bordeaux  (1367-1399). 

Created  Prince  of  Wales  in  1376,  on  the  death 
of  the  Black  Prince.  Became  Richard  II.  in 

Henry  of  Monmouth  (1387-1422). 

Son  of  Henry  IV.  Created  Prince  of  Wales  on 
Oct.  15,  1399,  at  the  age  of  12,  and  became 
Henry  V. 

Edward  of  Westminster  (1453-1471). 

Son  of  Henry  VI.  Created  Prince  of  Wales  in 
his  first  year.  Killed  on  the  field  at  Tewkes- 

Edward  of  the  Sanctuary  (1470-1483). 

Son  of  Edward  V.  Created  Prince  of  Wales 
1477.  Murdered  in  the  Tower. 

Edward  of  Middleham  (1474-1484). 

Son  of  Richard  III.  Created  Prince  of 
Wales  July,  1483.  Died  in  Wensleydale  Castle, 
where  he  was  born. 

Arthur  of  Winchester  (1486-1502). 

Son  of  Henry  VII.  An  infant  prodigy  of 
scholarship  and  learning. 

Henry  of  Greenwich  (1491-1549). 

Son  of  Henry  VII.  Created  Prince  of  Wales 
June  22,  1502.  Betrothed  to  Prince  Arthur's 
widow  on  June  25,  1504.  When  he  came  to  the 
throne  in  1509,  as  Henry  VIII.,  Lord  Mountjoy 
wrote  :  "  Heaven  smiles,  the  earth  leaps  with 
gladness,  everything  seems  redolent  with  milk, 
honey,  and  nectar." 

Henry  VIII. 's  only  son  (afterwards  Edward 
VI.)  was  never  created  Prince  of  Wales,  though 
his  father  made  him  Duke  of  Cornwall. 

Henry  of  Stirling  (1594-1612).' 

Son  of  James  I.  Created  Prince  of  Wales  in 
1608.  A  prince,  like  Prince  Arthur,  of  very 
great  popularity  and  learning,  and  his  death 
was  greatly  deplored. 

Charles  (1600-1649). 

Son  of  James  I.  Created  Prince  of  Wales  in 
1616.  Came  to  the  throne  hi  1625.  Beheaded 

Charles  of  St.  James's  (1630-1685). 

Afterwards  Charles  II.  It  is  apparently  doubt- 
ful whether  he  was  ever  created  Prince  of 

George  Augustus  (1683-1760). 

Son  of  George  I.  Created  Prince  of  Wales  by 
his  father  ten  days  after  his  landing  in  England, 
Sept.,  1714.  The  first  Prince  of  Wales,  since 
Edward  the  Black  Prince,  who  had  children  in 
the  lifetime  of  his  father.  Became  George  II. 
in  1727. 

Frederick  Louis  (1707-1751). 

Son  of  George  II.  Born  at  Hanover.  Created 
Prince  of  Wales  in  1729.  Throughout  his  life 
always  at  enmity  with  George  II.  and  every 
member  of  his  family. 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        m  s.  n.  JULY  9, 1910. 

George  (1738-1820). 

Son  of  Frederick  Louis.  Created  Pruice  of 
Wales  1751.  Became  George  111.  in  1700. 

George  Augustus  Frederick  (1762-1830). 

Son  of  George  III.  Created  Prince  of  Wales 
when  a  few  days  old.  Became  George  IV.  1820. 

Albert  Edward  (1841-1910). 

Son  of  Queen  Victoria.  Created  Prince  of  Wales 
on  Dec.  4,  1841.  Became  King  Edward  VII. 

George  Frederick  (born  1865). 

Son  of  Edward  VII.  Created  Pruice  of  Wales, 
Nov.  9,  1901.  Became  George  V.  May,  1910. 

A.  N.  Q. 



ONE  hundred  and  thirty-eight  years  ago, 
viz.,  on  Sunday,  29  March,  1772,  Emanuel 
Swedenborg  died  in  his  London  lodging 
at  26,  Great  Bath  Street,  Coldbath  Fields, 
s  house  which,  judged  by  its  present  appear- 
ance, must  have  been  a  very  modest  habita- 
tion for  a  man  of  his  social  standing.  His 
"whole  library"  there,  we  are  told,  had 
consisted  of  a  Hebrew  Bible,  and  it  was 
given,  as  his  burial  fee,  to  his  countryman 
Dean  Ferelius.  Some  of  Swedenborg's  MSS. 
(probably  memorandum  books  and  indexes 
to  his  writings)  had  accompanied  his  final 
journey  to  London,  and  these,  with  his 
other  personal  effects,  were  immediately 
after  his  death  dispatched  to  Stockholm 
by  his  friend  and  man-of-business  Mr. 
Charles  Lindegren.  Swedenborg  having  left 
no  will,  all  his  property  passed  into  the 
hands  of  his  heirs-at-law.  His  library, 
which  had  remained  in  Sweden,  was  sold 
at  the  "  Bok- Auctions -Kammaren  i  Stock- 
holm d.  28  Nov.,  1772,'*  and  the  printed 
catalogue  of  the  sale,  reproduced  in  fac- 
simile by  Mr.  Alfred  H.  Stroh  at  Stockholm 
in  1907,  forms  an  interesting  conspectus  of 
the  great  Swede's  multifarious  studies. 

A  month  before  this  sale,  viz.,  on  27 
October,  1772,  the  whole  of  Swedenborg's 
extant  MSS.,  and  the  "author's  copies'*  of 
many  of  his  printed  works,  were,  on  behalf 
of  his  heirs,  formally  presented  to  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  of  Stockholm,  in  the 
library  of  which  institution  they  have  been 
preserved  ever  since,  though  not  wholly 
exempt  from  vicissitudes.  The  gift  was 
accompanied  by  a  list  of  the  MSS.,  which 
was  printed  at  Stockholm  in  1801,  and  again 
in  1820,  and  is  reproduced,  with  similar 
lists,  upon  pp.  729  to  800  of  Dr.  R.  L. 
Tafel's  collection  of  '  Documents  concern- 
ing Swedenborg,'  vol.  ii.  part  ii.,  London, 

Several  of  these  MSS.  which  had  not  been 
published  in  their  author's  lifetime — some- 
of  which,  indeed,  he  seems  to  have  intended 
only  for  his  own  reference — have  been 
since  printed  by  permission  of  the  autho- 
rities of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  and 
with  their  co-operation.  Among  these  is  an 
MS.  which  bears  no  title,  but  which  was 
named  by  Benedict  Chastanier  (who  in  1791 
issued  abortive  proposals  for  printing  the 
work)  '  Diarium  Spirituale,*  by  which  title 
it  has  been  subsequently  known.  The 
*  Diarium  Spirituale s  was  printed  by  Dr. 
J.  F.  I.  Tafel,  Librarian  in  the  University 
of  Tubingen,  at  that  town  in  1844-50.  An 
English  translation,  as  "Ihe  Spiritual  Diary/ 
extending  as  far  as  paragraph  1538,  was 
published  in  London  in  1846  ;  and  another, 
continued  to  paragraph  3427,  at  New  York 
and  Boston,  U.S.A.,  in  1850-72.  A  com- 
plete English  translation  appeared  in  London 
in  1883-1902,  and  a  phototyped  facsimile 
of  the  original  MS.  at  Stockholm  in  1901—5. 
In  each  of  these  five  editions  paragraphs 
1  to  148  are  "  conspicuous  by  their  absence"; 
but  in  the  latest  English  version  their 
place  is  occupied  by  a  translation  of  the 
brief  analyses  of  the  contents  of  these  para- 
graphs as  noted  by  their  author  in  his  MS, 
index  to  the  work. 

The  existence  of  this  defect  has  been 
known  from  1772  onwards.  It  is  noted,, 
at  No.  7,  vols.  iv.  and  v.,  in  the  above- 
mentioned  Heirs*  List  compiled  in  that 
year,  but  is  there  exaggerated  so  as  to 
include  paragraphs  1  to  205,  an  error  due 
obviously  to  a  too  hasty  glance  at  the  MS. 
which  upon  its  surface  seems  to  justify  the 
statement.  Special  search  has  been  made 
for  the  missing  section  (e.g.,  by  Dr.  J.  F.  I. 
lafel  at  Stockholm  in  1859,  and  by  his 
nephew,  Dr.  R.  L.  Tafel,  at  the  same  city 
in  1868),  but  without  success ;  and  its- 
disappearance  has  come  to  be  considered- 
absolute  and  complete. 

As  long  ago  as  1842  inquiries  made  on 
behalf  of  the  Swedenborg  Society  elicited 
the  information  that  in  the  library  of  a 
certain  congregation  of  "  New-Church " 
people  was  a  volume  of  Swedenborg's 
writings  to  which  was  affixed  a  fragment  of 
his  MS.  "  evidently  cut  from  some  book.'* 
The  volume  in  question  formed  one  of  the 
"  objects  of  interest ?*  exhibited  to  the- 
visitors  at  the  International  Swedenborg 
Congress  held  in  London  throughout  the- 
week  ending  to-day. 

In  his  copious  '  Bibliography  of  Sweden- 
borg's Works,*  issued  in  1906,  the  editor, 
the  Rev.  James  Hyde,  minutely  describes. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  9,  MO.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


this  fragment,  at  No.  498  in  his  numerical 
system,  dates  it  1747,  and  proceeds  to  draw 
attention  to  the  connexion  of  its  subject- 
matter  with  paragraphs  28  and  29  in  the 
missing  section  of  the  '  Diarium  Spirituale.' 
Renewing  and  extending  his  researches  into 
this  suggested  parallelism,  Mr.  Hyde  pub- 
lished their  result  in  The  New  Church 
Review  (Philadelphia,  U.S.A.)  for  July, 
1 907.  Briefly  stated,  Mr.  Hyde's  conclusions 
are  that  paragraphs  1  to  148  of  these 
"  memorabilia "  were  written  by  Sweden- 
borg  at  Stockholm  within  the  months 
January  to  July,  1747,  in  a  book  entirely 
distinct  from  that,  or  those,  in  which  he 
subsequently  penned  paragraphs  149  to 
6096  ;  and  that  the  fragment  described  at 
No.  498  in  the  '  Swedenborg  Bibliography ' 
is  a  part  of  that  first  used  volume  which  is 
now,  apparently,  lost. 

The  whole  subject  is  discussed  at  length 
in  an  article,  divided  into  three  sections, 
which  appears  in  The  New  Church  Magazine 
for  February,  March,  and  April  of  the 
present  year,  to  the  last-named  of  which  is 
prefixed  a  facsimile  of  the  resuscitated  frag- 
ment. The  Magazine  is  procurable  at  the 
Swedenborg  Society's  house,  1,  Bloomsbury 
Street,  W.C.,  or  it  can  be  consulted  in  many 
Free  Libraries  throughout  the  country. 

Meanwhile,  may  I  appeal  to  all  my  readers 
who  possess,  or  know  of*  any  anonymous 
Latin  MSS.  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
to  examine  them  with  a  view  to  ascertain 
if  they  include  "  a  volume  [bound  or  un- 
bound] measuring  12  J  by  8  inches,  probably 
without  title-page  or  page -headings,  and 
containing  paragraphs  numbered  1  to  148, 
whereof  No.  29  lacks  the  concluding  por- 
tion *'  ?  A  copy  of  the  facsimile  of  the  newly 
identified  fragment  already  mentioned  will 
be  forwarded  to  all  applicants  by  Mr.  James 
Speirs,  1,  Bloomsbury  Street,  W.C.  It  will 
serve  as  a  clue  to  facilitate  the  search  for 
which  I  plead,  and  he  or  I  will  gladly  receive 
particulars  of  any  successful  results. 


169,  Grove  Lane,  Camberwell,  S.E. 



W.  C.  B.'s  list  at  10  S.  v.  141  I  did  not  see, 
but  I  venture  to  submit  some  names  in 
addition  to  those  Bristol  booksellers  and 
printers  appearing  in  his  second  list,  US. 
i.  304.  The  dates  I  give  are  the  earliest 
hitherto  noted,  but  the  address  is  not,  in 
quite  every  case,  that  of  the  year  given  : — 

Eliazer  Edgar,  admitted  to  the  freedom  in  June, 
1620,  "  for  the  using  of  the  trade  of  binding  and 
selling  books." 

J.  B.  Beckett,  Corn  Street,  1774 

William  Browne,  1792 

Ann  Bryan,  51,  Corn  Street,  1794 

Thomas  Cocking,  Small  Street,  1767 

B.  Edwards,  Broad  Street,  1796 

S.  Farley  &  Son,  Small  Street,  1758 

Felix  Farley,  Castle  Green,  1734 

Hester  Farley,  Castle  Green,  1774 

Grabham  &  Pine,  1760 

Henry  Greep,  Bridewell  Lane,  1715 

Benjamin  Hickey,  Nicholas  Street,  1742 

Andrew  Hooke,  Shannon  Court,  1745 

Mrs.  Hooke,  Maiden  Tavern,  Baldwin  Street,  1753: 

William  Huston,  4,  Castle  Green,  1791 

Lancaster  &  Edwards,  Redcliff  Street,  1792 

W.  Pine  &  Son,  Wine  Street,  1753 

James  Sketchley,  27,  Small  Street,  1775 

T.  Smart,  St.  John  Street,  1792 

Edward  Ward,  Castle  Street,  1749 

Mary  Ward,  1774 

Mary  Ward  &  Son,  Corn  Street,  1781 

J.  Watts,  Shannon  Court,  1742 

Thomas  Whitehead,  Broadmead,  1709 

William  Bonny,  mentioned  by  W.  C.  B.r 
was  the  first  man  to  set  up  an  independent 
permanent  press  in  Bristol.  He  was  origin- 
ally in  business  in  London,  where  he  had 
met  with  little  success.  When,  in  1695,. 
Parliament  omitted  to  continue  the  law  sub- 
jecting all  printed  books  and  pamphlets  to 
official  censorship,  and  virtually  confining 
the  provincial  press  of  England  to  Oxford,. 
Cambridge,  and  York,  Bonny  obtained 
leave  from  the  Corporation  of  Bristol  to 
start  in  business  as  a  printer,  in  the  city,, 
but,  out  of  consideration  for  the  local  book- 
sellers, it  was  stipulated  that  he  should 
carry  on  no  other  business  than  that  of  a 

Bonny  printed  John  Gary's  *  An  Essay  on 
the  State  of  England,  in  relation  to  its 
Trade,  its  Poor,  and  its  Taxes.  For  carrying 
on  the  Present  War  against  France,1  which 
was  published  in  November,  1695,  and  was 
the  first  book  printed  at  Bristol  by  a  per- 
manently established  local  press.  John 
Locke  said  it  was  the  best  book  on  the 
subject  of  trade  that  he  had  ever  read. 
Gary  was  a  freeman  and  merchant  of  Bristol,, 
and  his  subsequent  essay  on  pauperism 
led  to  the  establishment,  in  May,  1696,  of 
the  Bristol  Incorporation  of  the  Poor — the 
first  body  of  the  kind  in  this  country 
created  by  Act  of  Parliament.  The  name 
continued  in  use  until  1898,  when  it  wa& 
changed  to  Bristol  Board  of  Guardians. 

We  owe  to  Bonny  the  earliest  newspaper 
published  in  Bristol.  This  was  The  Bristol 
Post-Boy.  The  first  numbers  are  lost,  but 
if  No.  91,  issued  on  12  Aug.,  1704,  represents 
a  correct  numbering,  then  the  first  copy 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [11  s.  IL  JULY  9, 1910. 

appeared  in  November,  1702.  That  must  no 
be    accepted    as    proved,    for    those    earlj 
printers  were  a  little  careless  in  the  matte 
of    numbering.     Still,    there    is    very  good 
reason  for  believing  that  1702  was  the  year  o 
the  start  of  the  enterprise  at  offices  in  Corn 
Street,  where,  apparently  freed  from  the  re 
strictions  imposed  when  he  came  to  Bristol 
the  printer  dealt  in  charcoal,  old  rope,  Bibles 
Welsh  prayer-books,  music,  maps,   paper 
hangings,  and  forms  for  the  use  of  ale-house 
keepers  and  officers  on  privateers. 

In  1713  Samuel  Farley  published  the 
first  number  of  his  Postman,  the  ancestor  o 
the  present  Times  and  Mirror,  and  the 
Postman  soon  sent  the  Post-Boy  to  oblivion 
If,  indeed,  the  latter  had  not  gone  there 
before  the  stronger  paper's  advent. 



MANWOOD.*     (See  11  S.  i.  459.) — The  copy 
of    Marlowe    and    Chapman's    '  Hero    anc 
Leander,*  1629,  in  which  this  Latin  epitaph 
is  written  on  the  back  of  the  title-page,  is  stil" 
in  my  possession.     It  was  lot  1415  in  Heber's 
sale    of    Old    Poetry,    held    at    Sotheby's 
8  December,   1834,  and  fourteen  following 
days.     The  note  uj)on  the  lot  shows  that 
the  book  was  then  in  its  present  condition, 
except  that  the  late  Mr.  Ouvry,  after  it  had 
passed   into    his   hands,    had   it   bound    in 
morocco   by   Riviere.     At   Heber's   sale   it 
was  bought  by   John  Payne   Collier,   who 
parted  with  it  to  Mr.  Ouvry,  at  whose  sale 
it  came  into  my  possession.     Owing  to  the 
volume  having  been  Collier's  property,  some 
doubt  has  been  thrown  upon  the  authenticity 
of  the  manuscript  notes  in  the  book,  and  some 
correspondence  took  place  in  '  N.  &  Q.1  on 
the  subject  (6  S.  xi.  305,  352  ;   xii.  15).     Mr. 
Arthur  Bullen,  who  printed  the  epitaph  in 
his  edition   of  Marlowe   (Introduction,   pp. 
xii,  xiii),  said  that  it  had  "  every  appearance 
of  being  genuine "  ;   and  a  few  years  ago, 
when  he  contemplated  bringing  out  a  new 
edition  of  the  dramatist,  he  borrowed  the 
book  from  me,  and    had    the  page  bearing 
the   inscription  photographed.      The  result 
of  his  examination  was,  I  believe,  to  confirm 
him  in  his  previous  view,  though  it  cannot, 
of  course,  be  stated  with  absolute  certainty 
that  the  epitaph  was  written  by  Marlowe. 

— In  Metcalfe's  '  Book  of  Knights  l  Sir  M. 
Philip  is  said  (on  the  authority  of  Sir  N.  H. 
Nicolas's  '  Orders  of  Knighthood  *)  to  have 

been  made  a  Knight  of  the  Bath  in  1464 
(sic)  at  the  coronation  of  Elizabeth,  queen  of 
Edward  IV.,  20  May  (sic). 

My  friend  Dr.  W.  A.  Shaw  in  his  *  Knights 
of  England,*  i.  134-5,  gives  the  same  list  as 
that  which  Metcalfe  copies  from  Nicolas,  but 
with  the  correct  date  of  the  coronation,  viz., 
26  May,  1465,  and  describing  Philip  as 
a  "  citizen  of  London." 

Unless  there  were  two  contemporary 
London  civic  knights  of  this  name,  of  which 
there  is  absolutely  no  evidence,  I  am  confi- 
dent that  the  list  of  Knights  of  the  Bath 
from  which  Nicolas  and  Dr.  Shaw  copied  is 
wrong  in  including  Philip  amongst  them. 

Philip,  the  alderman  who  was  Mayor 
1463-4,  was  not  knighted  till  May,  1471, 
when  he  was  one  of  twelve  aldermen  who 
received  ordinary  knighthood,  not  that 
of  the  Bath.  This  list,  with  Philip's  name 
included,  is  given  by  Dr.  Shaw  in  his  second 
volume  (p.  16). 

There  is  both  positive  and  negative 
evidence  that  Philip  was  not  knighted 
before  1471,  and  that  he  was  not  one  of  the 
batch  of  Knights  of  the  Bath  made  in  1465. 

1.  His  name,  with  that  of  the  other  eleven 
aldermen  included  with  him  in  the  knighting 
of  1471,  receives  the  prefix   "  Sir  "  in  the 
City   records    after   that    date,    and   never 
before  it. 

2.  Gregory's    *  Chronicle  ' — the    work    of 
one    who    had    himself    been    Mayor    and 
alderman — records  the  coronation  of  Eliza- 
beth, and  says  :    "  These  v  aldyrmen  were 
made  knyghtys  of  the  Bathe  "  ;  and  after 
recording  their  names — which,   divested  of 
orthographic   variants,   are   those   generally 
known  as  Wyche,  Cooke,  Josselyn,  Plomer, 
and  Waver — he  adds  :    "  And  no  moo  of  the 

ytte  but  thes  v,  and  hyt  ys  a  grete 
worschyppe  unto  alle  the  cytte  "  (p.  228). 

It  is  clear  from  this  that  Philip,  who  was 
then  alderman  and  ex -May  or,  was  not  in- 

luded  in  the  list  of  the  Knights  of  the  Bath 
made  at  Elizabeth's  coronation,  nor  is  it 
Drobable  that  any  other  "  citizen  of  London  " 
>f  the  same  name  was  then  a  recipient  of  the 
lonour.  ALFBED  B.  BEAVEN. 


THE  DIPHTHONG  "  ou." — I  have  nowhere 
een  it  definitely  stated  that  the  diphthong 
>u,  as  employed  in  modern  English,  almost 
nvariably  indicates  a  French  spelling. 
This  is  a  very  useful  fact. 

Of  course,  it  constantly  occurs  in  native 
English  words,  such  as  out.  But  this  is  only 
>ecause  the  Normans,  who  obligingly  re- 
pelt  our  language  for  us,  used  the  symbol 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  9,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

ou  to  represent  the  A.-S.  u,  especially 
when  long.  That  is  how  the  A.-S.  ut  came 
to  be  respelt  as  out.  I  need  not  take  into 
consideration  the  hundreds  of  other  cases. 

But  it  is  even  more  interesting  to  notice 
how  the  rule  applies  to  words  of  wholly 
foreign  origin.  Thus  knout  is  a  French 
spelling  of  a  Russian  word,  though  the 
Russian  word  was  itself  of  Scandinavian 

Caoutchouc  is  a  French  spelling  of  a 
Caribbean  word  ;  tourmaline  is  a  French 
spelling  of  a  Cingalese  word  ;  patchouli 
is  a  French  spelling  of  a  word  of  Indian 
origin.  Even  in  such  a  word  as  ghoul, 
which  might  have  been  taken  immediately 
from  Arabic,  it  is  a  fact  that  it  first  appears 
in  Beckford's  *  Vathek  *  as  goule,  which  is 
simply  the  French  form.  I  doubt  if  there 
are  numerous  exceptions.  Many  languages 
avoid  ou  altogether.  WALTE^B  W.  SKEAT. 

OXONIENSES.' — May  one  suggest  that  the 
editors  of  the  Cambridge  work  would  do  well 
to  avoid  such  conjectural  amendments  as 
mar  the  like  work  dealing  with  Oxford  men  ? 
Let  mo  illustrate  the  matter  from  my  own 

I  was  born  at  Irthlingborough  in  North- 
amptonshire. It  is  not  to  my  present 
purpose  that  the  birthplace  was  accidental. 
My  grandfather  was  rector  of  a  neighbouring 
parish,  and  my  father,  a  barrister  living  in 
London,  rented  for  the  summer  a  house  in 
Irthlingborough.  The  clerk  who  entered 
my  name  in  the  Oxford  Register,  mistaking 
the  registrar's  nourished  I  for  an  O,  wrote  the 
village  name  as  Orthlingborough.  The 
editor  of  '  Alumni  Oxonienses,1  finding  no 
village  of  that  name,  printed  the  village 
name  as  Orlingbury,  the  name  of  a  parish 
in  the  same  county. 

I  could  show  that  this  form  of  error  is 
common  in  the  work,  and  I  should  like  to 
suggest  that  such  conjectural  amendments, 
almost  sure  to  be  wrong,  should  find  no 
place  in  the  forthcoming  Cambridge  list. 

J.  S. 

CHAMBEBS'S  DESIGNS. — Josephi  Baretti's 
'  Guide  through  the  Royal  Academy,*  pub- 
lished in  1780,  is,  I  believe,  the  first  work  or 
pamphlet  describing  Somerset  House,  or 
what  was  completed  of  it  at  that  date. 
It  contains  a  great  deal  of  detail  to  which 
neither  Mr.  F.  A.  Eaton  in  *  The  Royal 
Academy  and  its  Members  *  nor  Messrs. 
Needham  and  Webster  in  '  Somerset  House 

Past  and  Present '  have  given  sufficient 
attention.  In  dealing  with  the  first  plan 
for  the  building  the  latter  work  says  that 
"  a  Mr.  Robinson,"  Secretary  to  the  Board 
of  Works,  had  prepared  designs  for  a  new 
building  : — 

"  These  designs,  as  might  be  expected,  were 
little  better  than  builders'  drawings  for  a  plain 
substantial  structure ....  without  pretension  to- 
the  first  proportion  and  disposition  of  parts  which 
distinguish  true  architecture." 

Did  the  writers  of  that  remark  see  these 
plans,  or  is  their  opinion  based  upon  the  fact 
that  they  were  only  designed  by  a  Secretary 
to  the  Board  of  Works  ?  They  add,  "  Mr. 
Robinson's  designs  were  laid  aside,"  but 
qualify  this  by  a  foot-note  : — 

"  Actually  they  were  handed  to  Sir  William 
Chambers,  but  were"  found  to  be  of  no  service, 
and  were  not  in  any  way  embodied  in  the  new 

Baretti's  rendering  of  this  incident  gives  a 
different  succession  of  events  : — 

"  The  late  Mr.  Robinson was  the  person  first 

appointed  to  conduct  this  great  edifice  ;  and  the 
buildings  were  to  be  erected  in  a  plain  manner, 
rather  with  a  view  to  convenience  than  ornament." 

Then  it  was  decided  to  make  it 
"  a  monument  of  the  taste  and  elegance  of  his 
Majesty's  Reign.  Mr.  Robinson  made  some 
attempts  upon  this  double  idea  ;  but  he  dying 
before  anything  was  begun,  or  any  of  the  Designs 
compleated,  Sir  William  Chambers  was,  at  the 
King's  request,  appointed  to  succeed  him  in 
October,  1775,  and  all  Mr.  Robinson's  Designs 
were  delivered  to  him  ;  of  which,  however,  he 
made  no  use,  as  he  thought  of  a  quite  different 
disposition  ;  nor  is  there  the  least  resemblance 
between  his  Designs  and  those  of  Mr.  Robinson, 
all  of  which  I  have  more  than  once  seen  and  con- 
sidered with  sufficient  leisure  and  attention." 

Clearly  this  indicates  that  the  simplicity  of 
the  first  plans  was  not  a  matter  of  choice, 
and  the  more  decorative,  but  unfinished 
designs  prepared  by  Robinson  were  dis- 
regarded, not  because  "  they  were  found  to 
be  of  no  service,**  but  for  the  better  reason 
that  Chambers  planned  a  different  disposi- 
tion of  the  buildings. 


THE  HATLESS  CBAZE. — When  did  English 
people  begin  to  find  out  that  all  civilized 
nations  until  the  last  few  years  had  been 
entirely  wrong  in  wearing  caps  or  hats  out  of 
doors  ?  These  useful  articles  now  appear 
likely  soon  to  become  obsolete,  ana  it  may 
be  well  to  put  on  record  some  dates  connected 
with  their  disuse. 

Here  in  Durham  it  began  with  a  few  of  the 
undergraduates — I  cannot  say  exactly  when, 
but  I  have  notes  that  it  was  prevailing 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  ir.  JULY  9, 1910. 

greatly  in  November,  1906  ;  in  June,  1908,  it 
was  on  the  increase  ;  and  now,  in  June, 
1910,  caps  are  becoming  quite  exceptional 
among  undergraduate  men,  and  seem  likely 
soon  to  be  confined  to  Dons  and  women 
students.  The  cap  no  less  than  the  gown  is  a 
part  of  the  proper  academical  costume,  and  a 
shilling  fine  at  the  first  would  have  stopped 
the  irregularity  in  a  week.  One  result  is  that 
the  old  interchange  of  courtesy  between 
undergraduates  and  Dons  by  mutual  "  cap- 
ping "  is  becoming  impossible.  The  disuse 
of  the  cap  is  just  a  fashion  of  the  day,  based 
partly  on  convenience,  and  partly  on  that 
dislike  to  uniform  which  we  now  see  in  the 
Army  and  Navy,  and  among  servants.  We 
have  a  Territorial  corps  here,  but  none  of 
its  members  would  ever  think  of  going  about 
without  their  caps  when  on  duty,  because 
discipline  is  better  maintained  by  their 
officers  than  by  those  of  the  University, 
and  the  men  themselves  seem  to  think  more 
of  their  corps  than  of  their  Alma  Mater. 
But  it  is  not  only  while  on  duty  that  caps 
are  dispensed  with.  One  day  I  met  a  young 
friend  returning  from  an  afternoon  walk 
gracefully  handling  a  walking  cane,  but 
with  nothing  on  his  head  except  that 
covering  which  nature  had. so  bountifully 

The  craze  is  extending  into  clerical  life. 
I  have  just  heard  of  a  curate  who  goes  about 
in  greatcoat  and  gloves,  but  without  a  hat. 
It  has  also  invaded  the  nursery.  I  now  see 
dear  little  boys,  breeched  for  the  first  time, 
and  the  pride  of  their  parents,  going  out 
Hatless  with  their  nursemaids,  and  thus 
doubly  asserting  their  early  manhood. 

J.  T.  F. 


REFERENCE.— The  will  of  Richard  Sothe- 
worth,  clerk  (P.C.C.  44,  Marche),  dated  the  eve 
of  St.  Andrew  the  Apostle,  1417,  and  proved 
20  May,  1419,  makes  mention,  among  other 
books,  of  his  copy  of  the  '  Canterbury 
Tales  *  ("  quendam  libru'  meu*  de  Cantrbury 
Tales  ").  This  is  surely  a  very  early  note 
of  the  work.  The  will  was  sealed  at  South- 
morton,  but  the  testator  speaks  of  his  church 
of  Esthenreth  (East  Hendred,  Berks). 

F.  S.  SNELL. 

APPRENTICESHIP  IN  1723.— -The  subjoined 
letter  is  contained  among  the  papers  pre- 
served at  SS.  Anne  and  Agnes  Church.  Con- 
taining as  it  does  no  apparent  local  reference, 
I  have  thought  it  more  suited  to  the  columns 
Of  *N.  &  Q.'  than  to  the  pages  of  my 

Records.*  Notwithstanding  its  ex  parte 
character,  the  letter  may  doubtless  be  held 
of  value  for  its  light  upon  what  was,  in  all 
probability,  the  too  common  experience  of 
the  poor  apprentice  in  the  "  good  old 
days  n  : — 

Sunderland,  May  ye  10 :  1723. 

Dear  Sister,  I  am  very  sory  to  hear  that  you  have 
Not  heard  from  me  this  four  months,  makes  me 
doubt  you  have  not  Received  my  last  Letter  which 
Menshon'd  something  of  my  hard  Usage  which 
was  known  to  be  very  hard  at  that  Time  which 
all  my  neigbours  can  very  well  tell,  for  my  master 
threaten'd  to  send  me  aboard  of  a  Ship,  and  Like- 
wise Hee'd  make  me  an  intire  Slave  dureing  my 
prentisship  in  spite  of  my  Bondesmen  or  any  friend 
I  could  procure  to  Looke  after  me,  which  god  knows 
I  have  none  but  what  pleases  my  Bondsmen  to  do 
for  me,  so  I  leave  it  to  their  discression.  But  I 
crave  y"  Favour  they  will  Be  so  kind  as  eighther  to 
take  me  away  or  otherwise  Let  me  have  the  coorse 
of  my  Indentures.  So  no  more  at  present,  But  I 
remain  your  ever  Loving  Brother  Matthias  Stand- 
fast: Pray  present  my  Humble  Servise  to  all  my 
Scoolfellows  and  all  y*  Ask  after  me. 

Mrs.  Catherine  Standfast,  at  Mr.  Bay's  in  Fell 
Court  in  Fell  Street  near  Criplegate,  London. 

The  letter  is  written  in  a  clear  hand  on 
paper  of  folio  size,  folded  and  postmarked. 

Monthly  Magazine  of  May,  1809,  records  the 
death  at  the  Lodge,  Villier's  Walk,  Adelphi,  of 
Mr.  Hugh  Hewson,  at  the  age  of  eighty -five, 
and  states  that  he  was  "  the  identical  Hugh 
Strap  whom  Dr.  Smollett  has  rendered  so 
conspicuously  interesting,"'  &c.  Hewson  for 
over  forty  years  had  kept  a  hairdresser's 
shop  in  the  parish  of  St.  Martin's-in-the- 
Fields.  The  writer  of  the  notice  says  "we 
understand  the  deceased  left  behind  him  an 
interlined  copy  of  *  Roderick  Random,' 
with  comments  on  some  of  the  passages.'1 
According  to  Nichols,  '  Lit.  Anec.,*  iii.  465, 
the  original  of  this  character  was  supposed 
to  be  Lewis,  a  bookbinder  of  Chelsea. 


LONDON. — From  a  fragment  of  The  Shrop- 
shire Journal,  with  the  History  of  the  Holy 
Bible,  for  Monday,  12  Feb.,  1738/9,  it 
appears  that  so  far  from  being  a  real  local 
periodical  it  came  from  a  metropolitan  press 
"  London  :  Printed  by  R.  Walker  in  Fleet 
Lane.  Of  whom,  and  of  the  Person  who 
serves  this  paper  may  be  had  the  former 
numbers  to  compleat  Sets.'1  The  paper 
then  claimed  to  have  reached  its  seven ty- 
third  number.  WILLIAM  E.  A.  AXON. 


n  s.  ii.  JULY  9,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to.them  direct. 

BRIGHT. — I  desire — for  historical  purposes — 
to  hear  of  the  representatives  of  Col.  Cock- 
burn,  R.A.,  who  was  a  most  accomplished 
officer  in  Canada  in  the  thirties  of  last 
-century,  and  whose  grandson  Major-General 
C.  F.  Cockburn,  R.A.,  died  a  few  months 
since  in  the  South  of  England. 

I  also  desire  similar  information  about 
Robert  Wright,  who  published  in  1864 
&  Life  of  General  Wolfe. 

DAVID  Ross  McCoRD,  K.C. 

Temple  Grove,  Montreal. 

GILDERSLEEVE    FAMILY. — We    have    fol- 
lowed the  name  of  our  family  back  to  1273 
in  the  county  of  Norfolk,  England.     This 
person  was  Roger  Gyldersleve,  as  stated  by 
the  Hundred  Rolls.     Some  people,  however, 
think  that  the  family  came  from  Holland. 
We  should  be  very  grateful  for  any  informa- 
tion on  the  subject.     Please  reply  direct. 
Gildersleeve,  Connecticut. 

1  wish  to  learn  who  was  the  author  of 
".  Shaving  Them ;  or,  The  Adventures  of 
Three  Yankees  on  the  Continent  of  Europe. 
Edited  by  Titus  A.  Brick,  Esq.  London, 
John  Camden  Hotten,  74  and  75,  Picca- 
dilly," pp.  230. 

'.The  title-page  has  no  year  of  issue,  but 
the  publisher's  advertisements  at  the  end  are 
dated  1872.  The  British  Museum  Cata- 
logue treats  the  book  as  anonymous,  entering 
it  under  '  Yankees.1  It  does  not  appear  in 
Halkett  and  Laing.  Has  the  work  been 
reprinted  ?  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 

Aberdeen  University  Library. 

WANTED. — Can  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.1 
supply  me  with  dates,  actual  or  approximate, 
of  death  of  any  of  the  following,  all  of 
whom  were  at  various  periods  aldermen  of 
London  ? 

Alexander  Bence  (M.P.  Suffolk  1654,  Master  Trinity 

rlouse  iDOtJ-oO). 
Tempest  Milner  (Sheriff  London  1656-7). 

R?^iavnd  Winn  or  Wynn  (Committee  E.I.C.  1670- 

Sir  William  Bateman  (knighted  May,  1660). 
Nicholas  Delves  (tM,P.  Hastings  1660)! 

Sir   William    Warren    (frequently  mentioned   by 

Pepys  ;  knighted  April,  1661). 

Sir  Charles  Doe  (knighted  while  Sheriff,  June,  1665). 
John  Owen,  stationer  (Colonel  of  the  Yellow  Regi- 


Sir  Ralph  Ratcliff  of  Hitchin  (knighted  Feb.,  1668). 
Dannet  Forth  (Alderman  of  Cheap  1669-76,  Sheriff 


Sir  Edward  Waldoe  (knighted  Oct.,  1677). 
Sir  Thomas  Griffiths  (knighted  Jan.,  1682). 
Alexander  Master  (Sheriff  London  1758-9). 
Thomas  Wooldridge  (Alderman  Bridge  Ward  1776- 


JOHN  WILKES. — Being  engaged  in  collect- 
ing materials  for  a  Life  of  Wilkes,  I  shall  be 
greatly  obliged  if  some  of  my  fellow-contribu- 
tors to  *  N.  &  Q.'  can  give  me  information 
about  any  unpublished  manuscripts  con- 
cerning the  famous  politician. 

Fox  Oak,  Hersham,  Surrey. 

T.  L.  PEACOCK'S  PLAYS. — I  am  editing 
for  publication  in  the  autumn  the  plays  of 
T.  L.  Peacock,  of  which  mention  has 
already  been  made  in  '  N.  &  Q.,*  and  should 
be  grateful  to  any  reader  who  could  supply 
me  with  references  to  their  existence  made 
before  1904.  I  am  acquainted  with  Sir 
Henry  Cole's  brief  allusion  to  them. 

A.  B.  YOUNG,  M.A.,  Ph.D. 
4,  Cardigan  Terrace,  Northgate,  Wakefield. 

LACRYMAM." — What  did  Virgil  mean  by 
this  "  tear  of  Narcissus,"-  employed  by  his 
bees  in  building  up  their  combs  ?  Was  he 
thinking  of  their  nectaries,  or  of  their  pollen, 
or  of  dew  and  rain  clinging  to  the  petals  ? 
Milton  annexes  the  phrase,  bidding  daffa- 
dillies  fill  their  cups  with  tears  to  bedew  the 
hearse  of  Lycidas ;  but  Milton  who  saw 
plants  not  in  nature,  but  in  books,  and  never 
worried  himself  about  floral  consistency,  was 
merely  imitating  Virgil. 

Wliat,  again,  was  Virgil's  narcissus  ?  The 
commentators  make  it  a  daffodil,  Narcissus 
poeticus,  or  N.  serotinus  of  our  flora.  Linnaeus 
too  assumed  it  to  be  a  daffodil,  having  in 
mind  the  legend  of  the  lovesick  youth 
concerning  whom  Ovid  sang  and  Bacon 
moralized.  But  Proserpine  was  gathering 
narcissi  in  Sicilian  fields  centuries  before 
Narcissus  was  born,  and  she  wore  them  as  an 
appropriate  crown  in  hell.  In  the  Athens 
chorus  the  flower  is  called  by  Sophocles 

AAt'/itoTpog,  an  epithet  which  fails  to 
suit  the .  daffodil ;  and  its  derivation,  the 
Sanskrit  nark— hell,  points  to  a  narcotic 
effect  of  the  scent  which  the  daffodil  does' 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  JULY  9,  mo. 

not  possess.  If,  as  some  think,  Sophocles 
meant  the  hyacinth,  which  is  at  once  fair- 
clustering  and  narcotic,  when  did  the  flower 
change  its  name  ?  and,  once  more,  what  was 
its  tear  ?  W.  T. 

6  MEBBY  WIVES  OF  WINDSOR,*  III.  i.  5. — 
In  his  answer  to  the  question  of  Sir  Hugh 
Evans,  Simple  says:  "Marry,  sir,  the  pittie- 
ward,  the  park-ward,  every  way,"  &c. 
Here  I  would  read  "  the  spittle-w&Td.*'  For 
in  what  direction  would  one  be  more  likely  to 
look  for  "  Master  Caius,  that  calls  himself 
doctor  of  physic  "  ? 

In  *  Every  Man  in  his  Humour,1  I.  i., 
Jonson  writes  : — 

From  the  Bordello  it  might  come  as  well, 

The  Spittle  or  Pict-hatch ; 

where  Gifford  notes  : — 

"Here  the  allusion  is  local,  and  without  doubt 
applies  to  the  Loke  or  Lock,  a  spittle  for  venereal 
patients,  situated,  as  Whalley  ooserves,  at  Rings- 
land  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hogsden." 

Was  there  one  at  Frogmore  or  at  Windsor  ? 
Perhaps  some  local  archaeologist  will  help 
me.  K.  D. 

BOBOUGH. — Where  am  I  likely  to  find  the 
records  of  burials  in  this  place  ?  An 
ancestor  of  mine  was  buried  there  in  1832. 
Basil  Holmes  in  'The  London  Burial- 
Grounds,'  p.  308,  states  that  it  was  closed  in 
1853.  E.  A.  FBY. 

227,  Strand. 

beth Bunbury,  formerly  Dame  Elizabeth 
Irwin  of  the  city  of  Dublin,  made  her  will 
with  a  codicil  20  February,  1720  (1720/21). 
She  signs  them  Eliz.  Irwin.  She  mentions 
her  husband  Walter  Bunbury,  her  brother 
Sir  John  Murray,  her  sister  Lillias  Byrne,  her 
niece  Hellen  Fox,  her  daughter-in-law 
Lettice  Bladin  (sic)  alias  Loftus,  her  late 
husband  Mr.  Broughton.  She  desires  to  be 
buried  in  the  parish  church  of  Lambeth. 

Elizabeth  Broughton,  widow,  and  Walter 
Bunbury  were  married  in  Dublin  in  1720. 
The  will  was  proved  in  the  Prerogative 
Court,  Ireland,  24  February,  1735/6.  Mus- 
grave's  *  Obituary '-  (Harleian  Soc.)  has  the 
death,  7  February,  1736,  of  the  Lady  of  Sir 
John  Irwin,  Bt.  (?  relict  of  Sir  Gerard).  Is 
this  the  same  lady  ?  Who  was  she  ?  And 
who  was  "  Sir "  John  Murray  living  in 
1720  ?  He  is  not  to  be  found  in  G.  E.  C.'s 
'  Complete  Baronetage  *  nor  in  Shaw's 
'  Knights  of  England.* 

Lillias  Byrne  was  widow  of  William 
Byrne  of  Dublin,  surgeon,  whose  will,  dated 
19  September,  1699,  was  proved  12  October 
following.  William  Byrne  and  Lillius  (sic) 
Murray  alias  Reade  were  married  at  St. 
John's  Church,  Dublin,  16  July,  1695. 
Lettice,  only  surviving  child  of  Dudley 
Loftus,  LL.D.,  and  Frances,  daughter  of 
Patrick  Nangle,  married  Charles  Bladen. 
How  was  she  *'  daughter-in-law  "  to  Dame 
Elizabeth  Irwin  ?  G.  D.  B. 

Can  you  tell  me  the  authors  of  the  following  ? 

1.  He  sailed  into  the  setting  sun,  and  left  sweet 
music  in  Cathay. 

2.  May  the  sun  of  thy  life,  like  that  of  the  morn,  be 
an  ascending  one !    Whether  its  rays  rise  in  mist 
or  pure  air,  it  is  all  one  if  only  the  light  increase,  if 
only  the  day  brighten. 

MABY  A.  FELL,  Librarian. 
Philadelphia  City  Institute  Free  Library. 

What  Hell  may  be  I  know  not.    This  I  know  : 

I  cannot  lose  the  presence  of  the  Lord. 

One  arm,  humility,  takes  hold  upon 

His  dear  humanity  :  the  other,  love, 

Clasps  His  divinity,  so  where  I  go 

He  goes  ;  and  better  fire-walled  Hell  with  Him 

Than  golden-gated  Paradise  without. 


Launched  point-blank  his  dart 

At  the  head  of  a  lie,  taught  original  sin 

The  corruption  of  man's  heart. 


MONEY  AND  MATBIMONY. — The  following 
quotation  is  prefixed  to  the  English  transla- 
tion of  Zola's  '  Money  * : — 

"  God  has  set  the  world  on  two  pillars,  Money 
and  Matrimony ;  and  on  the  right  use  of  money, 
and  on  the  right  relations  of  the  two  sexes,  every- 
thing depends."— C.  MERIVALE,  Dean  of  Ely. 
Could  any  one  oblige  me  with  a  reference- 
to  the  exact  part  of  Merivale's  writings 
from  which  this  is  taken  ? 



any  of  that  family,  hailing  from  Waterford, 
own  land  or  live  near  Bideford  in  Devon 
in  the  eighteenth  century  ?  A  certain  John 
Christmas  Smith  is  stated  to  have  been 
born  there  in  1757  or  1759,  and  when 
settling  in  Denmark  in  1790  he  obtained 
royal  licence  from  the  Heralds'  College  to 
use  the  name — and  arms — of  Christmas  as 
his  surname,  instead  of  Smith,  Christmas 
being  presumably  the  name  of  his  mother. 
His  descendants  are  still  settled  in  Denmark. 

W.  R.  PBIOB. 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  9.  i9io.}        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



Can  any  of  your  readers  inform  me  wher< 
I  can  see  the  Poll-Books  of  the  City  o 
London  for  the  following  years  ? — 1702,  1705 
1707,  1708,  1715,  1741,  1742,  1747,  1754 
1758,  1761,  1770,  1774,  1780,  1781,  1790 
1795,  1806,  1807,  1812,  1817,  1818,  1820 
1826,  1830.  ABTHTJB  W.  GOULD. 

Constitutional  Club,  W.C. 

GENEALOGICAL  TABLES. — Is  it  correct  in 
making    a    genealogical    table    to    mentioi 
children  not  specified  by  name  as  "  et  ceteri,1 
or  is  there  any  recognized  abbreviation  in 
such  cases  ?  C.  J* 

[The  symbol  xf*  is  used  to  indicate  issue  not  named. 

BARABBAS  A  PUBLISHER. — In  which  of 
his  poems  does  Byron  compare  publishers 
in  general  (or  Murray  in  particular  ?] 
to  Barabbas  ?  **  And  Barabbas  was  a 
robber,'*  1  think  it  runs.  J.  D 

was  this  game,  of  which  one  reads  in 
'  Reginald  Bosworth  Smith  :  a  Memoir  * 
(p.  15)  ?  On  Sundays,  writes  Bosworth 
Smith's  sister  Mrs.  Caledon  Egerton  of  their 
childhood  days, 

"after  supper,  we  would  adjourn  to  the  study, 
where  our  father  would  read  aloud  to  us  some 
ponderous  memoir,  the  dulness  of  which  we  would 
while  away  by  looking  at  pictures  in  old  missionary 
records.  We  sometimes  indulged  in  the  game  of 
*  Abraham's  Beard '  until  our  father  directed  us  to 
change  the  name  of  the  father  of  the  faithful  to 
'Caesar,'  when  the  frankly  secular  nature  of  the 
amusement  stood  revealed." 


DUCHESS  or  PALATA. — Can  any  one  in- 
form me  whether  a  family  bearing  this 
name  or  title  exists  or  existed  in  Italy  ? 

S.  A.  D'ARCY. 

Clones,  Ireland. 

ST.  AGATHA  AT  WIMBORNE. — In  a  short 
article  on  Tetta  by  the  Rev.  Charles  Hole 
in  Smith's  *  Dictionary  of  Christian  Bio- 
graphy »  (vol.  iv.  p.  875),  mention  is  made  of 
St.  Agatha,  who  with  St.  Lioba  was  educated 
at  Wimburn  (Mabillon,  *  Acta  SS.  O.  S.  B.,» 
Saec.  III.  pt.  ii.  p.  223).  I  should  be  glad  of 
any  information  about  the  St.  Agatha 
alluded  to  here.  JAS.  M.  J.  FLETCHER. 

The  Vicarage,  Wimborne  Minster. 

Can  any  one  recommend  a  simple  manual 
of  botany  which  contains  a  classification  of 
flowers  according  to  the  months  in  which 
they  are  in  bloom  ?  LAWRENCE  PHILLIPS. 

Theological  College,  Lichfield. 

In  Jamieson's  *  Dictionary  of  Scottish 
Words  *  occurs  the  following  :  "  Melmont 
berries,  juniper  berries,  Moray."  Can  any 
reader  say  if  this  name  is  so  applied  any- 
where else,  and  suggest  an  origin  for  the 
word  ?  F.  R.  C. 

Shenstone  the  poet,  in  a  letter  to  the  Rev. 
Richard  Graves  of  Claverton,  dated  26 
October,  1759,  says  :  "I  have  three  or  four 
more  of  these  superb  visits  to  make.... 
then  to  Lord  Lyttelton,  at  our  Admiral's." 
He  does  not  give  the  Admiral's  name.  Can 
any  one  tell  me  whether  any  of  the  Admirals 
Graves  were  related  to  the  Rev.  Richard 
Graves  of  Claverton  ?  E. 

HOUSE. — Among  some  old  deeds,  I  have 
lately  found  a  lease,  dated  25  December, 
1679,  from  five  persons  described  as  "  Under- 
takers for  the  raising  Thames  water  in  York- 
House  Garden  in  the  County  of  Middlesex," 

one  Water-course  conveniently  furnished  with 
Thames  water,  arising  and  running  from  certain 
waterworks  belonging  to  the  said  undertakers  in 
York-House  Garden  aforesaid,  running  in  and 
through  one  Branch  or  Pipe  of  Lead," 

:or  the  use  of  two  houses  in  Oxenden  Street 
n  the  parish  of  St  .Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
The  rent  (thirty  shillings)  is  made  payable 
'  at  the  House  commonly  known  by  the  name  of 
ohe  Water-house,  seituate  in  York  Garden  in  the 
Parish    aforesaid,  belonging    to    them    the    said 

The  lease  is  in  a  printed  form. 

Is  anything  known  of  this  forerunner 
of  the  modern  water  companies,  or  of  where 
;he  "  Water-house  "  stood  ?  I  presume  that 
t  was  in  some  part  of  the  grounds  of  the 
Duke  of  Buckingham's  mansion  York  House. 

C.  L.  S. 

FOLLY  :     PLACE-NAME. — In    this    village 
here  are  two  by-roads  called  "The  Folly" 
and  "The  Little  Folly."     The  general  idea 
among  the  old  inhabitants  seems  to  be  that 
"folly"  is  a  lane.     I  cannot  find  that 
neaning  of  the  word  in  the  *  Dialect  Dic- 
ionary '  nor  in  the  '  N.E.D.*     Is  it  general 
a  Hertfordshire  ?       JOHN  CHARRINGTON. 
The  Grange,  Shenley,  Herts. 


ne  of  the  medals  struck  to  commemorate 

he  taking  of  Porto -Bello  by  Admiral  Vernon, 

nd  others,  the  obverse  has  "  The  British 

Grlory  Revived  by  Admiral  Vernon  "  ;    on 


NOTES  AND  QUEKIES.        [11  s.  n.  JULY  9, 1910. 

the  reverse  "  Who  took  Porto-Bello  with  six 
ships  only,  November  22nd,  1739.*8  What 
may  be  the  meaning  of  the  word  * '  revived  " 
in  connexion  with  Britain's  naval  prestige  ? 
Of  three  medals  I  have  struck  in  commemora- 
tion of  this  event  only  one  has  "  The  British 
Glory  Revived."  THOS.  RATCLIFFE. 



(11  S,  i.  488.) 

THE  story  of  this  unusual  circumstance  is 
given  fully  in  a  rare  single  sheet  dated 
10  August,  1670,  and  issued  in  the  form  of 
letters  patent  by  Charles  II.  The  sheet 
13  entitled  "  Letters  patent  for  collections 
towards  the  redemption  of  English  captives 
taken  by  the  Turks-.  London  [Thomas 
Milbourn  dwelling  in  Jewen  Street]  1670." 
This  open  letter  was  addressed  by  Charles  II. 
to  the  clergy  of  all  degrees  and  denomina- 
tions, as  well  as  to  all  Justices,  Mayors, 
Bailiffs,  Constables,  Churchwardens,  Chapel- 
wardens,  Headboroughs,  Collectors  for  the 
Poor,  &c.  It  proceeds  : — 

"  Whereas  a  great  number  of  our  good  subjects, 
peaceably  following  their  employments  at  Sea,  have 
been  lately  taken  by  the  Turkish  Pyrates,  under 
whom  they  now  remain  in  most  cruel  and  inhumane 
bondage,  who  by  their  friends  and  relations  have 
humbly  besought  us  to  take  their  miserable  and 
deplorable  estates  into  our  princely  considera- 
tion,  &c. 

.  On  27  July,  1670,  a  Committee  of  the 
Privy  Council  was  held,  Charles  himself  being 
present,  when  it  was  reported  that 
"  b7  certificates  of  several  ships  taken,  as  by  several 
letters  from  the  respective  masters,  officers  and 
seamen  now  in  slavery;  to  their  friends  and  rela- 
tions here  m  England,  it  doth  evidently  appear  that 
the  said  poor  slaves,  assaulted  by  these  ^humane 
Sieves  and  , Pyrates,  did  in  their  several  fights 
behave  themselves  with  remarkable  valour  and 
courage,  not  yielding  to  the  enemy  till  they  had 

d«ok«  ±!b(?li  ^  a-U(?  the  en,emiea  8*ain  ^on  the*  r 
decks,  and  till  their  own  ships  were  fired  about 

thf^TJ ?«v^  fT6d  *?  calfc  themselves  into 
the  sea  to  avoid  the  devouring  flames  were  seized 
on  bv  these  barbarous  enemies,  with  whom  they 

«n^  M  l*irllfK  m?Ch  W°-rse  than  death>'  boS 
and  sold  like  beasts  in  the  market,  held  to  most 
insupportable  service,  and  fed  only  with  a  slender 
allowance  of  bread  and  water ;  many  of  them 
chained  to  their  work,  and  beaten  daily  with  a Tee™ 

tain  number  of  stripes That  the  number  of  these 

poor  slaves  is.  so  great,  and  the  demands  of  thei? 
Taskmasters  is  so  high  that  the  money  needful  for 
the  accomphshing.their  redemption  is  represented 

by  the  Committee  to  amount  to  the  sum  of  Thirty 
Thousand  pounds ;  which  sum  our  said  distressed 
subjects  are  utterly  unable  to  procure  of  them- 
selves," &c. 

Charles  therefore  says  he  appoints  "  Extra- 
ordinary Wayes  and  rules  for  Collection  of 
the  same  [sum]  upon  such  an  extraordinary 
occasion  "  : — 

"We do  give  and  grant  unto  the  said  poor 

distressed  subjects,  the  captives  aforesaid,  or  to 
their  agents,  or  other  persons,  who  shall  be  lawfully 

authorized full  power to  take  the  almes  and 

charitable  benevolence  of  all  our  loving  subjects 
(not  only  householders,  but  also  servants,  strangers, 
and  others  inhabiting  within  all  and  every  the 
Counties,  Cities,  Boroughs,  Towns  corporate,  Cinque 

ports,  Priviledged  places and  all  other  places 

whatsoever   in    England for   and   towards  the 

redemption  and  relief  of  the  said  poor  captives." 

The  King  desires 

"especially  to  stir  up  the  inferiour  clergy  to  give 
effectual  arguments  to  their  flocks,  both  by  exhorta- 
tion and  example,  for  a  Liberal  contribution 
towards  the  redemption  of  these  miserable  wretches, 
whose  cases  are  much  more  deplorable  than  theirs 
who  ordinarily  seek  for  relief  by  collections  of  this 

nature Witness  Our  Self  at  Westminster,  the 

tenth  day  of  August  in  the  two  and  twentieth  year 
of  our  Reign." 

The  evidence  for  the  sad  state  of  affairs 
in  the  Mediterranean  in  the  seventeenth 
century  is  scattered  but  ample.  There  is  a 
letter  dated  1617  in  the  Buccleuch  MS. 
(Hist.  MSS.  Comm.,  vol.  i.  p.  197)  in  which 
reference  is  made  to  the  pirates  then  inter- 
fering with  the  Levant  trade.  These  Bar- 
bary  Turks  and  the  condition  of  Tangier  at 
the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century  are  also 
dealt  with  in  the  Dartmouth  MSS.  (Hist. 
MSS.  Comm.,  Eleventh  Report,  App.  V. 
p,  18).  The  first  Lord  Dartmouth  was  sent 
to  effect  the  destruction  of  Tangier. 

The  actual  circumstances  which  brought 
matters  to  a  crisis  and  forced  Charles  II.  to 
take  the  steps  he  did  to  relieve  these  sufferers 
are  found  (printed)  in  Domestic  State  Papers, 
24  June,  1670 — S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II.  276 
(186).  Here  are  given  letters  addressed  to 
Williamson  (secretary  to  Lord  Arlington), 
in  one  of  which,  dated  14  April,  1670, 
Samuel  Daukes,  aged  20,  a  captive  at 
Algiers,  says  that  he  and  his  fellows  were 
taken  near  Sardinia, 

"  sold  like  horses,  and  made  to  lie  down  on  our 
backs,  and  two  men  with  ropes  beat  us  until  the 
blood  ran  down  our  heels.  For  three  months  my 
diet  was  bread  and  vinegar,  and  that  only  once  a 
day.  Had  I  been  seen  writing  this  letter,  I  should 
have  received  at  least  200  blows  for  it." 

Then  follows  a  series  of  petitions  upon  the 
same  subject,  including  one  from  the  rela- 
tives of  "  140  men  of  Stepney  "  in  the  hands 
of  the  Turks. 

ii  B.  ii.  JULY  9,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Sir  Thomas  Allin  (his  name  is  often  in- 
correctly given  as  Allen),  who  was  com- 
mander-in-chief  of  the  English  fleet  in  1670, 
and  whose  principal  duty  at  that  time  was  to 
overawe  the  piratical  Barbary  cruisers, 
writes  to  Williamson  on  26  August,  1670,  and 
gives  a  most  spirited  relation  of  an  encounter 
with  Turks  with  the  object  of  freeing  these 
prisoners,  and  he  supplies  a  list  of  62  for 
whom  he  had  just  secured  freedom — S.  P. 
Dom.  Car.  II.  278  (50).  See  also  in  this 
connexion  "A  True  Relation  of  the  Victory 
of  His  Majesties  Fleet...  ...against  the 

Pyrates  of  Algiers taken  out  of  the 

Letters  of  Sir  Thomas  Allin.  T.  Newcomb 
in  the  Savoy.  1670  "  ;  and  a  less  painful 
story  which  is  given  in  "  The  Adven- 
tures of  Mr.  T.  S.,  an  English  Merchant 
taken  prisoner  by  the  Turks  of  Argiers 
[sic]  and  carried  into  the  In  land  countries 
of  Africa.  Moses  Pitt  in*  Little  Britain. 

That  munificent  lady  of  the  seventeenth 
century  known  as  Alice,  Duchess  Dudley 
(wife  of  Sir  Robert  Dudley,  and  created 
Duchess  Dudley  in  her  own  right  23  May, 
L645),  left  money  for  the  relief  of  captives 
in  the  hands  of  the  Turks  : — 

"Alice,  Dutchess  Dudley,  who  died  at  her  house 
near  St.  Giles  Church,  itolborn,  22  Jan.,  1668/9, 
bequeathed  £100  a  year  for  ever  for  the  redemption 
of  Christian  captives  out  of  the  hands  of  the  Turks. 
She  also  bequeathed  6d.  apiece  to  every  indigent 
person  meeting  her  corpse  on  the  road  from  London 
to  Stoneley  (Stoneleigh,  Warwickshire),  where  she 
was  buried."— S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II. 

Some  people  made  capital  out  of  Charles 
II.'s  letter,  for  in  December,  1670,  there 
appeared  an  announcement  that  as  the  letters 
patent  granted 

"to  make  collections  to  redeem  Turkish  captives 
are  no.w  expired,  the  persons  still  collecting 
money  thereon  are  to  be  apprehended,  ana 
punished  according  to  law."— S.  P.  Dom.  Car.  II. 
U81  (118). 

The  best  general  history  of  England's 
relations  with  Tangier  in  1670  is  found  in 
'  Tangier  as  a  Naval  Station,1  viz.,  the 
twenty-second  chapter  of  '  England  in  the 
Mediterranean,  1 603-1 71 3, *  by  Julian  Cor- 
bett,  1904.  A.  L.  HUMPHBEYS. 

187,  Piccadilly,  W. 

MB.  SWEETMAN  will  find  much  to  interest 
him  in  two  papers  on  '  Devonshire  Briefs  • 
written  by  Dr.  T.  N.  Brushfield,  F.S.A., 
and  published  in  the  Transactions  of  the 
Devonshire  Association  for  1895  and  1896. 
FRED.  C.  FROST,  F.S.I. 

Teign  mouth. 

[  W.  S.  S.  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

i.  501). — In  his  interesting  notes  at  the  above 
reference  MR.  A.  S.  ELLIS  employs  a  term 
which,  as  a  Scot,  I  cannot  allow  to  pass  un- 
challenged. "Edward  the  Elder,'*  says 
MR.  ELUS,  "was  himself  the  first  who 
extended  his  authority  over  the  whole  of 
Great  Britain." 

Non  inidtus  premor !  Here  we  have 
reasserted  the  claim  in  successfully  resisting 
which  my  countrymen  waged  almost  inces- 
sant war  for  three  hundred  years.  The  sole 
basis  for  that  claim  is  the  well-known  passage 
in  the  'Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle*  ad  ann. 
924.  Be  it  far  from  me  to  join  issue  in  a 
matter  whereon  so  much  blood  and  ink  has 
been  shed  in  the  past ;  but  I  venture 
respectfully  to  ask  how  MR.  ELLIS  can 
justify  the  use  of  the  term  "  Great  Britain  " 
as  applied  to  any  dominion  in  the1  tenth 
century.  ,.  : 

If  he  means  to  imply  the  territory -now 
known  by  that  name,  I  would  remind  him 
that  the  designation  was  used  for  the  first 
time  officially  by  James  VI.  and  I.,  who, 
greatly  to  the  displeasure  of  his  English 
subjects  and  in  the  very  teeth  of  the  highest 
legal  opinion,  instituted  the  new  title  by 
royal  warrant  in  1604,  although  the  judges 
declared  that  all  legal  processes  would 
thereby  be  invalidated. 

That,  however,  cannot  be  MB.  ELLIS'S 
meaning  in  the  phrase  "  the  whole  of  Great 
Britain,"  for  the  Western  Isles  were  not 
ceded  by  the  King  of  Norway  till  1266,  and 
Orkney  and  Shetland  were  not  incorporated 
in  the  Scottish  realm  till  1471.  If  we  assume 
(for  argument's  sake,  but  without  prejudice) 
that  the  statement  in  the  *  Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle '  is  correct  in  the  main  (though  it 
varies  in  detail  in  the  seven  extant  copies), 
and  that  Edward  the  Elder  did  acquire  the 
suzerainty  of  the  Kingdom  of  Alba  (the  title 
Scotia  or  Scotland  was  not  in  .use  until  the 
following  century),  the  utmost  that  can  ,be 
claimed  is  that  his  authority  was  contermin- 
ous with  the  realm  of  Constantin  II.,  which 
only  comprised  the  district  between  Forth 
and  Clyde  on  the  south  and  the  Helmsdale 
and  Inver  rivers  on  the  north,  from  sea  to 
sea,  but  without  the  adjacent  islands.  And 
although  the  '  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  *  (the 
sole  authority)  asserts  that  Regnwald  of 
Northumbria  and  the  King  of  the  Strathclyde 
Welsh  also  submitted,  it  is  certain  that  King 
Edward's  writs  would  not  have  run  in 
Caithness,  Moray,  Ross,  and  Galloway. 

What  we  reckon  to  be  the  true  nativity 
of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland  is  15  August, 
1057*  one  hundred  and  thirty -two  years 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  11.  JULY  9, 1910. 

after  Edward  the  Elder's  death,  on  which 
day  King  Malcolm  Ceann-mor  defeated  and 
slew  the  usurper  Macbeth  at  Lumphannan. 
Founding  upon  Edward  the  Elder's  alleged 
suzerainty  over  part  of  North  Britain  in  the 
tenth  century,  the  Norman  and  Plantagenet 
kings  claimed  supremacy  over  the  entire 
realm  of  Scotland  in  the  twelfth,  thirteenth, 
and  fourteenth  centuries,  but  failed  to 
establish  it.  HERBERT  MAXWELL. 

BATH  KING  OF  ARMS  (11  S.  i.  510). — This 
is  perfectly  correct.  When  the  Order  of  the 
Bath  was  reconstituted  by  writ  of  Privy 
Seal,  18  May,  11.  Gep.  I.,  i.e.,  1725,  one  of 
the  officers  then  specifically  appropriated  to 
the  Order  was  the  King  of  Arms. 

Grey  Longueville,  F.S.A.,  was  the  first 
Bath  King  of  Arms,  and  was  appointed 
1  June,  1725.  In  the  January  following  the 
King  by  his  sign'  manual  created  Longue- 
ville **  Gloucester  King  of  Arms,  and 
Principal  Herald  of  the  parts  of  Wales," 
this  appointment  being  then  vacant,  and 
ordained  that  "  this  office  of  Gloucester 
shall  be  inseparably  annexed,  united,  and 
perpetually  consolidated  with  the  office  of 
Bath  King  of  Arms  n  ;  and  in  the  same 
letters  patent  (14  January,  1725/6)  Longue- 
ville was  also  created  Hanover  Herald. 

See  Hugh  Clark's  'History  of  Knight- 
hood,' 1784,  vol.  i.  pp.  77-91,  and  Mark 
Noble's  *  History  of  the  College  of  Arms,* 
1805,  pp.  366-7. 


Bath  King  of  Arms,  though  not  a  member 
of  the  College,  takes  precedence  next  after 
Garter.  The  office  was  created  in  1725 
for  the  service  of  the  Order  of  the  Bath. 
He  has  a  crown  like  the  other  Kings  of 
Arms,  and  a  peculiar  costume  directed  by 
the  Statutes  of  the  Order.  See  Parker's 
'  Glossary  of  Heraldry.*  J.  BAGNALL. 

[LEO.  C.  also  thanked  for  reply.  ] 

TOASTS  AND  SENTIMENTS  (11  S.  i.  406). — 
Collections  of  toasts  and  sentiments,  even  in 
English,  are  not  very  common.  I  have 
noted  only  one  such  collection  in  1789, 
'  The  Toast-Master  :  being  a  Genteel  Col- 
lection of  Sentiments  ana  Toasts,'  a  sixpenny 
pamphlet,  published  in  London,  which 
subsequently  did  duty,  under  a  slightly 
altered  title,  as  a  Scottish  chapbook. 

My  imperfect  acquaintance  with  foreign 
publications  prevents  me  from  saying  defi- 
nitely whether  or  not  there  are  collections  in 
French,  German,  Italian,  Spanish,  or  Scandi- 
navian. But  would  not  a  good  dictionary 
of  quotations  and  foreign  phrases,  published 

for  the  use  of  English-speaking  people, 
enable  the  querist  to  find  what  he  wants  ? 
Such  a  work  is  the  "  New  Dictionary  of 
Foreign  Phrases,  comprising  extracts  from 
great  writers,  idioms,  proverbs,  maxims, 
mottoes,  technical  words  and  terms,  press 
allusions,  &c.  &c.  Edited  by  H.  P.  Jones,'* 
new  edition,  London,  Deacon  &  Co.,  1902. 
'CasselPs  Book  of  Quotations,*  edited  by 
Benham,  and  Hoyt  and  Ward's  '  Cyclopaedia 
of  Practical  Quotations '  also  contain  long 
lists  of  phrases,  proverbs,  maxims,  and 
reflections  from  French,  German,  Italian, 
and  Spanish  sources.  A  considerable  number 
of  humorous  and  patriotic  sentiments  might 
be  gleaned  from  works  like  these.  But 
perhaps  still  more  suitable  for  the  purpose 
required  would  be  "  The  Library  of  Humour,' 
emanating  from  the  Walter  Scott  Publishing 
Company,  and  including  '  The  Humour  of 
France,*  of  i  Germany,  Italy,  and  Spain,  in 
separate  volumes.  W.  SCOTT. 

SAMUEL  MEARNES  (11  S.  i.  481). — When  I 
transcribed  the  purchases  made  for  the 
library  of  Charles  II.  by  Samuel  Mearnes, 
I  was  not  aware  of  the  work  done  by  Mr. 
Cyril  Davenport  of  the  British  Museum,  nor 
of  his  beautifully  produced  life  of  Samuel 
Mearnes,  the  royal  bookbinder.  Therein 
he  gives  full  details  of  his  remarkable  career, 
and  states  that  some  of  his  book-lists  had 
been  discovered.  Fortunately,  however, 
those  printed  in  '  N.  &  Q.1  are  new  to  him. 

C.  C.  STOPES. 

PAUL  KESTER  (11  S.  i.  448)  is  a  resident  of 
Gunston,    Virginia,    U.S.A.,    and    can    be 
reached  by  letter  addressed  to  him  there. 

1726,  Corcoran  Street,  Washington,  B.C. 

INITIALS  ON  RUSSIAN  IKON  (11  S.  i.  487). 
— I  suggest  that  L.  L.  K.  is  right  in  reading 
a  tee,  but  that  this  is  followed  by  an  Old 
Slavonic  letter  derived  from  the  Greek 
iwra,  and  consisting  of  a  single  perpendicular 
stroke.  This  combination  with  a  mark 
of  contraction  (like  a  Z  lying  on  its  side) 
stands  for  Tsar  Judeiski,  '*  King  of  the 
Jews."  If  this  is  not  right,  I  can  perhaps 
help  L.  L.  K.,  if  he  will  send  me  a  copy  of  the 
letters  on  a  post-card. 


Grindleton  Vicarage,  Clitheroe. 

I  would  suggest  to  L.  L.  K.  that  the 
Russian  initials  TsC  (the  Ts  forming  one 
letter  in  the  Russian)  and  HC,  that  is  TsS 
and  NS,  may  stand  for  Tsarstvo  Nebesnoe, 
the  heavenly  kingdom,  or  the  kingdom  of 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  9, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

heaven,  tsarstvo  signifying  kingdom.  There 
is  little  or  no  difference  between  the  Russian 
and  the  Church  Slavonic  form  of  the  letter 
tsB.  There  is  no  letter  s  in  either  language 
in  the  equivalents  to  our  Nazarene  and 
Nazareth.  H.  RAYMENT. 

Sidcup,  Kent. 

"  CANABULL  BLUE  SILKE  "  (11  S.  i.  488). — 
Might  I  suggest  that  the  first  word  may  be 
a  misreading  or  mis  transcript  of  "  Changa- 
bull  "= changeable  ?  That  which  is  now 
called  "  shot  silk  "  was  in  olden  time  known 
as  "  changeable  silk,"  and  is  not  infrequently 

George  Merit  on  in  his  '  Nomenclator 
Clericalis,*  1685,  8vo,  gives  a  fairly  long 
list  of  fabrics,  and  for  the  silks  mentions 
"  Silk,  Sleave  Silk,  Changeable  Silk,  Flowred 
Silk,  Strip'd  Silk,  Silk  Crape,  Say,  or  thin  Silk, 
Damask  Silk." 

The  'Law-Latin  Dictionary,1  1718,  8vo, 
also  mentions  "  A  Garment  of  Changeable 

By  this  phrase  would  not  canopy-blue 
silk  be  intended,  that  is,  canopy-of-heaven 
blue  !  "  Canopy "  occurs  amongst  old 
writers  as  a  synonym  for  the  overhanging 
firmament,  as  appears  from  several  passages 
in  the  *  N.E.D.,1  s.v.  The  word  is  also  met 
with  in  the  forms  "  canape, >s  "canaby," 
"cannabie,'1  &c. 


COURT  LEET  :  MANOR  COURT  (10  S.  vii. 
327,  377;  viii.  16,  93,  334,  413).— Under 
this  head  it  may  be  worthy  of  record  that 
The  Hampstead  and  Highgate  Express  of 
11  June  contains  an  interesting  account  of 
the  proceedings  in  connexion  with  the 
"  Summer  General  Court  Baron  and  Court 
Leet "  of  the  manor  of  Hampstead.  After 
the  usual  quaint  ceremonies  had  been 
enacted,  the  company  adjourned  to  famous 
"  Jack  Straw's  Castle  "  for  luncheon.  Toasts, 
with  speeches,  followed,  the  chairman  tracing 
the  history  of  the  ancient  manor  from  the 
days  of  its  charter — a  very  instructive  survey 
of  a  notable  suburb.  CECIL  CLARKE.  ' 

Junior  Athenaeum  Club. 

(11  S.  i.  388,  469).— An  Anthony  Standen 
who  had  been  in  the  service  of  Philip  II 
is  mentioned  at  p.  146  of  the  "  Historia  del 
Saqueo  de  Cadiz  por  los  Ingleses  en  1596, 
escrita  por  Fr.  Pedro  de  Abreu,  religiose 
del  Orden  de  S.  Francisco,"  a  contemporary 
account,  but  not  published  until  1866  at 
Cadiz  (Taylorian  Library,  Oxford). 

Before  the  negotiations  with  the  English 
commanders  began, 

"  Mas  antes  que  estas  cosas  se  tratasen  ni 
concluyesen  con  el  General,  siendo  convidado 
Mateo  Marquez  Gaitan  del  coronel  padrastro  del 
Conde  [i.e.,  Sir  Christopher  Blount,  stepfather  to 
the  Earl  of  Essex]  y  con  ellos  Antonio  Estandec 
[Standen],  el  cual  habia  servido  a  S.M.  en  estos 
reinos,  y  el  Conde  de  Sigues  [Essex]  y  otros  do» 
coroneles. ..." 

In  '  Acts  of  the  Privy  Council  of  England, 
1596-7,1  p.  368,  is  a  letter  to  Richards 
Hickman  (for  payment  of  a  private  debt)  : — 

"  Whereas  you  were  to  paie  a  certaine  somme  of 
money  to  Sir  Anthony  Standen,  knight,  and 
should  have  given  him  assuraunce  for  the  same, 
which  you  have  not  performed  by  reason  of  his- 
goinge  hi  the  voyage  of  Gales  [Cadiz] . . . ." 

These  two  references  probably  relate  to. 
the  same  person.  A.  D.  JONES. 


FORMS:  GALFRID  (11  S.  i.  186,  338,  436, 
494). — The  Kentish  Gazette,  4  September, 
1804,  announced  the  death,  "at  her  house 
on  Richmond-green,  Surry,  in  the  88th 
year  of  her  age,  [of]  Mrs.  Mann,  widow  of 
late  Galfridus  Mann,  Esq." 


Yet  another  Galfrid,  and  a  very  early  one, 
emerges  from  the  dim  past.  Blomefield, 
the  historian  of  Norfolk,  records  the  fact 
that  one  Galfrid  Kemp  was  living  at  Norwich 
in  1272  ;  but  though  he  elaborately  explains 
the  surname,  he  is  silent  as  to  the  Christian 

The  querist  probably  remembers  Horace 
Walpole's  friends  Galfridus  Mann  and  his 
son  Galfrid.  Y.  T, 

i.  608). — The  lines  which  GAMMA  asks  about 
are  from  the  exquisite  poem  '  At  Last,' 
by  that  poet  of  the  American  people  John 
Greenleaf  Whittier.  They  were  written 
in  anticipation  of  the  time  when  his  feet 
should  pass  "  to  paths  unknown."  All 
he  seeks  for  is  for  his  good  and  ill  to  be 
unreckoned,  and  that  there  may  be  found 
for  him 

Some  humble  door  among  Thy  many  mansions, 
so  that  he  may  "find  at  last " 

The  life  for  which  I  long. 

Pickard  in  his  life  of  Whittier  (vol.  ii» 
p.  690)  states  that 

"  in  sending  to  T.  B.  Aldrich  the  copy  of  the  poem 
'At  Last'  for  The  Atlantic,  Whittier  writes:  "As 
the  expression  of  my  deepest  religious  feeling  it  may 
not  be  without  interest,  and  it  may  help  some 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        m  s.  n.  JOH  9, mo. 

inquiring  spirit.  Apart  from  this,  I  think  I  have 
succeeded  in  giving  it  a  form  not  unworthy  of  the 

Whittier  died  on  the  7th  of  September, 
1892,  at  the  early  dawn  of  a  lovely  day. 
Pickard  says  : — 

"  Under  the  overshadowing  of  Infinite  Peace, 
•which  was  sweetly  felt  by  all  present,  his  pure 
spirit  passed  upward  to  the  never-ending  day.  His 
poem  '  At  Last '  was  recited  in  tearful  Voice  by  one 
of  the  little  group  of  relatives  at  his  bedside  as  the 
last  moment  of  his  life  approached." 

It  is  curious  that  W.  J.  Linton  in  his  life 
of  the  poet  should  record  his  death  as 
taking  place  on  the  7th  of  December,  and 
the  public  funeral  on  the  10th  of  the  same 

aud  the  REV.  J.  WILLCOCK  also  thanked  for  replies.] 

(11  S.  i.  387,  490).— MR.  MAYHEW'S  partial 
solution  of  the  lorwerth -Ed  ward  problem 
is  very  welcome.  There  is  no  phonetic 
reason  why  mediaeval  Welshmen  should  not 
have  said  Edward.  Edwart  would  perhaps 
have  been  slightly  easier  for  them,  and  that 
form  does  appear  in  1565,  in  the  dedication  of 
a  Radnorshire  parish  church,  "  yn  Ref  y 
Clawdd,"  to  St.  Edward  the  King.  The 
form  lorwert  adduced  by  MR.  KREBS  from 
Aneurin  Owen's  '  Ancient  Laws  *  was  doubt- 
less intended  for  lorwerth.  The  oldest  MS. 
of  the  laws  of  Hywel  Dda,  namely,  '  The 
Black  Book  of  Chirk,1  was  written  c.  A.D. 
1200.  At  that  time  Welsh  orthography 
was  undergoing  great  alteration,  and  the 
scribe  of  *  The  Black  Book  *  had  particular 
difficulty  with  the  dental  aspirates.  For 
instance,  he  wrote  pet,  pedh,  and  peht, 
as  well  as  the  true  form  peth :  cf.  Dr. 
J.  G.  Evans's  '  Report  on  MSS.  in  the  Welsh 
Language,  V  i.  359. 

With  regard  to  MR.  MAYHEW'S  solution, 
it  is  noteworthy  that  we  are  not  instructed 
why  Welshmen  commence  the  name  for 
Edward  with  the  palatal  spirant  y.  MR. 
MAYHEW  has  only  accounted'  for  the  dis- 
placement of  d  by  r.  Now 
"/  before  a  vowel  at  the  beginning  of  words,  as 
&adiveard,Eoforwic,  was  clearly  sounded  like  y,  or 
the  High-Dutch.?.  Thus  we  still  say  York:  and 
Yedward  is  found  in  Shakespeare,  and  Earl  is  in 
Scotland  sounded  Yerl,  like  the  Danish  Jarl"— 
?oVA<  Freeraan»  'Old  English  History  for  Children, 
1869,  p.  xvi. 

If  MR.  MAYHEW  could  show  that  the  theme 
ead-  was  sounded  anywhere  in  the  Welsh 
Marches  as  a  rising  diphthong  (edd)  like 
yer-  or  yar-t  Welshmen  would  be  acquitted 
thereby  of  the  charge  of  haphazard  substitu- 

ion.  Since  reading  MR.  MAYHEW'S  reply 
[  have  not  the  least  doubt  that  Welshmen 
irst  heard  Yaro-werd,  or  something  very 
iike  that,  and  that  they  naturally  equated 
that  word  with  the  nearest  name  to  it  in 
sound  that  they  knew.  That  name  hap- 
pened to  be  Gere-werth,  *Ier-werth,  lor- 
werth, lor-woerth,  and  lor-werth  again,  in 
different  periods  of  Welsh  literature  since 
the  fourth  century.  The  first  audition  by 
the  Welsh  of  *Yaro~werd  must  have  taken 
place  a  very  long  time  ago,  and  I  hope  that 
MR.  MAYHEW  will  examine  the  chronology 
of  the  phonetic  changes  involved,  and  that 
he  will  give  us  the  benefit  of  his  erudition. 

He  is,  however,  mistaken  in  supposing 
that  lorwerth  could  be  a  Welsh  mode  of 
representing  a  dialect  form  of  the  O.E. 
royal  name  Eadweard.  As  M.  GAIDOZ 
said  in  his  query,  this  Welsh  name  is  a  very 
old  one.  It  appears  in  Welsh  history  as 
early  as  the  second  quarter  of  the  fifth 
century ;  whereas  no  early  instance  of 
Eadweard  has  come  to  light. 

The  earliest  appearance  of  any  form  of 
lorwerth  occurs  in  a  thirteenth-century  tract 
of  three  pages  in  the  Cotton  codex  Vespasian 
A.  XIV.  (3),  which  is  entitled  *  De  Situ 

"The  Welsh  forms  and  glosses  in  it  show  it  to 
have  been  copied  by  some  one  who  did  not  under- 
stand Welsh  from  an  earlier  MS.  at  least  as  old  as 
the  eleventh  century."— See  Mr.  Egerton  Philli- 
more's  article  in  the  Cymmrodor,  1886,  vii.  105-6. 

The  tract  contains  the  oldest  account 
we  have  of  the  Welsh  prince  Braehan  of 
Brecheiniauc  (c.  390-450),  and  it  gives  the 
names  of  Brachan' s  sons,  daughters,  sons-in- 
law,  and,  in  several  cases,  grandchildren. 
The  tenth  daughter  is  thus  described : 
"  Aranwen  uxor  Gereuerth  regis  de  Powis  "  ; 
and  these  words  are  glossed  "  inde  dicitur 
loruerthiaun."  In  the  *  Cognacio  BrychahV 
a  seventeenth -century  copy  in  the  Cotton 
MS.  Domitian  I.  (13)  of  a  thirteenth-century 
MS.  (cf.  Pmllimore,  u.s.>  p.  106),  we  get 
"  (10)  Arganwen  apud  Powys."  The  '  Cog- 
nacio Brychani l  agrees  in  many  things  with 
the  '  De  Situ  Brecheniauc,*  but  unfortunately 
it  does  not  yield  the  name  of  Arganwen's 
husband.  The  form  "  Gergwerth  "  may  be 
relied  on,  however.  I  read  the  manuscript 
when  preparing  an  analysis  of  the  Brychan 
documents  for  my  *  Indexes  to  Old-Welsh 
Genealogies,'  published  in  Stokes  and 
Meyer's  Archiv  fur  celtische  Lexicographic, 
i.  522-33,  and  the  documents  have  since 
been  edited  and  annotated  by  the  Rev.  A.  W. 
Wade-Evans ;  see  the  Cymmrodor, ,,  1906, 
pp.  18-50.  The  letter  g  in  Gereuerth  and 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  9, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Arganwen  is  the  forerunner  of  the  palatal 
spirant  which  disappeared  eventually  from 
between  vowels,  and  became  J  initially. 
Compare  the  words  argant,  among  the 
eighth -century  glosses  in  the  Codex  Oxonien- 
sis  Prior ;  scamnhegint,  in  the  eighth-  or 
ninth -century  Juvencus  codex ;  and  the 
alternative  spellings  Conhage,  Corihae,  in  two 
eighth -century  charters  in  the  *  Liber 
Landavensis.*  Ar-gant=ar-yant,  now  ariant; 

Gereuerth  was  son  of  Tegonwy  map 
Leon  (M.S.  teon)  map  Gwineu,  and  as  he 
married  a  daughter  of  Brachan,  his  floruit 
may  be  dated  provisionally  445-80.  Other 
and  later  instances  of  this  name  may  be  found 
in  my  Indexes,  u.s.,  vols.  i.,  ii.,  iii.,  Nos.  502, 
503,  1082,  1083,  1084.  The  prototheme  of 
Gereuerth  is  clearly  dissyllabic.  Consequently, 
on  the  one  hand  it  cannot  equate  /or,  as 
M.  GAIDOZ  suggests  ;  on  £he  other,  some 
examination  of  the  prototheme  of  Edward  is 
called  for.  It  is  not  easy  to  account  for 
the  change  from  d  to  r  in  Earwaker  if  the 
first  element  was  a  monosyllable.  Now 
Edbald  of  Kent,  who  is  called  JZodbald  by 
Bede  (' H.  E.,1  II.  ix.),  is  referred  to  as 
Audu-baldus  in  Pope  Boniface's  letter  to 
Edwin  of  Northumbria.  This  recalls  the 
forms  Audo-vacrius  and  Odo-acer,  the  second 
of  which  was  adduced  so  aptly  by  MB. 
MAYHEW  in  order  to  explain  the  English 
Earwaker :  Eadwacer  appears  twice  in 
.Searle's  '  Onomasticon  Anglo -Saxonicum,* 
p.  189,  and  both  instances  are  assigned  to  the 
eleventh  century.  Mr.  Searle  also  gives 
Eadu,  uncompounded,  from  the  Durham 
•*  Liber  Vitae,1  as  the  name  of  a  queen  and 
abbess.  The  prototheme  of  Edward  has 
been  monosyllabic,  in  composition,  for 
1,300  years  ;  but  the  forms  Eadu  and  Audu- 
warrant  the  assumption  that  it  was  origin- 
ally a  dissyllable  in  composition  in  O.E.  To 
this  may  be  added  the  fact  that  the  root 
occurs  twice  in  the  ninth-century  '  Win- 
chester Chronicle l  as  ea]>-,  eaft- ;  s 
annals  827,  828.  Now  a  form  ed]>u-weard 
(with  the  rising  diphthong)  might  become 
yaru-werd.  But  that  is  not  Gereuerth. 

Gere-  in  Gere-uerth  receives  no  elucida- 
tion from  Brythonic  sources.  Among  Welsh 
names  it  is  unique.  For  illustration  of  both 
themes  we  must  turn  to  Old  English,  and 
particularly  to  Mercian.  The  elements  occur 
as  follows  :  1,  Gearu-red  ;  2,  Jam-man 
3,  Gearo-man ;  4,  Geara-god ;  5,  Jem- 
man  ;  6,  Ciol-ueTth.  Of  these,  1  is  from  the 
Durham  '  Liber  Vitae  *  ;  2  and  5  are  Latin 
forms  of  the  name  of  3,  Gearoman,  Bishop 
of  the  Mercians  in  662  ;  4  is  the  name  ol 

a  tenant  in  1055  ;  and  6  is  the  name  of  a 
Vtereian  dux  in  811  ;  vide  Searle's  '  Onomas- 
icon  *  for  more  exact  references.  In  face 
of  these  illustrations  I  judge  that  Gereuerth 
or  lorwerth,  King  of  Powys  lorwerthiaun 
n  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century,  was  of 
Grermanic  descent. 

It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that  the  name 
Earwaker  should  come  to  us  from  Cheshire, 
which  was  once  a  part  of  Powysland,  and 
may  even  have  comprised  the  kingdom  of 
[orwerthiaun.  ALFRED  ANSCOMBE. 

Owing  to  the  miscarriage  of  a  proof,  there 
are  two  or  three  corrections  needed  in  Welsh 
words  in  my  reply  at  the  second  reference. 
L.  10,  for  "Ienann  read  leuan ;    1.  14,  for 
'  amner "     read  -   amser ;       and    in    1.     18 
*  cywyeld  "  should  be  cywydd.      H.  I.  B. 

*  JONATHAN  SHABP*  (11  S.  i.  466).— As 
far  as  I  am  aware,  the  identity  of  the  author 
has  never  been  disclosed.  The  title-page 
reads  "  Jonathan  Sharp  ;  or,  The  Adventures 
of  a  Kentuckian.  Written  by  himself.'1 
Allibone  accepts  this  indication  of  author- 
ship, and  enters  the  book  as  the  production 
of  "  Sharp,  Jonathan."  The  evidence  in 
favour  of  Sharp  being  the  author  is  ex- 
tremely slight.  The  book  is  classed  among 
novels  in  the  '  Index  to  the  London  Cata- 
logue of  Books .  *  The  New  Monthly  Magazine, 
quoted  by  Allibone,  says  of  it :  "  His 
[Sharp's]  narrative  is  worthy  of  Defoe.'1 
It  is  not  mentioned  in  Halkett  and  Laing's 
'  Dictionary.*  As  a  copy  of  the  work  is 
contained  in  the  Edinburgh  Advocates* 
Library,  and  must  have  been  known  to 
the  compilers  of  the  '  Dictionary,'  their 
omission  to  enter  it  as  anonymous  or 
pseudonymous  may  perhaps  be  understood 
as  acquiescence  in  Allibone's  view  of  its 
authorship.  W.  SCOTT. 

(11  S.  i.  389). — I  have  been  forwarded 
the  following  reply  by  a  correspondent : — 

"  George  Knapp  was  the  eldest  son  of  George 
Knapp  of  Abingdon,  gent.,  by  Katharine, 
daughter  of  Joseph  Tyrrell  of  "Kidlington,  Oxon. 
He  was  born  29  January,  and  baptized  21  Febru- 
ary, 1753/4,  at  St.  Helen's,  Abingdon.  He  was 
Governor  of  Christ's  Hospital,  Abingdon,  1776- 
1784  ;  Chamberlain  1790  ;  Principal  Burgess  1791; 
Mayor  1792,  1797,  1799,  and  1807.  His  monu- 
ment in  St.  Helen's  says  that  his  '  liberality  of 
mind  and  benevolence  of  heart  endeared  him  to 
all  who  knew  him.  He  was  elected  by  his  fellow- 
townsmen  to  represent  them  in  Parliament  May  4, 
1807.  This  important  and  honourable  trust, 
during  the  short  time  he  was  permitted  by 
Providence  to  devote  his  services  to  them,  he 
executed  with  the  strictest  integrity.  He  d. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  11.  JULY  9, 1910. 

Nov.  12,  1809,  aged  56,  and  his  remains  were 
deposited  in  the  family  vault  at  Chilton.'  The 
slab  has  the  arms  and  crest  as  borne  by  this 
family,  viz.  (Or,)  3  helmets  in  chief,  and  a  lion 
passant  hi  base  (sa.).  Crest,  an  arm  embowed 
in  armour  (ppr.,  garnished  or),  the  hand  grasping 
by  the  blade  a  broken  sword  (ar.,  hilt  and  pommel 
or)  with  a  branch  of  laurel  (vert).  He  is  buried  at 
Chilton,  Berks,  under  an  altar-tomb  to  the  south 
of  the  chancel,  and  there  is  also  an  inscription 
on  a  mural  slab  inside. 

"  Perhaps  I  may  be  permitted  to  add  that, 
being  engaged  on  a  Knapp  family  history,  I  shall 
be  glad  to  hear  from  any  one  interested  in  the 
family  or  any  individual  of  the  name.  O.  G. 
Knapp,  Hillside,  Maidenhead." 


There  is  little  to  be  said  about  this  gentle- 
man. He  was  a  banker  in  Abingdon.  In 
1807  he  ousted  Sir  Theophilus  Metcalfe 
from  the  Parliamentary  representation  of 
the  burgh,  thus  breaking  a  tie  which  had 
lasted  from  1790.  He  did  not  long  enjoy 
his  success.  In  1809  he  died,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Sir  George  Bowyer. 

W.  S.  S. 

Another  George  Knapp  was  born  £  Feb- 
ruary, 1772,  at  Haberdashers*  Hall,  London, 
and  baptized  the  next  day  at  St.  Michael's, 
Wood  Street.  He  died  at  Warlingham, 
Surrey,  28  February,  1809,  and  was  buried 
in  that  churchyard.  This  George  Knapp 
was  seventh  child  and  fourth  son  of  Jerome 
Knapp,  citizen  and  Haberdasher  of  London, 
and  of  Chilton,  Berkshire  (Gentleman's 
Magazine,  May,  1754,  and  June,  1792). 

Several  other  members  of  the  Knapp 
family  are  mentioned  in  the  'Miscellaneous 
Writings1  of  S.  Grimaldi,  F.S.A.,  1881, 
Part  III.  p.  319.  D.  J. 

468). — Possibly  that  part  of  the  Swale 
river  which  flowed  (in  1822)  past  the  few 
houses  constituting  the  parish  of  Langton- 
upon-Swale  was  so  called  because  they  were 
situated  so  near  the  brink  of  the  river  that 
they  were  frequently  in  danger  of  being 
swept  away  (see  Langdale's  'lopog.  Diet, 
of  Yorks  >).  J.  HOLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 

NELSON'S  BIRTHPLACE  (11  S.  i.  483). — 
Some  years  since  I  was  told,  on  what  seemed 
respectable  authority,  but  which  I  have 
no  permission  to  name,  that  the  traditional 
story  in  the  parish  of  Burnham  Thorpe  was 
that  on  Michaelmas  Day,  1758,  the  rector's 
wife  was  visiting  her  poor,  when  she  was  un- 
expectedly taken  with  the  labour  pains,  and 
that  the  child  was  actually  born  in  a  very 
humble  cottage  at  some  distance  from  the 

Rectory.  There  is  nothing  impossible  or 
improbable  in  the  story,  which  may  be 
true  ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  there  is  no 
evidence  that  it  is  true,  and  I,  for  one,  should 
be  very  sorry,  on  the  strength  of  it,  to  contra- 
dict the  received  story  that  Horatio  Nelson 
was,  in  regular  course,  born  in  his  mother's 

Y.  T.'s  story  seems  very  much  of  the  same 
kind,  except  that  it  professes  to  be  drawn, 
in  a  succession  of  hearsays  after  long  inter- 
vals, from  people  who  could  not  possibly 
know  anything  about  it.  The  story  may  be 
true  ;  I  do  not  say  it  is  not ;  but  I  do 
refuse  to  receive  it  without  satisfactory 
evidence.  This,  at  present,  stands  thus : 
Y.  T.  heard  it  from  Mrs.  Girdlestone,  who 
heard  it  from  her  sister,  who  heard  it  from 
Aunt  Susie,  who  seems,  as  far  as  Y.  T.'s 
story  allows  of  identification,  to  have  been 
either  Aunt  Ann  (Bolton),  born  in  1781,  or — 
and  perhaps  more  probably — Grandmamma 
(Susannah)  Bolton,  born  in  1755,  and  there- 
fore three  years  old  at  the  time.  The  story 
is  interesting,  but  it  rests  on  no  satisfactory 
evidence.  J.  K.  LAUGHTON. 

i.  349). — There  is  reason  to  fear  that  no 
small  history  of  English  literature,  dealing 
with  such  minor  writers  as  those  named  in 
the  query,  can  now  be  procured.  The  best 
means  of  obtaining  information  about  them 
will  probably  be  to  consult  some  old  bio- 
graphical dictionary  of  convenient  size. 
Such  a  work  is  Dr.  John  Watkins's  '  Uni- 
versal Biographical  Dictionary,5  published  in 
1800.  In  the  third  edition  of  1807  sketches 
of  all  the  persons  named  in  the  query 
are  given.  The  dictionary  has  the  further 
advantage  of  referring  its  readers  to  the 
sources  whence  its  information  was  derived. 
Nichols's  '  Literary  Anecdotes  *  in  9  vols., 
and  '  Illustrations  of  Literary  History  *  in 
8  vols.,  provide  a  mine  of  information, 
and  supply  (in  the  words  of  Lord  John 
Russell)  "  the  best-furnished  warehouse  for 
all  that  relates  to  the  literary  history  of 
the  period.'1  W.  SCOTT. 

(11  S.  i.  508). — Few  early  examples  of  the 
elephant  omit  the  castle.  The  elephant  and 
castle  are  seen  in  the  arms  of  Dumbarton 
and  the  crest  of  Corbet,  and  form  the  sign  of 
a  well-known  tavern  in  South  London.  The 
elephant,  a  symbol  of  priestly  chastity,  is 
noticed  in  the  '  Physiologus '  and  the 
ancient  Bestiaries.  The  elephant  and  how- 
dah  figure  in  the  first  book  of  Maccabees, 

ii  s.  n.  JHLY  9,  i9io.)        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


chap.  vi.  ;  and  howdahs  occur  on  misericords 
in  Beverley  Minster  (also  on  a  stall),  Beverley 
St.  Mary's,  Gloucester  Cathedral,  on  a 
misericord  formerly  in  St.  Katherine's  by  the 
Tower,  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor  and 
Manchester  Cathedral.  A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

The  elephant  and  castle  occur  in  the  carv- 
ing of  the  ancient  stalls  of  the  chapel  of  the 
Royal  Hospital  of  St.  Katherine,  removed 
from  St.  Katherine  by  the  Tower  to  Regent's 
Park  in  1825.  St.  Katherine's  by  the  Tower 
was  founded  in  1148  by  Matilda,  wife  of 
King  Stephen ;  augmented  in  1273  by 
Eleanor,  widow  of  Henry  III.  ;  and  re- 
founded  by  Edward  III.  Whether  or  not 
any  date  be  assignable  to  the  stalls  and 
their  carving  I  cannot  say  ;  but  if  a  date 
can  be  assigned,  the  elephant  and  castle 
charge  could  no  doubt  be  identified  with 
one  of  the  above  queens,  or*  with  one  of  the 
distinguished  persons  buried  in  the  chapel. 
I  think  there  are  drawings  of  the  carving  in 
the  Archer  Collection  (Print  Dept.  B.  Mus.). 


ABRAHAM  FARLEY  (11  S.  i.  468). — May  not 
the  Abraham  Farley  admitted  to  West- 
minster School  in  1720  have  been  the  Abra- 
ham Farley,  F.R.S.,  to  whom  was  entrusted 
the  publication  of  the  '  Domesday  Book J 
about  1773  ?  He  is  described  by  Timperley 
as  "  a  gentleman  of  great  record  learning. .  . . 
who  had  access  to  the  ancient  manuscripts 
for  upwards  of  forty  years.'*  His  transcrip- 
tion of  the  '  Domesday  Book  *  was  com- 
pleted in  1783,  in  2  vols.  folio,  with  types 
prepared  from  designs  by  Farley  and  cut 
by  Jackson.  W.  S.  S. 

'MAKE"     OR    "MAR"    IN    GOLDSMITH 
(11  S.  i.  467).— If  the  context  of  Goldsmith's 
couplet  is  examined,  it  will,  I  think,  be  seen 
that  the  substitution  of  "  mar  "  for  "  make  " 
would  spoil  the  author's  meaning  : — 
[11  fares  the  land,  to  hast'ning  ills  a  prey, 
Where  wealth  accumulates,  and  men  decay ; 
Princes  and  lords  may  flourish,  or  may  fade ; 
A  breath  can  make  them,  as  a  breath  has  made  : 
But  a  bold  peasantry,  their  country's  pride, 
When  once  destroy'd,  can  never  be  supply'd. 

'  The  Deserted  Village,'  11.  51-6. 
Surely  the  sense  of  the  last  four  lines  is  that 
it  is  of  no  importance  whether  princely 
and  noble  houses  flourish  or  die  out,  because 
nobility  can  be  created  in  the  future  as  it  has 
been  created  in  the  past,  but  when  a 
peasantry  has  become  extinct  its  place  can 
never  be  supplied. 

DR.  KRUEGER  quotes  lines  (e.g.,  "  A 
breath  revives  him,  or  a  breath  o'erthrows  ") 

where  the  predicates  are  contrasted,  but  the 
contrast   between   present   and   future    (for 
"  can    make    them"    is    equivalent    to    a 
future)  of  the  same  verb  is  no  mere  colourless 
repetition,  and  can  be  plentifully  illustrated. 
To  take  one  poet  only  : — 
Haec  seges  ingratos  tulit  et  feret  omnibus  annis. 
Hor.  'Epist.'  I.  vii.  21. 
Sed  improvisa  leti 
Vis  rapuit  rapietque  gentes. 

*Odes,'II.xiii.  19-20. 

GENERAL  WOLFE'S  DEATH  (10  S.  xii.  308, 
357). — At  the  latter  reference  is  a  statement 
that  "  a  private  soldier  n  caught  Wolfe  as 
he  fell.  Does  any  one  know  the  name  of 
this  "  private  soldier  "  ?  I  find,  in  a  Life  of 
Thomas  Campbell  by  his  son,  Alexander 
Campbell,  both  of  them  ministers  of  the 
Gospel,  a  statement  that  Archibald  Campbell 
(1719-1807),  father  of  Thomas  aforesaid, 
was  the  man  ("private  soldier")  who 
caught  Wolfe  as  he  fell.  The  Rev.  T. 
Campbell  was  born  in  county  Down,  Ireland, 
1  February,  1763,  and  died  in  Bethany, 
West  Virginia,  4  January,  1854.  The  Rev. 
Alexander  Campbell  was  born  in  Ballymena, 
county  Antrim,  12  September,  1788,  and  died 
at  Bethany  aforesaid  4  March,  1866,  being 
founder  of  the  college  there.  The  Camp- 
bells, father  and  son,  were  men  of  the 
highest  standing  in  America  in  their  day, 
the  son  in  particular  being  a  great  leader  in 
the  religious  movement  known  as  Disciples 
of  Christ,  beginning  in  1809,  and  now 
numbering  far  more  than  one  million  com- 
municants. Alexander  Campbell  was  on 
one  occasion  asked  to  address  the  U.S. 
House  of  Representatives,  and  did  so  in 
the  old  House. 

New  York  City. 

B.  ROTCH  (11  S.  i.  468).— Benjamin  Rotch, 
the  alleged  author  of  *  Manners  and  Customs 
of  the  French,*  was  a  barrister -at -law.  He 
married  in  1828  Isabella  Anne,  eldest 
daughter  of  William  Archer  Judd,  Esq., 
of  Stamford,  Lincolnshire.  In  1832  he 
was  chosen  M.P.  for  Knaresborough.  His 
election  was  petitioned  against  on  the 
ground  of  his  being  an  alien,  but  the  petition 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  proceeded 
with.  The  following  year  he  was  made 
chairman  of  the  bench  of  Middlesex  magis- 
trates. He  did  not  contest  Knaresborough 
in  1835.  A  magistrate  and  deputy-lieu- 
tenant for  Middlesex,  he  was  for  several 


NOTES  AND  QUEEIES.        pi  s.  n.  JULY  9, 1910. 

years  chairman  of  the  Quarter  Sessions. 
His  residence  was  at  Lowlands,  Harrow. 
He  died  in  1854. 

I  have  no  note  of  Rotch  being  the  author 
of   *  Manners  and  Customs  of  the  French,2 
but  his  career  and  evident  ability    together 
with  Mr.  Sotheran's  statement  as  to  author- 
ship,   seem    on    the    whole    to    justify    the 
attribution  of  the  book  to  him. 


"GOD     SAVE     THE     PEOPLE  !  "       (11      S.     i. 

328,  392.) — In  his  letter  of  2  January,  1776, 
quoted  by  MB.  BOBBINS,  Sir  Grey  Cooper 
was  mistaken  in  saying  that  the  above 
words  ended  a  Massachusetts  "proclama- 
tion for  a  fast,"  as  the  proclamation  in 
question  was  not  for  a  fast,  but  for  a  thanks- 
giving. It  was  issued  4  November,  1775, 
and  '  A  Proclamation  for  a  Public  Thanks- 
giving *  was  printed  in  The  Boston  Gazette 
of  13  November.  On  12  June,  1775,  the 
Continental  Congress  issued  a  proclamation 
for  a  fast  day  on  20  July.  This  was  signed 
"By  order  of  Congress,  John  Hancock, 
President.'*  In  his  'Fast  and  Thanks- 
giving Days  of  New  England,*  1895,  Dr. 
W.  De  L.  Love  says  :— 

"The  thanksgivings  in  the  autumn  [of  1775] 
were  not  omitted  even  in  this  dark  and  distressing 
time,  but  the  Continental  Congress  left  the 
appointments  to  the  several  colonies.  That  of 
Massachusetts  was  signed  by  the  members  of  the 
council,  as  were  several  thereafter,  and  ended  with 

the  words,  'God  save  the  People.' There  came  a 

time,  however,  when  Thomas  Hutchison  [Governor 
of  Massachusetts],  got  through  making  proclama- 
tions   in   Boston,    and   then   the   broadside    was 
suddenly   put   into    very   democratic    homespun. 
The  earliest  of  this  group  was  issued  by  the  Pro- 
vincial Congress  [of  Massachusetts]  for  the  thanks- 
S'ving,  December  15,  1774.  and  was  signed  by  'John 
ancock,  President.' What  seemed  to  exercise 

the  authors  most  was  the  proper  substitute  for  the 
legend  '  God  save  the  King.'  Before  independence 
was  declared,  they  wrote  'God  save  the  People.' 
The  proclamation  which  was  issued  upon  that 
memorable  day,  July  4,  1776,  had  'God  save 
America.'  The  next  had  'God  save  the  United 
States  of  America,'  which  was  usual  thereafter, 
though  we  note  also  *  God  save  the  people,'  '  God 
save  the  People  of  the  United  States,'  and  '  God 
save  the  American  States.'  "—Pp.  340, 439-40. 


Boston,  U.S. 


II  S.  i.  428,  496).— W.  S.  S.  is  wrong  in  his 
inference  at  the  latter  reference  that  Thomas 
Greer  died  about  1885.     He  died  at  the  age 
of  68  on  20  September,  1905. 


ST.  AUSTIN'S  GATE  (11  S.  i.  408,  451). — 
Sufficient  data  are  provided  in  MB.  HAB- 
BEN'S  reply  to  prove  the  identity  of  this 
place-name.  John  Bartlett's  other  imprints 
still  further  assist.  Even  if  the  following 
do  not  refer  to  a  single  site,  they  are  useful 
For  our  purpose  : — 

"  Gilt  Cup,  near  St.  Austine's  Gate."    1641 

"  In  St.  Faith's  Parish."    1643-4. 

"  In  the  new  buildings  on  the  south  side  of  Paul's, 
neer  St.  Austine's  Gate,  at  the  sign  of  the  Gilt 
^p."  1655. 

Vide  H.  R.  Plomer's  '  Dictionary  of  Book- 
sellers and  Printers,1  &c.,  p.  15. 


xii.  110,  194,  274).— This  word  exactly  ex- 
presses the  nature  of  the  bowling  if,  as  seems 
most  probable,  it  is  the  Scandinavian  gogle 
(pronounced  almost  like  "googly"),  which 
means  to  trick  or  humbug.  Possibly  this 
word  was  introduced  into  cricket  by  some 
one  of  the  many  Englishmen  who  go  to 
Norway  to  fish.  It  would  be  interesting  to 
know  if  this  is  the  case. 


Park  Town  Oxford. 

RUMBELOW  (11  S.  i.  224,  276,  475).— I. 
came  across  two  men  bearing  this  surname 
in  the  Army,  belonging  to  different  corps,  and 
in  widely  separated  places.  At  the  present 
time  the  composing-room  of  a  London  paper 
has  a  deputy-foreman  of  this  name. 



Political   Satire   in   English    Poetry.     By    C.    W* 
Previt6-Orton.     (Cambridge  University  Press.) 

THIS  book  of  240  pages  represents  the  essay  which 
won  the  Members'  Prize  at  Cambridge  in  1908. 
As  is  the  way  of  prize  essays,  it  is  not  distinguished 
either  for  originality  or  brilliance,  but  it  is  a 
sound  and  careful  summary  of  the  subject,  which 
should  be  of  use  to  students. 

Beginning  with  the  Middle  Ages,  the  author 
comes  down  to  Swinburne,  Mr.  Kipling,  Mr. 
Blunt,  Mr.  Watson,  and  Mr.  Owen  Seaman,  whose 
characteristics  are  fairly  hit  off  in  brief  summaries. 
Some  of  the  works  mentioned,  however,  can 
hardly  be  regarded  as  political  at  all.  That  the 
survey  is  not  perfect  appears  from  the  neglect  of 
Bulwer  Lytton's  '  St.  Stephen's,'  an  effective 
piece  of  1860  which  has  left  some  famous  phrases 
with  us,  and  was  a  continuation  of  that  '  New 
Timon '  which  raised  Tennyson's  ire.  Lytton 
wielded  Pope's  metre  with  considerable  force, 
and  an  older  generation  than  that  to  which  Mr. 
Previte-Orton  belongs  did  not  disdain  to  recall  his 
descriptions  of  famous  men  from  John  Hampden 
to  O'Connell.  In  later  days  we  have  had  no- 
sustained  or  considerable  effort  in  the  heroic 

ii  s.  ii,  JULY  9, 1910,]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


couplet,  though  there  is  plenty  of  material  for 
satire.  The  superabundance  of  jeremiads  in 
prose,  or  worse  than  prose,  on  politics  would 
certainly  be  relieved  by  an  occasional  comment 
in  verse.  In  earlier  days  Mr.  Kipling's  onslaught 
on  Irish  moonlighters  was  fierce  enough,  but  at 
present  he  seems  to  prefer  to  support  the  Empire 
by  rather  obscure  parables. 

To  The  Cornhill  for  July  Mrs.  Margaret  L. 
Woods  contributes  the  third  of  her  *  Pastels 
under  the  Southern  Cross,'  which  is  a  vivid  view 
of  South  Africa  and  the  half -seen  impressions  left 
by  a  railway  journey.  Incidentally  she  calls 
a  Bhodesian  express  the  "  most  comfortable 
express  in  the  world."  Mr.  W.  H.  Hudson  tells  in 
«  Cardinal '  the  story  of  the  first  and  last  caged  bird 
he  possessed.  It  is  a  poignant  little  sketch  done 
in  his  usual  excellent  style.  Dr.  W.  H.  D. 
Rouse  in  '  Humanistic  Education  not  without 
Latin  '  replies  to  a  paper  by  Mr.  A.  C.  Benson, 
and  refers  to  the  success  which  has  attended  his 
methods  of  teaching  at  the  Perse  School.  Dr. 
Rouse's  results  are,  we  believe,  remarkable,  and 
deserve  to  be  widely  known.  In  '  'Neath  Bluer 
Skies  '  the  Dean  of  Perth,  Western  Australia, 
writes  of  the  past  and  present  of  the  colony  in 
homely  and  effective  style.  Mr.  C.  Holmes 
Cautley's  collections  gathered  from  '  Old  Polk 
who  knew  the  Brontes  '  do  not  amount  to  much, 
but  give  us  a  suggestive  glimpse  here  and  there. 
The  short  stories  in  The  Cornhill  are  generally 
good  reading,  and  '  At  Wessel's  Farm,'  by  Mrs.  All- 
husen,  is  a  striking  little  picture  of  the  Boer  War. 
Mr.  John  Barnett  in  '  Benbow  and  his  Last  Fight ' 
shows  up  well  the  vigour  of  an  old  sea-dog.  A 
well-varied  number  is  completed  by  the  beginning 
of  a  story  by  Mr.  Eden  Phillpotts,  'The  Flint 
Heart.'  Mr.  Phillpotts  has  the  courage  to  begin  on 
Dartmoor  hi  the  New  Stone  Age. 

AMONG  several  political  articles  in  The  Fort- 
nightly we  content  ourselves  with  mentioning  Mr. 
Garvin's  '  Imperial  and  Foreign  Affairs  :  a  Re- 
view of  Events  *  for  this  writer  has  a  force  which  is 
uncommon  to-day,  and,  whatever  may  be  thought 
of  his  opinions,  always  puts  his  case  well.  We 
learn  that  Mr.  Roosevelt  has  taken  up  his  journal- 
istic work  on  the  American  Outlook,  and  will  not 
open  his  mouth  on  politics  for  two  months.  This 
is  a  relief  for  which  some  people  will  be  glad.  A 
valuable  and  singularly  outspoken  article  is  that 
on  '  The  Reading  Public  '  by  "  An  Ex-Librarian." 
It  expresses  the  thoughts  of  a  good  many  people, 
we  feel  sure,  who  merely  grumble  at  a  state  of 
affairs  they  feel  powerless  to  alter.  Publishers, 
booksellers,  and  libraries  alike  are  accused  of 
commercialism  and  ignorance.  The  various 
sections  which  make  up  the  "  reading  public  " 
are  analyzed,  and  the  sort  of  books  they  want. 
Librarians,  timorous  and  distrustful  of  critical 
views,  are  said  to  have  made  an  egregious  mis- 
take over  Mr.  Galsworthy's  book,  '  A  Man  of 
Property.'  Though  the  writer's  views  and  state- 
ments seem  to  us  somewhat  exaggerated,  there  is 
everything  to  be  said  for  the  general  truth  and 
soundness  of  his  conclusions,  and  we  thank  him 
heartily  for  speaking  out.  Experts  are  wanted 
in  this,  as  in  other  lines,  to  give  their  views  : 
people  with  taste  and  knowledge  behind  them, 
not  the  soi-disant  critics  for  whom  the  call  of 
commerce  is  the  chief  standard,  and  who  pose  as 
authorities.  Mr.  Yoshio  Markino  contributes 

in  charmingly  imperfect  English,  '  Some  Thoughts 
on  Old  Japanese  Art,'  and  we  hope  he  will  give  us 
some  day  the  book  he  meditates  on  the  subject. 
Meanwhile  his  stories  of  Oriental  artists  of  old  days 
are  fascinating.  In  '  The  Wits  *  Mr.  Norman 
Pearson  has  a  good  subject.  Dealing  with  the 
4  illuminati,"  at  once  fashionable  and  literary,  of 
the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  he  takes 
some  celebrated  examples,  such  as  Selwyn, 
Dodington,  and  Horace  Walpole.  We  do  not 
think  Selwyn  is  so  poor  a  jester  as  he  makes  out, 
and  remark  that  a  student  of  the  period  will  find 
many  of  the  jests  quoted  stale.  The  Latin  quip  by 
Burke  has  been  familiar  for  many  years  in  Bos- 
well's  '  Johnson.'  Mr.  Pearson's  dicta  do  not 
exactly  impress  us  as  those  of  a  real  master  of  the 
period.  Mrs.  Shorter  has  an  agreeable  little  poem 
4  In  the  Carlyle  House,  Chelsea.'  Of  the  other 
articles  the  pleasantest  is  entitled  '  Paris  :  King 
Edward  VII.  and  Henri  Quatre,'  by  Mr.  John  F. 
Macdonald,  who  shows  clearly  the  affectionate  way 
in  which  the  late  King  was  regarded  in  that  city. 
To  the  people  of  Paris  he  was  worthy  to  be  com- 
pared with  that  great  figure  of  tradition  who 
was  Queen  Elizabeth's  contemporary  on  the 
French  throne. 

IN  The  Nineteenth  Century  the  editor's  name 
now  appears  as  W.  Wray  Skilbeck.  Monsignor 
Moyes  opens  with  an  article  on  '  The  Royal 
Declaration  '  in  which  he  explains  the  position  of 
the  Roman  Catholics.  There  are  two  or  three 
political  articles,  but  the  number,  as  a  whole, 
takes  a  wider  range  of  subject  than  some  of  its 
predecessors,  which  we  regard  as  an  improvement. 
Prince  Kropotkin  has  an  important  article  on 
'  The  Direct  Action  of  Environment  on  Plants,'  in 
which,  fortified  by  the  recent  experiments  of 
botanists,  he  is  inclined  to  believe.  Some  of  these 
experiments  are  very  striking  in  their  results,  and 
should  go  some  way  to  establish  a  tendency  which 
has  been  largely  denied  on  the  ground  of  precon- 
ceived theory.  Such,  at  least,  is  the  present  writer's 
view.  Mr.  R.  B.  Townshend  deals  hi  an  interest- 
ing way  with  '  Shooting  from  the  Saddle,'  in  the 
Boer  war  especially,  and  gives  some  reminiscences 
of  things  he  saw  done  in  his  earlier  days  of 
ranching.  '  Towards  Educational  Peace,  by 
Mr.  D.  C.  Lathbury,  exhibits  the  well-known  pre- 
possessions of  the  writer.  Mr.  Edward  McCurdy 
hi  '  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  the  Science  of  Flight  * 
shows  once  again  his  knowledge  of  all  that  con- 
cerns the  great  artist.  Two  articles  on  the 
registration  of  nurses  and  the  Colonial  supply  of 
them  follow.  Mr.  E.  D.  Rendall  has  a  well- 
written  '  Plea  for  the  Introduction  of  Music 
among  the  Upper  Classes.'  The  democracy  are 
better  served  in  this  way,  he  points  out,  than 
schools  of  a  more  expensive  kind,  where  music  is 
an  off -subject,  apt  to  give  way  to  other  studies  or 
games.  In  '  Quare  Things '  Maude  Godley  supplies 
a  glimpse  of  Irish  Banshees  and  the  like.  The 
article  pleases  us,  but  is  too  short  to  be  satis- 
factory. Sir  W.  F.  Mteville  has  gathered  much  of 
interest  in  his  '  Side-lights  on  the  Story  of  the 
Suez  Canal,'  the  success  of  which  was,  it  appears, 
promoted  by  two  or  three  odd  causes — one,  the 
ability  of  Lesseps  as  a  horseman  ;  another,  the 
early  help  he  gave  to  a  distant  cousin  who  rose 
to  be  the  Empress  Eugenie.  The  circumstances 
of  the  sale  of  the  Khedive's  shares  to  this  country 
are  pretty  well  known,  but  the  story  ia  dramatic, 
and  distinctly  well  told  here. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        tu  s.  n.  JULY  9(  mo. 


MESSRS.  S.  DRAYTON  &  SONS'  Exeter  Catalogue 
•215  contains  the  new  volumes  of  '  The  Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica  '  issued  by  The  Times,  11  vols., 
4to,  original  green  cloth,  51.  5s.  The  Naval 
Chronicle,  40  vols.,  half-leather,  with  617  plates 
tshould  be  524),  wanting  7  engraved  title-pages, 
•edges  entirely  uncut,  1799-1818,  is  10Z.  10s.  Under 
Dickens  is  the  first  edition  of  '  Hard  Times,' 
1854,  12s.  Qd.  Strickland's  '  Lives  of  the  Queens 
of  England,'  8  vols.,  cloth,  1851,  is  priced  at 
4Z.  4s.  There  is  an  excellent  copy  of  the  rare 
first  edition  of  Matthew  Arnold's  '  The  Strayed 
Reveller,'  original  cloth,  B.  Fellowes,  1849, 4Z.  4s. ; 
And  a  set  of  the  Exeter  Diocesan  Architectural 
-Society,  11  vols.,  4to,  parts  as  published,  1843-92, 
31.  10s.  (cost  a  subscriber  about  SOL).  There  are 
*ome  old  children's  books,  and  works  under  Oxford, 
Scotland,  &c. 

Mr.  Francis  Edwards  reminds  us  by  the  date 
on  his  Catalogue  304,  as  we  read  it  by  our  fireside, 
that  it  is  Midsummer.  It  contains  books  in  all 
•classes  of  literature — Biblical  archaeology,  biblio- 
graphy, books  about  books,  Court  memoirs,  and 
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Eugene  Aram,  Sacheverell,  Sir  Francis  Burdett, 
Hone,  and  Palmer.  There  is  a  set  of  Hansard 
to  1905,  609  vols.,  binding  almost  new,  220Z.  ; 
-and  a  complete  set  of  the  Oxford  Historical 
Society,  48  vols.,  HZ.  The  general  portion  con- 
tains the  first  edition  of  Jerrold's  '  Men  of  Charac- 
ter,' 3  vols.,  full  calf  by  Bedford,  31.  15s.  ;  Jesse's 
Historical  Works,  30  vols.,  cloth,  1901,  81.  10s.  ; 
Lingard's  '  England,'  10  vols.,  half-calf,  4Z.  4s.  ; 
first  edition  of  Lytton's  '  Eugene  Aram,'  21.  ; 
a  set  of  Whyte-Melville,  24  vols.,  61.  6s.  ;  Nash's 
'*  Mansions,'  5  vols.,  imperial  4to,  text  in  folio,  half- 
morocco,  181.  18s.  ;  "  Sacred  Books  of  the  East," 
49  vols.,  20*. ;  Caldicott's  *  Silver  Plate,'  II.  10s.  ; 
the  Library  Edition  of  Thackeray,  26  vols., 
.  1883,  9Z.,  or  in  half-morocco,  151.  ;  and  a  set  of 
Valpy's  Classics,  160  vols.,  full  russia,  40Z. 

Mr.  Edwards  is  indefatigable  in  his  issue  of 
Catalogues,  for  hardly  had  we  written  the  above 
before  another  reached  us  from  him.  This  is 
devoted  to  Naval  and  Military  Literature,  and 
ahould  be  possessed  by  all  interested  in  those 
subjects.  We  find  old  Army  Lists  ;  works 
relating  to  Napoleon,  Marlborough,  Wellington, 
and  the  Crimean  War,  and  costumes  of  the 
Indian  Army,  the  Home  forces,  and  the  French 
army.  There  are  pamphlets  on  military  organiza- 
tion and  many  coloured  plates.  The  extremely 
rare  work  of  Marcuard,  1825,  is  251.  The  Naval 
portion  contains  among  coloured  plates  the 
action  between  the  Endymion  and  the  President 
on  the  15th  of  January,  1815,  14Z.  There  are 
four  lithographs  from  paintings  by  Schetky  of  the 
action  between  the  Shannon  and  the  Chesapeake 
on  the  1st  of  June,  1813,  121. 

There  is  one  work  of  more  general  interest. 
Under  Versailles  is  a  magnificent  copy  of  the 
Edition  de  Luxe  of  Gavard's  '  Galeries  historiques 
•de  Versailles,'  specially  printed  on  large  paper, 
with  the  series  of  1,422  steel  engravings  on 
China  paper,  and  the  Arms  of  the  Crusaders 
illuminated  in  gold,  silver,  and  colours,  18  vols., 
red  morocco  extra,  with  the  initials  of  Louis 
Philippe,  120Z. 

Messrs.  Maggs  Brothers'  Catalogue  257,  Part  I., 
is  devoted  to  works  in  English  before  1800.  The 
first  edition  of  Abbot's  '  Devout  Rhapsodies,' 
1647,  is  4Z.  4s.  ;  and  that  of  Addison's  '  Cam- 
paign,' Tonson,  1705,  6Z.  18s.  Under  Bacon  is 
the  sixth  edition  of  the  *  Essays,'  12mo,  full 
levant  extra,  1613,  a  fine  copy,26L  A  memoran- 
dum by  the  Duchess  of  Marlborough  in  Vol.  I.  of 
her  copy  of  Beaumont  and  Fletcher  states  that  the 
set  was  given  to  her  by  Mr.  Tonson  the  publisher, 
7  vols.,  full  calf  by  Riviere,  111.  11s.  There 
are  many  Bibles  and  Prayer  Books  and  a  unique 
copy  (privately  printed,  entirely  on  vellum,  at 
Milan  by  Pogliani  in  1873)  of  the  canonical 
histories  and  apocryphal  legends  relating  to  the 
New  Testament,  represented  in  drawings  with  a 
Latin  text,  small  folio,  original  half -morocco,  30Z. 
Fry's  facsimile  of  Tyndale's  New  Testament,  full 
morocco  by  Riviere,  1862,  is  11.  7s.  There  are 
some  magnificent  bindings,  including  a  very  early 
specimen  of  Henry  VIII.  binding,  Erasmus's 
'  Enchiridion,'  1524,  34Z.  There  is  much  of 
interest  under  Charles  I.,  Cromwell,  and  the 
Civil  War,  including  many  valuable  collections  of 
pamphlets.  Under  Cowley  is  the  first  collected 
edition,  folio,  fine  copy  in  the  original  calf,  1656, 
Wl.  10s.  Under  Cowper  are  an  uncut  copy  of 
Homer,  2  vols.,  4to,  original  boards,  1791,  Ql.  6s.  ; 
and  the  first  edition  of  the  '  Olney  Hymns.'  There 
is  a  magnificent  copy  of  the  first  issue  of  '  Robin- 
son Crusoe,'  with  '  The  Farther  Adventures,' 
2  vols.,  original  calf  bindings,  1719,  2501.  Among 
early  dictionaries  is  Cotgrave.  Items  under  Gay 
include  the  first  edition  of  the  '  Fables,'  2  vole, 
bound  in  1,  4to,  full  levant  by  Riviere,  1727-38, 
22Z.  lls.  Under  Goldsmith  is  'The  Vicar  of 
Wakefield,'  a  fine  tall  copy  of  the  first  edition, 
2  vols.,  12mo,  levant  by  Riviere,  1766, 110L  Under 
Milton  is  the  rare  first  collected  edition  of  his 
poems,  1645,  12mo,  levant  by  Riviere,  185Z.  ;  and 
under  Sir  Thomas  More  is  the  first  edition  of  his 
Works  including  the  '  Youthful  Poems,'  1557, 
281.  10s.  Among  works  on  the  Quakers  is  *  A 
Battle  Door  for  Teachers,'  folio,  original  calf, 
1660,  18Z.  18s.  A  tall  copy  in  fine  condition  of  the 
First  Folio  Shakespeare  (genuine  throughout 
except  that  the  title  with  verses  opposite,  two 
preliminary  leaves,  and  the  final  leaf  are  in 
facsimile,  and  the  blank  margins  of  one  or  two 
others  have  been  repaired),  full  levant,  is  priced 
900L  There  is  also  one  of  the  tallest  copies 
of  the  Second  Folio,  210L,  and  Halliwell's  edition 
of  Shakespeare's  Works  (No.  83,  of  150  copies), 
16  vols.,  large  folio,  1853-65,  801. 

s  in  ®0msp0tttonts. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 

WE  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  dp  not 
print,  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "The  Pub- 
lishers "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

A.  BIRD.— We  do  not  answer  questions  as  to  the 
value  of  old  books  or  engravings. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]      NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  16,  1910. 

CONTENTS.-No.  29. 

NOTES  :-Goldsmith's  'Deserted  Village,'  41— Statues  and 
Memorials  in  the  British  Isles,  42— Halley  and  Pyke 
Families,  44— "  Latifundia  perdidere  Italiam,"  45— John 
Rylands  Library  :  Dante  Codex -Proverb  quoted  by  Bp. 
Fisher— Witchcraft  in  the  Twentieth  Century— Hanover 
Chapel,  Peckham,  46— "Budget"  as  a  Verb,  47. 

QUERIES  :  -"  Tenth  "  or  "  Tent "  —  "  Tilleul "  —  English 
Sepulchral  Monuments  —  Garrick's  Version  of  'Romeo 
and  Juliet'— Swift  Family— AbbtS  Se— ,  47— Col.  Skelton 
of  St.  Helena— ' Drawing-Room  Ditties'  in  'Punch'— 
Snuff-box  Inscription  —  Upper  Cheyne  Row  — Bishop 
Hough  — Market  Day  — Ozias  Humphry's  Papers,  48  — 
Wimborne  a  Double  Monastery — Liardet— G.  Man — G. 
Thacker— Sir  W.  B.  Rush— Wolney  Hall— Westminster 
Cathedral  — Chideock  — Pigeon-houses  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  49. 

REPLIES  :— George  I.  Statues,  50—"  Senpere  "—Public 
School  Registers— Provincial  Booksellers,  52— "Barn"  in 
Place-Names  —  Haydon  and  Shelley  —  Paris  Family  — 
'Waterloo  Banquet'  —  Bibliography  of  London,  53  — 
Venice  and  its  Patron  Saint — Books  and  Engravings — E. 
Hatton— Index  to  the  Fathers— Pedlar's  Acre,  _  54— 
4 'Dicky  Birds" — Horace,  'Carmina' — Latin  Quotation — 
Author  Wanted  —  '  Duenna  and  Little  Isaac,'  55  — 
D'Orsay's  Journal— St.  Pancras  Church— Prince  Rupert 
— Feoffment— Doge's  Hat,  56— Comets— Hampshire  Hog, 
57— Hocktide— Cowes  Family— Dr.  W.  Saunders,  53— 
Arms  of  Stoneley  Priory— "Teart"— Mock  Coats  of  Arms, 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :-'  Grammar  of  the  Gothic  Language ' 
— Reviews  and  Magazines. 

OBITUARY  :-Dr.  Furnivall ;  D.  W.  Ferguson. 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


IN  The  Athenaeum  for  20  June,  1896,  the 
late  Col.  Francis  Grant  described  a  small 
octavo  edition  of  Goldsmith's  '  Deserted 
Village,'  W.  Griffin,  1770,  which  had  recently 
been  sold  by  auction  in  London,  and  which 
had  hitherto  escaped  the  notice  of  biblio- 
graphers. On  the  8th  of  August  following 
The  Athenaeum  published  another  letter 
which  drew  attention  to  a  copy  of  '  The 
Deserted  Village,'  8vo,  with  Griffin's  im- 
print, which  differed  materially  from  that 
described  by  Col.  Grant.  A  third  variation 
was  not  long  afterwards  discovered,  and  a 
most  exhaustive  comparison  of  the  three 
octavos  and  the  six  quartos  of  1770  was 
subsequently  made  by  Mr.  Luther  S.  Living- 
ston, who,  after  causing  a  transcript  to  be 
made  of  the  supposed  first  octavo,  had 
each  of  the  four  hundred  and  thirty-two 
lines  copied  on  separate  sheets,  and  had 
written  in  below  every  variation  in  text,  spel- 
ling, and  punctuation  which  occurred  in  the 
nine  editions.  Such  a  conscientious  and 

painstaking  piece  of  work  is  probably  un- 
paralleled in  the  annals  of  bibliography ; 
and  although  an  infinite  number  of  varia- 
tions in  spelling,  abbreviation,  and  punctua- 
tion were  discovered  in  the  different  editions, 
it  nevertheless  proved  to  be  impossible  to 
reach  a  satisfactory  conclusion  with  regard 
to  the  actual  priority  of  the  octavos  relatively 
to  the  first  quarto. 

The  only  real  textual  variation  occurred  in 
1.  37,  which  in  the  supposed  first  octavo  reads 

Amidst  thy  bowers  the  tyrant's  head  is  seen. 
In  the  first    quarto  and   in  the  other    two 
octavos,   as  well  as  in   every  later  edition, 
the  line  reads 

Amidst  thy  bowers  the  tyrant's  hand  is  seen. 
Mr.  Livingston's  results,  which  were  pub- 
lished in  the  New  York  Bookman  for  Feb- 
ruary, 1901,  under  the  title  of  '  A  Biblio- 
graphical Puzzle,'  have  generally  been  con- 
sidered the  last  word  upon  the  subject,  and 
Mr.  Austin  Dobson,  in  referring  to  them  in 
his  most  recent  edition  of  Goldsmith's 
'  Poems  '  ("  World's  Classics  "),  1907,  p.  172, 
note,  merely  mentions  the  existence  of  the 
octavos  with  the  remark  that  they  "  are 
certainly  not  in  the  form  in  which  the  poem 
was  first  advertised  and  received,  as  this  was 
a  quarto."  Another  small  octavo  edition, 
has,  however,  recently  come  into  my  posses- 
sion, which  may  possibly  throw  some  light 
on  the  relative  positions  of  the  supposed 
first  octavo  and  the  first  quarto. 

This  is  a  small  octavo  pamphlet,  measur- 
ing 6£  in.  by  4J  in.,  and  is  in  its  original  con- 
dition, the  pages  being  still  untouched  by 
the  paper  knife.  It  is  sewn  in  grey-green 
wrappers,  and  the  title-page  is  engraved, 
with  the  following  inscription  :  "  The  | 
Deserted  Village,  |  A  |  Poem  |  By  Dr.  Gold- 
smith. |  [Oval  vignette.]  London  :  |  Printed 
for  J.  Barker,  Russell  Court,  |  Drury  Lane." 
There  is  no  date.  It  is  printed  on  one  large 
folio  sheet,  folded  into  quarter  sheets,  and 
each  signature  ([A],  B,  c,  and  D)  consists 
therefore  of  four  leaves.  The  collation  is  : 
Half-title,  p.  [i],  verso  blank  ;  title,  p.  [iii] 
verso  blank  ;  Dedication,  p.  [v]-vii ;  adver- 
tisement, p.  [viii]  ;  text,  pp.  [9-32].  The 
title  is  not  separately  inserted,  but,  though 
engraved,  forms  part  of  quarter-sheet  A. 

The  peculiarity  of  this  edition  is  that  it 
contains  the  errors  of  the  supposed  first 
octavo,  including  the  "  tyrant's  head  n  in 
1.  37,  with  two  exceptions.  In  the  supposed 
first  octavo  the  word  "  each  n  in  1.  8  is  mis- 
printed "  earch,"  and  in  1.  302  "  peasant  " 
is  misprinted  "  peasants.'1  In  the  Grant 
copy — the  only  one  of  the  supposed  first 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  ie,  1910. 

edition  examined  by  Mr.  Livingston — a  line 
in  old  ink  had  been  drawn  through  the 
"  r  "  in  "  earch  n  in  1.  8,  and  through  the 
"  s  "  in  "  peasants  n  in  1.  302.  It  is  curious 
that  in  the  Barker  copy  in  my  possession 
both  these  words  are  printed  correctly. 

Every  one  knows  the  oval  engraving  on  the 
title-page  of  the  first  quarto  of  '  The  Deserted 
Village,'  "  Isaac  Taylor  del.  &  sculp.,"  which 
represents  the  old  watercress  woman,  "  the 
sad  historian  of  the  pensive  plain,'1  telling 
her  sorrowful  story  to  the  pilgrim  leaning  on 
his  staff.  In  the  little  Barker  edition  a  copy 
of  this  engraving  appears  on  the  title-page, 
"  Mutlow  &  Woodman,  sculpt  «  .  ft  js  by  no 
means  badly  engraved,  but  the  fact  of  it 
being  reversed  shows  that  it  is  a  copy. 

Mr.  Livingston  observes  that  "  it 
generally  considered,  in  comparing  similar 
editions  of  any  book,  that  the  edition  with 
the  errors  antedates  the  corrected  edition.'* 
Barker's  edition  contains  the  errors  of  the 
supposed  first  octavo,  but  the  presence  of  the 
copied  engraving  on  the  title-page  shows 
that  it  must  have  been  issued  later  than  the 
first  quarto.  It  seems  clear,  therefore,  that 
the  fact  of  the  supposed  first  octavo 
containing  these  errors  does  not  conclusively 
establish  its  priority  over  the  first  quarto. 

All  these  octavos  may  have  been  pirated 
though  as  Griffin's  name  appears  on  three  o 
them  it  must  have  called  for  some  audacity 
to  forge  the  imprint  of  the  genuine  publisher 
upon  their  title-pages.     It  would  seem  more 
likely  that  cheap  reprints  of  popular  poem 
were    circulated   as    chapbooks    in   country 
towns    and    villages.     This    would    accoun 
for    the    extreme     rarity    of     these    littl 
pamphlets,    and    perhaps    for    the    careles 
manner  in  which  they  were  printed.     Th 
reading  of  these  poems  to  his  rustic  audienc 
was  perhaps  one  of  the  most  grateful  duties  o 
the  village  schoolmaster  in  the  long  evening 
that  brought  the  peasant  "  sweet  oblivion  o 
his  daily  care."'  W.  F.  PRIDEAUX. 



{See  10  S.  xi.  441  ;    xii.  51,  114,  181,  401 
11  S.  i.  282.) 

ROYAL  PERSONAGES  (continued). 
Belfast. — A     colossal     equestrian     statu 
of    William    III.     surmounts    the     Orang 
Hall,  Clifton  Street.     It  was  erected  at  th 
cost  of  the  Orangemen  of  Ulster  in   188 
It  is  the  work  of  Mr.  Harry  Hems  of  Exete 
and  represents  William  mounted  on  his  eel 
brated    white    charger,    waving    his    swore 

loft,    and    cheering    his    followers    to    the- 
tiarge  as  at  the  battle  of  the  Boyne.     Mr. 
!ems  kindly  informs  me  : — 
"  Great  pains  were  taken  to  have  the  apparel 
worn     by     the     rider     historically     correct.     To 
:tain  this  end  the  more  successfully,  the  actual 
quipment  in  which  William  was  dressed   (now 
n  the  possession  of  the  Baroness  von  Staiglitz> 
vas  loaned  to  me  for  that  purpose." 

t  was  unveiled  by  Col.  Sanderson,  M.P.,  on 
8  November,  1889,  in  the  presence  of  a  con- 
ourse  of  more  than  20,000  people. 

Bristol. — In  the  centre  of  Queen  Square 
s  an  equestrian  statue  of  William  III.  It 
s  generally  stated  to  be  constructed  of 
opper,  but  I  am  informed  that  it  is  more 
probably  composed  of  lead.  The  sculptor 
was  Rysbrack,  who  received  1,800Z.  for  the 
work.  In  1833  a  writer  stated  that  "  per- 
laps  as  a  work  of  art  [it]  is  not  surpassed  by 
anything  of  a  similar  nature.'8 

Petersfield,  Hants. — Here  is  a  lead  eques- 
trian statue  of  William  III.  It  was  the  gift 
of  William  Jolliffe,  Esq.,  and  stands  on  a 
ofty  pedestal  near  the  church.  I  am  in- 
brmed  by  a  correspondent  that  it  is  much 
warped  by  the  sun. 

Paignton,  Devon. — About  three  miles  from 
Paignton,  on  the  road  to  Totnes,  stands  an 
old  house  known  as  the  Parliament  House. 
Here  William  III.  held  his  first  Parliament 
after  landing  at  Brixham,  5  November,  1688. 
The  incident  is  commemorated  on  a  stone- 
erected  in  the  garden. 

Minehead,  Somerset. — A  white  marble 
statue  of  Queen  Anne  was  presented  to  the 
town  in  1719  by  Sir  Jacob  Bankes,  or  Bancks, 
who  represented  Minehead  in  Parliament 
for  sixteen  years.  Its  first  site  was  on  or 
near  the  pier,  but  to  save  it  from  the  action 
of  the  weather  it  was  eventually  removed  to 
the  church.  It  was  re-erected  in  Wellington 
Square  by  public  subscription  in  1893,  being 
placed  within  a  domed  structure  upon  a 
pedestal  of  red  granite. 

Barnstaple,  Devon. — In  the  Strand,  oppo- 
site the  bottom  of  Cross  Street,  is  the 
Exchange,  built  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne. 
Her  Majesty's  full-length  statue  graces  the 
centre  of  the  parapet.  The  piazza  is  known 
as  Queen  Anne's  walk. 

Kingston-on-Thames,  Surrey. — Over  the 
main  entrance  to  the  Town  Hall,  built  in 
1840,  is  placed  a  leaden  statue  of  Queen 
Anne,  which  occupied  a  niche  in  the  previous 

Basingstoke,  Hants. — Near  this  town  is 
Hackwood,  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of  Bolton. 
The  house  was  built  by  Inigo  Jones  in  1688. 
In  front  of  it  stands  an  equestrian  statue  of 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

George  I.  presented  by  that  monarch  to  the 
then  Duke  of  Bolton.  See  LOUD  QUEZON'S 
query,  ante,  p.  7,  and  also  post,  p.  51. 

St.  Helier,  Jersey. — Royal  Square  was 
originally  named  the  Market  Place,  and  here 
formerly  stood  the  old  market  cross.  The 
same  site  now  contains  a  gilded  statue  of 
George  II.  erected  by  public  subscription.  It 
was  unveiled  9  July,  1751,  and  represents  the 
King  in  Roman  costume. 

Bath. — When  William,  Prince  of  Orange, 
came  to  England  in  1734  to  espouse  the 
Princess  Royal  (Anne),  daughter  of  George 
II.,  he  visited  Bath,  and  experienced  great 
benefit  from  drinking  the  waters.  In 
memory  of  this  visit  Beau  Nash  caused  a 
pillar  to  be  erected  in  the  Orange  Grove.  On 
it  was  placed  the  following  inscription, 
composed  by  Nash  : — 

In  Memoriam* 


Principi  Auriaco 

Aquarum  Thermalium  potu, 

Favente  Deo, 

Ovante  Britannia, 

Feliciter  Restitute, 


The  'Guide  to  all  the  Watering  and  Sea- 
Bathing  Places'  (1806)  describes  it  as  "a 
small  obelisk,  which  a  Bath  waggon  might 
carry  to  London  at  once,  without  being  over- 

Bath. — In  the  centre  of  Queen's  Square 
stands  a  tall  obelisk  70  feet  high,  "shaped 
and  pointed  like  a  bookbinder's  needle." 
'>  was  erected  by  Nash  in  memory  of 
Frederick  Lewis,  Prince  of  Wales,  son  of 
George  II.,  and  his  consort  Augusta, 
youngest  daughter  of  Frederick  II.,  Duke 
of  Saxe-Coburg.  It  contains  the  following 
inscription,  written  by  Pope  : — 

In  memory 
of  honours  conferred, 

and  in  gratitude 
for  benefits  bestowed 

on  this  city 

by  his  Royal  Hignness 

Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales, 

and  his 

Royal  Consort, 

in  the  year  MDCCXXXVII, 

This  Obelisk  is  erected 

by  Richard  Nash,  Esq. 

Hagley,  Worcestershire. — In  Hagley  Park 
is  a  tall  column  surmounted  by  a  statue  of 
Frederick  Lewis,  Prince  of  Wales.  It  was 
erected  in  1737  by  George,  Lord  Lyttelton, 
who  was  at  that  time  the  Prince's  secretary. 
Windsor. — On  the  summit  of  Snow  Hill, 
at  the  end  of  the  Long  Walk  in  the  Great 
Park,  is  a  colossal  bronze  equestrian  statue 
of  George  III.  it  was  erected  by  command 

of  George  IV.  from  a  design  by  Sir  Richard 
Westmacott,  being  completed  and  placed 
in  position  in  1832.  The  statue  is  raised 
upon  a  pedestal  consisting  of  a  mass  of 
rough  stones  intended  to  represent  a  rock. 
The  total  elevation  is  over  50  feet,  the  statue 
itself  being  26  feet  in  height.  At  the  time 
of  its  erection  a  writer  said  : — 

"  The  likeness  to  the  face  of  George  III.  is. 
very  admirable  ;  but  those  who  recollect  that 
monarch  in  his  plain  blue  coat  or  his  military 
jack-boots  will  have  difficulty  to  recognize  him 
in  his  Roman  costume." 

Weymouth,  Dorset. — It  was  right  and 
fitting  that  the  people  of  Weymouth  should 
erect  a  statue  to  their  tutelary  monarch 
George  III.,  whose  frequent  visits  added  so 
much  to  their  prosperity.  This  "  imposing," 
though  "  somewhat  unsightly "  work  of 
art  stands  on  the  Esplanade  at  the  junction 
of  St.  Mary  and  St.  Thomas  Streets.  It  was 
erected  in  1809  by 

The    Grateful    Inhabitants 

to  George  the  Third 

on  his  entering  the  50th  year 

of  his  reign. 

Liverpool. — An  equestrian  statue  of  George 
III.  is  erected  on  the  London  Road.  It  was 
designed  by  Westmacott  in  imitation  of  that 
of  Marcus  Aurelius  at  Rome.  It  was  placed 
in  position  in  1809,  being  originally  intended 
for  a  site  in  Great  George  Square.  Its  total 
height  is  30  feet. 

Liverpool. — On  the  west  wall  of  the  south 
shed,  No.  1  Branch  of  the  Alexandra  Dock, 
is  a  granite  tablet  containing  a  representa- 
tion of  the  Arms  of  Great  Britain  and  the 
Crest  of  the  Prince  of  Wales.  It  is  thus 
inscribed  : — 

"  These  arms  of  Great  Britain  in  the  reign  of 
George  III.  were  removed  from  an  old  building- 
on  the  Dock  Estate,  and  re-erected  here,  as  a 
memorial  of  the  auspicious  visit  of  their  Royal 
Highnesses  the  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales,, 
on  the  occasion  of  the  opening  of  these  Docks, 
September  8,  1881." 

Bristol. — There  was  apparently  at  one 
time  a  statue  of  George  III.  here.  A  writer 
circa  1833  states  : — 

"  A  stone  statue  of  George  III.  was  erected 
in  Portland  Square  ;  but  during  the  French  war- 
party  feeling  ran  so  high  that  the  head  of  the 
statue  was  knocked  off  one  night,  and  the 
pedestal  now  alone  remains." 


In  The  Lady's  Magazine,  1901,  there  is  an 
article  by  Milton  Brooke  on  '  Statues  to 

A  memorial  to  Sir  John  Moore,  killed 
at  Corunna,  was  unveiled  on  19  November 
last  at  Sandgate.  R.  J.  FYNMOBE. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [11  s.  n.  JULY  is,  1910. 


(See  10  S.  ix.  166  ;  xi.  407.) 

MR.  R.  J.  BEEVOR,  of  Reymerston,  Mano 
Road,  St.  Albans,  has  kindly  suppliec 
abstracts  of  five  Halley  wills  recordec 
at  Lichfield.  Brief  extracts  are  giver 
below  : — 

Will  of  Henry  Halle  of  Youlgreave,  co.  Derby 
dated  26  May,  1536. — To  be  buried  in  the  church 
yard  of  All  Halloics,  Youlgreave  ;  mention 
daughter  Mawde  and  others  ;  executors  Agne 
my  wife  and  John  my  son.  Proved  by  executor 
4  Oct.,  1536.  Inventory  dated  29  Sept.,  1536 
amount,  15Z.  14s.  4of. 

Will  of  Richard  Halley  of  Ashborne,  co.  Derby 
(upper  part  of  will  eaten  away). — Bequeaths  to 
cousin  Ric.  Halley  my  parte  of  the  treyne  which 
Will'm  Dickonson  of  Uttoxeter  oweth  unto  us 
that  is  to  witt  xxi-  galons  for  my  pte.  Inventory 
dated  3  February  (no  year  given — lower  pan 
missing).  Proved  13  Sept.,  1552. 

Will  of  Robert  Halley  of  Derwent,  p'ch  Hather 

sage,  co.  Derby  ;    dated 1557. — To  be  buried 

In  the  churchy erde  of  St.  Peter  of  Hope  ;  mentions 
Nichs.   Halley,   brother  ;     John   Halley,   brother 
•executor.     Inventory     dated     12     April,     1558 
amount,   81.   10s.     Proved  20  April,  1558,  by  the 
sole  executor. 

Will  of  Robert  Halley  of  Gretton,  parish  of 
Youlgreave;  dated  8  Feb.,  1557. — To  be  buried; 
in  the  parish  church  of  All  Saints  in  Youlgreave  ; 
goods  to  be  divided  into  three  parts,  one  part  to 
wife  Agnes  Halley,  and  the  two  other  parts  to 
Homfrey  Halley  and  Wylm  Halley  my  sons. 
Inventory  dated  2  April,  1559  ;  amount,  17Z.  10s. 
Proved  by  Homfrey  and  Wylm.  Halley,  executors, 
5  April,  1559. 

Will  of  John  Halley  of  Stanton,  p'ch  Youl- 
greave, co.  Derby ;  dated  15  March,  1576. — 
No  place  of  burial  named  ;  eldest  son  Henry 
Halley  ;  wife  Elyn  ;  six  children  (no  names  given); 
son  George  Halley.  Executors  :  wife  Elyn  and 
son  Henry.  Inventory  dated  11  April ....  amount 
59Z.  15s.  4d.  Proved  by  both  executors,  17  April, 

The  italics  are  mine.  There  are  other 
entries  of  Halley  wills  in  the  index  of  the 
Probate  Registry  at  Lichfield,  but  some  of 
the  (perhaps  most  relevant)  documents,  in- 
cluding two  William  Halley  wills,  are  non- 
extant.  Among  such  missing  documents  is 
the  administration  of  the  estate  of  Hum- 
phrey and  Margaret  Halley  of  Cheddleton 
(Ad.,  190  b,  1  July,  1597).  Perhaps  this 
Humphrey  Halley  was  identical  with  the 
Homfrey  Halley,  son  of  Robert  Halley  of 
Gretton,  in  the  parish  of  Youlgreave  (see 
above),  and  also  (?)  with  his  namesake  men- 
tioned in  the  following  item,  recently  sup- 
plied by  a  record-searcher  in  London  : — 

"  Duchy  of  Lancaster  :  Hawley.  Pleadings  in 
the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  ;  printed  calendar, 
p.  311,  has  (35th  year  of  Queen  Elizabeth) 

'  Humfrey  Hawley  &  Wynifride  Streethey  or 
Stretye.'  Both  are  defendants  as  to  tenements 
and  lands  at  Uttoxeter,  Staffordshire.  Occupant 
of  the  premises  was  William  Walker,  and  the 
lessee  was  Robert  Wells.  Uttoxeter  is  on  the 
border  of  Derbyshire." 

Here,  no  doubt,  we  have  a  clue  to  the 
earlier  ancestry  of  the  famous  astronomer. 
The  latter's  paternal  grandfather  was 
Humphrey  Halley,  vintner,  of  London,  of 
whose  history  some  new  facts  have  lately 
been  recovered. 

Mr.  Beevor,  after  consulting  the  early 
records  of  the  Stationers'  Company,  printed 
by  E.  Arber,  sends  this  item  : — 

"  '  Received  of  Edmonde  Hallye  at  his  making 
free  of  this  Company  the  26th  day  Feb.,  1560, 
3s.  -id.'  There  are  also  entries  relating  to  licences 
to  print  accorded  to  the  same  Edmonde  Hallye 
1562-6.  Can  it  be  that  this  was  an  ancestor  of  the 
astronomer  ?  It  seems  possible." 

*N.  &  Q.,'  at  3  S.  iii.  283-4,  gives  some 
entries  from  the  registers  of  All  Hallows, 
Barking,  in  Essex.  I  repeat  three  below  : — 

"  1575.  Robt.  Ward,  who  dyed  in  the  streat, 
bur.  28  Jan>." 

"1582.  William',  sonne  of  Willm  Dethick  al's 
Yorke,  One  of  the  Heraultes,  bur.  March  28." 

"  1684,  April  22.  Mr  Edmund  Halley  of  London, 
Merchant,  murthered,  &  buryed  in  linen,  21.  6s.  pa 
to  this  parish  for  y6  use  of  the  poor." 

Again  the  italics  are  mine.  The  con- 
tributor, MB.  EDWARD  J.  SAGE  of  Stoke 
Newington,  mentions  a  "valuable  paper" 
on  the  Barking  registers  by  Mr.  Henry  W.. 
King  (Transactions  Essex  Arch.  Society,  vol.  ii. 
Dart  iii.),  but  examination  thereof  reveals 
nothing  new  in  our  quest. 

The  Rev.  J.  W.  Eisdell,  Vicar  of  Barking, 
Essex,  obligingly  supplies  Mr.  Beevor  with 
he  following  interesting  entries  : — 

"1684,  April  22.  Mr.  Edmund  Halley  of 
1/ondon,  Merchant,  murthered  and  buryed  in 
inen,  21.  10s.  pd  to  this  Parish  for  the  use  of  the 

"  1672,  Oct.  24.  Ann,  wife  of  Edmond  Haw 

"...  .There  is  a  hiatus  in  the  registers  (mar- 
iage)  1645-1661.  I  can  find  no  trace  of  the 
>aptism  of  Edmond  Halley  [1656]." 

"  I  think  this  is  a  correct  transcription  : — 

"  *  1617.  November,  Humphrey  Hayly  &  Kathe- 
ine  Newes,  married  ye  24th  day  of  November ' ; 
ut  the  writing  is  difficult." 
The     bride's     maiden      surname    was,    un- 

oubtedly,  Mewes  or  Mewce. 

A  search  of  the  registers  of  St.  Giles, 
3ripplegate  (1606-1719),  had  already  re- 
vealed this  entry : — 

"Ann,  w.  of  Edm  Halley,  Gent, buried 24th  Oct., 
672,  at  Barking." 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Thus  we  learn  the  Christian  name  of  the 
astronomer's  mother.  Who  was  she  ?  Among 
the  baptismal  entries  at  St.  Giles,  Cripple- 
gate,  is  :— 

"Katherine,  daugh  of  Edm  Hally,  salter,  &  of 
Ann,  b.  7th  Feb.,  1658,  baptized  17  Feb." 
Ann  was  also  the  name  of  the  wife  of  William 
Halley,  brother  of  E.  Halley,  salter. 

Francis  Halley,  sen.,  son  of  the  said 
William  Halley,  married,  17  Aug.,  1696, 
Elliner  Pyke.  The  printed  register  of  St, 
Christopher  le  Stocks  has  this  entry  : — 

"Frans  Hally  and  Elliner  Pike,  Boath  of 
Allholows  Staeing,  married  Aug.  17,  1696." 
The  groom  was  a  first  cousin  of  the  astro- 
nomer Halley.  There  is  some  indication  of 
an  earlier  relationship  (as  well  as  a  later) 
between  the  Halley  and  Pyke  families.  Did 
Ann  Pyke,  daughter  of  Edward  Pyke  of 
Queenhithe  Ward,  London  (fl.  1634),  marry? 
If  so,  whom  ? 

The  *  Register  of  St.  Benet's,  Paul's  Wharf, 
London:  Vol.  I.  Christenings s  (Harl.  Soc., 
Lond.,  1909),  gives  on  pp.  10-14  the  baptism 
of  six  children  of  one  Dr.  Hally  or  Halley, 
named  Henry,  Elizabeth,  John,  Rachel, 
Dorothy,  and  Richard  (between  1629  and 
1635).  The  same  work  (p.  48)  mentions 
the  baptism  of  Margaret  (1  May,  1685), 
daughter  of  Edmund  and  Mary  Hally. 
This  serves  to  establish  the  astronomer's 
residence  at  that  period. 

Will  of  Edward  Hawley  of  London,  Knight; 
dated  17  May,  1627.— Mentions  brother  Gabriell 
H. ;  brother  Hal  ton  H.  ;  nephew  Robert  H.,  son  of 
deceased  brother  Sir  Henry  H. ;  children  of  brother 
Gabriell  H.  ;  brother  Gabriell  sole  exr,  but  if  he  is 
not  living,  brother  Robert  H.  exr.  Adm.  24  Oct., 
1629,  to  Francis  Hawley,  brother  of  Robert  H. 
Edward  H.  nuper  in  partibus  transmarinis  def9. 
Gabriell  died  before  administering.  (P.C.C.,  Ridley 

Will  of  Richard  Hawley  of  London,  doctor  of 
physick.  —  Eldest  son  Henry  H.  ;  loving  wife 
Dorothie  H.  ;  five  children,  Henry,  John,  Richard, 
Kachell,  and  Dorothie;  loving  friend  Gilbert 
Dethick  and  loving  brother  James  H.  ex".  Dated 
2o  April,  1636 ;  proved  16  May,  1636,  by  James  H., 
power  reserved  to  Gilbert  Dethick.  Signature 
copied  Richard  Hawly;  name  throughout  will 
written  Hawley.  (P.C.C.,  Pile  65). 

In  a  list  of  Somerset  House  wills  Richard 
Hawly  is  described  as  of  St.  Benet's,  Paul's 
Wharf  (presumably  based  on  the  probate  act 
book),  but  he  is  not  so  described  in  his  will. 

"  The  Dethicks  were  a  Derbyshire  family.'* 
A  pedigree  thereof  appears  in  the  '  Visita- 
tion of  Norfolk'  (Norfolk  and  Norwich 
Arch.  Soc.,  vol.  i.,  pp.  237-42).  See  also 
11  S.  i.  308. 

Will  of  James  Pyke  of  Deptford,  Kent.— Wife 
Catherine  ;  sons  William,  George,  and  James ; 

wife  and  eldest  son  Wm  ex18.  Witnesses  :  Geo. 
Edge,  Thos.  Wellings,  John  Sendall  his  sere. 
Dated  17  Feb.,  1718  ;  proved  11  March,  1718. 

Will  of  James  Pike,  mariner,  of  H.M.S.  Dread- 
nought.— All  to  wife  Sarah  Pike  of  parish  of 
Aldgate,  sole  exix.  Dated  13  April,  1743.  Wit- 
nesses :  Ed.  Boscawen,  Mich.  Tisdell.  Proved 
by  executrix  29  July,  1762.  (P.C.C.) 

Will  of  James  Pyke  of  Upper  Moorfield,  in  the 
psh.  of  St.  Leonard's,  Shoreditch,  silk  dyer. — 
Sister  Mary  Cooper,  wife  of  William  Cooper  of 
Newgate  Street,  weaver,  sole  exu  and  residuary 
legatee  ;  sister  Elizabeth  Norton,  wife  of  Thomas 
Norton  of  Befford,  Northants,  husbandman  ; 
nephew  Thomas,  one  of  sons  of  late  brother 
William  Pyke  ;  nephews  and  nieces  James 
Pyke,  John  Pyke,  Elizabeth  P.,  and  Mary  Watson, 

wife  of  Watson,  Baker  ;  other  children  of 

W.  P.  ;  nephew  W™  P.  (son  of  brother  Wm)  and 
Sarah  his  wife.  Dated  18  July,  1750.  Witnesses: 
John  Parry,  Thos.  Upton.  Proved  21  June, 
1751,  by  executrix.  (P.C.C.,  Busby,  186.) 

Once  more  the  italics  are  mine  in  the  wills 
of  James  Pyke  of  Deptford  and  of  James 
Pyke  of  St.  Leonard's,  Shoreditch.  A 
search  was  made  of  the  baptismal  register 
(1702-8)  of  St.  Nicholas,  Deptford,  to  ascer- 
tain whether  the  older  James  (will  proved 
1718)  had  a  daughter  Mary  or  Elizabeth, 
but  in  vain.  This  makes  one  doubt  a  little 
the  identity  of  his  son  James  with  the  James 
Pyke  of  St.  Leonard's,  Shoredith.  It  will  be 
noted  that  the  latter  mentions  a  nephew 
William  Pyke  and  Sarah  his  wife.  What 
was  the  maiden  surname  of  the  wife  Sarah  ? 
Was  she  a  daughter  of  Mrs.  Sybilla  Halley 
of  East  Greenwich  (ob.  1772)  by  a  marriage 
before  that  with  the  astronomer's  only 
maturing  son,  Edmund  Halley,  jun.,  surgeon 
R.N.  (ob.  Feb.,  1740/41)  ?  He  seems  to 
have  died  without  issue  (10  S.  vii.  446). 
What  was  the  surname  of  Mrs.  Sybilla 
Halley 's  (supposed)  first  husband  ?  Was 
it  Stewart  or  Bruce  ?  Did  they  have  two 
daughters,  Sybilla  and  Sarah  ?  Did  one 
daughter,  Sybilla,  marry  John  Parry  and 
have  issue  (see  10  S.  xii.  344  ;  11  S.  i.  286)  ? 
Did  the  other  (supposed)  daughter,  Sarah, 
marry  William  Pyke  and  have  issue  one 
son  James,  born  c.  1751  ?  See  9  S.  xi.  205-6  ; 
xii.  468.  The  answers  to  these  queries 
may  solve  the  entire  problem. 

Nearly  all  the  foregoing  notes  were 
generously  supplied  to  the  present  writer  by 
Mr.  Beevor.  EUGENE  F.  McPiKE. 

1,  Park  Row,  Chicago. 

correspondent  asked  recently  for  the  source 
of  this  quotation,  which  was  sent  direct.  It 
is  well  known  to  students  of  Roman  history, 
but  as  I  now  find  that  it  is  unrecorded  alike 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  ie,  mo. 

an  the  '  Dictionary  of  Quotations  (Classi- 
cal),' by  T.  B.  Harbottle,  and  King's  '  Classi- 
cal and  Foreign  Quotations,'  I  add  the  text 
and  reference  : — 

"Verumque  confitentibus  latifundia  perdidere 
Italiam  :  jam  vero  et  provincias." — Pliny,  *  Natural 
History,'  xviii.  6. 


— Lest  it  should  escape  the  attention  of 
your  readers,  kindly  allow  me  to  bring  to 
their  notice  the  long  article  by  Dr.  Cossio  on 
•*  The  Landi  Dante  Codex  at  Manchester,' 
which  appears  in  the  June  number  of  The 
Antiquary.  The  precious  manuscript,  fully 
described,  is  preserved  in  the  John  Rylands 
library,  and  Dr.  Cossio,  the  well-known 
Dante  scholar,  suggests  that  it  should  be 
called  "  The  Codex  Manquniensis." 


At  10  S.  vi.  486  W.  C.  B.  quoted  the  following 
words  from  Bishop  Fisher's  l  Assertionis 
Lutheranae  Confutatio,'  1523  (p.  463),  and 
asked  for  the  origin  and  reference  : — 

"Sic  enim  (renitente  prouerbio)  Thylaco  maior 
«rit  accessoria  sarcinula." 

The  source  is  a  passage  in  chap.  x.  of  Lucian's 
•dialogue  '  Demosthenis  Encomium.'  One 
of  the  speakers  is  meditating  a  panegyrical 
address  on  Demosthenes.  His  friend  en- 
couragingly reminds  him  of  the  wealth  of 
material  that  lies  to  hand,  and  begins  by 
enumerating  at  length  the  many  points  that 
can  be  made  in  connexion  with  the 
importance  and  splendour  of  Demosthenes' 
native  city — Athens,  but  breaks  off  to  remark 
that  perhaps  he  may  be  anxious  not  to 
draw  down  on  himself  the  gibe  that  want  of 
proportion  is  apt  to  provoke,  the  proverb 
about  the  label  being  bigger  than  the  bag  : 
croc  §'  io-(i>?  evA.a/3eia  TO  rfjs  Trapot/u'as  o-/cw//,//,a 

7TpOO-K6OlTO  TOVTTiypa^tt  TO) 

The  explanation  of  the  curious  form  in 
which  the  proverb  is  quoted  by  Fisher, 
where  "  accessoria  sarcinula "  has  no 
correspondence  to  rovTrtypa/x/Aa,  may  be 
seen  by  consulting  Erasmus's  '  Adagia,' 
p.  24,  in  Grynaeus's  edition  of  1629,  under  the 
heading  '  Accessio  pusilla  aut  nimia.'  Eras- 
mus, after  quoting^the  Greek  words,  with  the 
substitution  of  Tov7ri'o~ay/xa  for  TOVTriypaa/xa, 
and  translating  them  "  At  tu  fortasse  vereris, 
ne  in  te  torqueatur  illud  proverbiale  dic- 
terium,  de  male  respondente  proportione  : 
nempe,  ne  tibi  thylaco  maior  sit  accessoria 
sarcinula,"  adds  that  he  is  aware  the  ordinary 




scripturam  mutaris,  nulla  sententia  potest 
elici."  Erasmus  meant  €7rtaay//,a  to  mean 
an  extra  packet  taken  by  a  carrier  besides 
his  proper  load.  But  the  change  is  uncalled 
for.  The  proverb  of  the  label  being  larger 
than  the  bag  is  unintentionally  illustrated 
by  a  picture  postcard  that  may  be  seen  in 
Wales,  on  which  an  adhesive  label  of  inter- 
minable length,  imprinted  with  a  notorious 
Welsh  place-name,  is  being  produced  to 
decorate  a  very  diminutive  valise. 


—  The  following  advertisement  appeared  in 
The  Worcester  Daily  Times  of  18  June  :  — 
To  the  Inhabitants  of  Eckington  and  to  all  whom 

it  may  concern. 

Whereas  Mary  J.  Dance,  wife  of  John  Dance,  of 
your  Parish,  has  been  repeatedly  slandered  in 
common  talk  and  gossip  as  a  Witch,  with  other 
false  and  injurious  accusations  against  her  person 
and  character,  and  has  thereby  suffered  grievously 
in  mind  and  body,  and  in  the  esteem  and  fellowship 
of  her  neighbours,  this  is  to  give  notice  that  upon 
any  repetition  of  these  offences  legal  action  will  at 
once  be  taken  against  the  slanderer  ;  and,  further, 
that  any  person  giving  to  me,  at  the  address  below, 
such  information  of  any  such  offence  as  will  justify 
the  taking  of  legal  proceedings,  will  be  suitably 

51,  Foregate-street,  Worcester. 
Solicitor  ior  the  said  Mary  J.  Dance. 

A.  F.  B. 

molition of  this  well-known  place  of  worship, 
which  for  many  years  has  stood  at  the  corner 
of  Rye  Lane,  will  remove  another  famous 
South  London  landmark.  The  congregation 
has  an  unbroken  history  of  over  two  cen- 
turies and  a  quarter,  and  originally  wor- 
shipped in  a  building  known  as  the  "  Meeting 
House,"  which  stood  on  a  site  close  to  High 
Street,  Peckham,  and  is  still  commemorated 
by  the  thoroughfare  known  as  Meeting- 
House  Lane.  This  chapel  was  started  in 
1657  by  the  Kev.  John  Maynard,  the 
ejected  vicar  of  Camber  well  Parish  Church. 
In  1751-4  the  pastor  was  Dr.  John  Milner, 
who  also  kept  a  school  near  by,  where  Oliver 
Goldsmith  was  an  usher.  This  old  building, 
afterwards  known  as  Goldsmith  House,  was 

?ulled  down  some  thirty  years  since.  From 
801  to  1854  Dr.  John  Collyer  was  the 
minister,  and  the  fame  of  his  preaching 
attracted  crowds  of  fashionable  people, 
including  the  Duke  of  Sussex,  the  uncle  of 
Queen  Victoria,  who  presented  the  organ 
still  in  use.  The  name  of  Hanover  was  given 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


to  the  chapel  out  of  compliment  to  the  royal 
house  to  which  the  Duke  belonged. 

The  Collyer  Memorial  Schools,  which  were 
erected  in  memory  of  Dr.  Collyer,  have  long 
been  famous  as  a  political  centre  for  South 
London  Liberalism. 


"  BUDGET  "  AS  A  VERB.  —  Mr.  Lloyd 
George  is  reported  (Standard,  5  July)  to 
have  said  in  Parliament  the  previous  day : 
"  I  have  budgetted  for  exactly  the  same 
figure  this  year  as  last." 

This  free  formation  of  verbs  out  of  nouns 
is  to  be  deprecated.  It  smacks  of  the 
degraded  English  prevalent  in  the  average 
City  prospectus.  Poets,  of  course,  have 
taken  this  licence,  e.g.,  Shakespeare's  wind 
that  "  hath  ruffian'd  so  upon  the  sea  " ;  but 
poets  have  a  taste  and  instinct  for  language 
which  financial  experts  lack! 

The  House  of  Commons  has  now,  I  am 
told,  a  higher  standard  of  culture  than  it 
had  in  earlier  years.  While  I  do  not  doubt 
this,  I  see  no  signs  of  a  raising  of  the 
standard  of  English  which  prevails  among 
M.P.s.  Quotations  from  foreign  languages 
having  gone  out,  one  might  hope  for  a  more 
skilful  use  of  the  native  tongue. 


WE  must  request  corresp9ndents  desiring  in 
formation  on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

"TENTH"  OR  "  TENT.  "—In  connexion 
with  the  various  forms  of  this  numeral, 
I  want  to  know  how  far  over  England  the 
form  tent  extends.  Dr.  Wright,  in  his 
'Eng.  Dial.  Grammar,'  says,  p.  269:  "In 
the  dialects,  especially  of  Scotland,  Ireland, 
JSorth  England,  Leicester,  Worcester,  Shrop- 
shire, the  ordinals  after  *  third *  take  the 
suffix  -t  instead  of  the  literary  Eng.  -ih' 
Will  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  elsewhere  kindly 
inform  me  by  post-card  whether  tent  is  the 
form  in  their  locality  ?  We  know  that  it  is 
in  Scotland,  but  its  limits  in  England  and 
Ireland  are  wanted.  Dialect  glossaries  un- 
fortunately do  not  give  the  information. 

Oxford  is  sufficient  address. 

J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 

"  TILLEUL."— This,  the  French  name  of  the 
linden  or  lime  tree,  appears  to  be  used  in 
English  as  the  name  of  a  colour  or  shade. 
What  colour  does  it  mean  ?  Is  it  the  pale 

green  of  the  leaves  of  the  linden,  or  the 
yellowish  whity-brown  of  linden  bast  ? 
A  quotation  of  1884  has  "a  light  tilleul 
ground,  just  the  tint  of  lettuce/4 

And  what  is  the  tilleul  variety  of   tea  ? 
The  Daily  Chronicle  of  14  November,  1908, 
lad   ' '  Ordinary  tea  has  been  replaced  by 
he  bitter-tasted  tilleul  variety,  which  was 
first  on  show  at  an  hotel  in  Paris.'1 

J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 

1350. — I  should  like  to  know  if  there  is  any 
modern  collection  of  reproductions  of  sepul- 
chral monuments  in  stone  or  brass  of  the 
period  1300-1350,  for  use  in  the  study  of 
:,he  weapons  of  that  time.  I  am  writing  an 
essay,  chiefly  philological,  on  the  subject. 
[  am  already  acquainted  with  Meyrick, 
*  A  Critical  Inquiry  into  Antient  Armour,' 
&c.,  London,  1844,  and  Hewitt,  '  Armour  and 
Weapons  in  Europe,'  London,  1855-60  ;  but 
I  should  be  glad  to  have  some  modern  com- 
plete work.  Has  Meyrick 's  work  found 
any  modern  continuator  ? 



JULIET.'— On  p.  2297  of  the  1890  edition  of 
Lowndes's  '  Bibliographer's  Manual *  I  find 
notice  of  an  edition  of  Shakespeare's  '  Romeo 
and  Juliet/  with  alterations  and  an  addi- 
tional scene  by  David  Garrick,  printed  in 
London  in  12mo  in  1748.  Will  any  of  your 
readers  who  know  of  the  existence  of  a 
copy  of  this  edition  inform  me  of  its  loca- 
tion ?  W.  P.  CUTTER,  Forbes  Librarian. 

Northampton,  Mass. 

1820-25  Charles  W.  C.  Fisher,  in  the  Irish 
Civil  Service,  married  a  Miss  Pent-land,  who 
had  taken  the  name  of  her  godfather,  an 
excise  officer  in  the  same  service,  in  place 
of  her  original  one  of  Pendlebury.  She  is 
known  to  have  been  descended  from  some 
portion  of  the  Swifts  of  Dublin,  the  Dean's 
family,  but  I  do  not  know  which,  or  what 
was  the  exact  line,  and  should  very  much 
like  to  obtain  the  information.  One  of  the 
issue  of  this  marriage  was  the  late  T.  P. 
Fisher  of  Ballymena,  in  the  service  of  Lord 

Hartford,  Conn. 

ABBE  SE  . . . — A  book  in  my  possession  has 
a  page  of  MS.  in  French.  A  note  subjoined 
states  that  the  writing  is  that  of  the  Abbe 
Se...,  and  that  the  book  was  No.  2119  in 
his  sale  catalogue.  Unfortunately,  the  writ- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  IG,  1910. 

ing  of  the  name  is  so  illegible  that  neither  I 
nor  my  friends  can  make  out  more  than  the 
first  two  letters.  Some  of  your  readers  may 
be  able  to  tell  of  a  French  book-collector  (of, 
I  should  judge,  the  eighteenth  century, 
who  was  an  Abbe,  and  whose  name  began 
with  Se R.  S. 

Napoleon  went  to  live  at  Long  wood  during 
his  exile  at  St.  Helena  it  was  occupied  by 
the  Lieutenant-Governor,  Col.  Skelton.  Who 
was  Col.  Skelton,  and  what  was  his  record 
before  and  after  his  St.  Helena  days  ? 

In  one  of  the  earlier  volumes  of  Punch  there 
were  some  clever  poems  called,  I  think, 
'  Drawing-Room  Ditties.1  They  professed  to 
translate  popular  'Coster  songs  into  elegant 
drawing-room  language,  e.g.  : — 

If  1  had  a  Neddy  wot  wouldn't  go, 
D 'ye  think  I'd  wallop  him  ?  No,  no,  no. 
I  'd  give  him  hay,  and  cry  "  Gee-wo, 
Gee  up,  Neddy." 

The  same  for  drawing-room  use  : — • 

Had  I  an  ass  averse  to  speed, 
Deem'st  thou  I  'd  strike  him  !    No,  indeed  ! 
I'd  give  him  hay  and  say,  " Proceed  ! 
Go  on,  Edward  ! " 

There  is  no  general  index  to  Punch,  and  I 
should  be  much  obliged  to  any  one  who 
would  give  me  the  exact  reference. 


Bitton  Vicarage,  Bristol. 

SNUFF-BOX  INSCRIPTION. — I  have  in  my 
possession  my  grandfather's  snuff-box,  of 
horn  and  pewter.  The  following  inscription 
in  Roman  letters  surrounds  a  sun  with  eight 
rays  (or  an  eight-pointed  star)  on  the  lid  : 
WITHE  TEREP.  I  should  be  much  obliged  if 
any  one  could  explain  these  words.  I 
suggest  a  possible  Cornish  signification. 

(Major)  S.  WILLCOCK. 
8,  Alexandra  Terrace,  Dorchester 

UPPER  CHEYNE  Row,  CHELSEA. — Has  the 
barred  and  deserted  house  on  the  right- 
hand  side  of  Upper  Cheyne  Row,  Chelsea, 
going  from  Oakley  Street,  any  history  ? 


Thornhill,  Wigan. 

[A  Chelsea  correspondent  favours  us  with  the 
following  note : — 

There  are  two  barred  and  deserted  houses  on  the 
north  side  of  Upper  Cheyne  Row,  one  of  which  is 
called  Cheyne  House,  and  dates  from  Queen  Anne. 
The  other  is  labelled  "  Renaissance  de  Chateau  de 
Savenay,"  and  is  the  whim  of  the  owner  of  both 
houses,  Dr.  Phene.  The  house  at  the  corner  is 
intended  to  represent  a  reconstruction  of  a  French 

Chateau,  such  as  belonged  to  Dr.  Phene"  ;s  French 
ancestors,  and  has  been  pulled  to  pieces  and  put 
together  again,  with  its  rococo  decorations,  a  good 
many  times  within  the  last  fifteen  years.  The 
older  house  is  a  storeroom  for  some  of  the  stones 
which  Dr.  Phene  has  collected.  No  history 
attaches  to  either  house,  though  a  good  deal  of 
local  legend  has  been  framed  to  account  for  Dr. 
Phone"' s  refusal  to  open  or  let  Cheyne  House.] 

DR.  JOHN  HOUGH,  Bishop  of  Worcester, 
who  was  born  12  April,  1651,  and  died 

8  May,    1743,   and  whose  monument  is  in 
Worcester  Cathedral,  was  the  son  of  John 
Hough,  citizen  of  London. 

I  shall  be  glad  if  any  of  your  readers  can 
give  me  particulars  of  Dr.  Hough's  family 
history  and  connexions.  Had  he  any 
children,  brothers,  sisters,  or  uncles,  and  if  so, 
where  did  they  reside  ? 

I  should  also  like  to  know  the  names  and 
birthplace  of  any  descendants  connected 
with  this  family,  and  to  have  a  brief  summary 
of  the  will  of  Dr.  John  Hough. 

Please  reply  direct.  E.  MAYO. 

14,  Burgess  Road,  Basingstoke. 

MARKET  DAY. — I  am  just  now  in  a  boat- 
train  speeding  towards  Harwich,  and  am 
endeavouring  to  assuage  a  hungry  mind  on 
Great  Eastern  Railway  timetables.  A  list 
of  markets  in  places  served  by  the  G.E.R. 
absorbs  my  attention.  Fifty-seven  towns 
are  mentioned,  and  of  these  thirteen  only 
have  Saturday  markets,  seven  of  them  having 
likewise  a  market  on  some  other  day  of  the 
week.  Cambridge  has  Monday  and  Satur- 
day ;  Lynn  and  Saffron  Walden,  Tuesday 
and  Saturday  ;  Norwich,  Peterborough,  and 
Yarmouth,  Wednesday  and  Saturday  ;  and 
Wisbech,  Thursday  and  Saturday.  To  me 
Saturday  seems  to  be  such  a  specially  appro- 
priate time  for  storing  manna  that  I  am 
surprised  to  find  the  farming  world  is  of  a 
different  opinion,  and  I  am  led  to  ask  what 
originally  regulated  the  appointment  of 
market  days.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

Department,  British  Museum,  are  a  few 
notebooks,  &c.,  formerly  the  property  of 
this  painter  (Addit.  MSS.  22947  to  22952), 
also  a  few  of  his  letters  (Addit.  MS.  21113). 

From  communications  made  by  T.  C. 
SMITH  at  5  S.  iv.  5,  and  by  W.  I.  R.  V.  at 

9  S.  iii.  401,  it- is  clear  that  other  letters  and 
papers  of  Ozias  Humphry's  were  in  existence 
not  so  very  long  ago  ;    indeed,  T.  C.  SMITH 
expressly   says  :     "  Looking   over   the   very 
interesting  correspondence  of  the  celebrated 
miniature    painter    Ozias    Humphry,"    &c. 
There  is  also  reason  to  think  that  the  artist 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

had  a  collection  of  old  deeds,  &c.,  relating 
to  property  in  Devonshire  which  formerly 
belonged  to  his  family. 

Can  any  one  tell  me  into  whose  hands 
all  these  documents  and  papers  have  fallen, 
or  in  any  way  assist  me  to  trace  them  ?  I 
am  anxious  to  obtain  access  to  them^for 
historical  purposes.  M.  F.  H. 

The  Grove,  Harapstead,  N.W. 

note  in  Alban  Butler's  '  Lives  of  the  Saints  l 
(Dublin,  Coyne ;  London,  Booker,  1833), 
vol.  iv.  p.  515  (St.  Lioba,  28  Sept.),  speaks  of 
"  the  ancient  great  monastery  of  Winburn  " 
as  being  "  double."  Is  there  any  authority 
for  this  statement,  beyond  the  impression 
that  the  Anglo-Saxon  monasteries  were  as  a 
rule  "  double  ?J  ones  ? 

The  Vicarage,  Wimborne  Minuter. 

LIARDET. — Lionel  Liardet  was  admitted 
to  Westminster  School  26  Jan.,  1778,  and 
John  William  Tell  Liardet  14  Jan.,  1788.  I 
should  be  glad  to  obtain  any  information  con- 
cerning them.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

GEORGE  MAN  was  elected  from  West- 
minster to  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  in 
1681.  I  should  be  glad  of  further  informa- 
tion concerning  him.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

GILBERT  THACKER  was  elected  from 
Westminster  to  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
in  1677.  Any  information  about  him  would 
be  useful.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

SIR  W.  B.  RUSH,  BT.— In  the  '  D.N.B.' 
it  is  stated  that  Dr.  E.  Daniel  Clarke  married 
Angelica,  fifth  daughter  of  Sir  W.  B.  Rush, 
Bt.  I  shall  be  much  obliged  if  your 
readers  can  tell  me  if  this  is  correct,  as  I 
cannot  find  any  baronet  of  that  name  among 
extinct  or  living  baronets.  M.  A. 

cursions in  Suffolk,1  2  vols.,  published  in 
1818,  on  p.  219,  I  read:— 

"  Mickfield.  Two  manors  are  mentioned  here, 
viz.  Wolney  Hall  and  Flede  Hall.  The  first 
belonged  to  the  alien  priory  of  Grestien  in  Nor- 
mandy, and  is  supposed  to  have  been  sold  by 
that  convent  to  Tydemmanus  de  Lymberg 
about  the  year  1347." 

^  I  shall  be  glad  if  '  N.  &  Q.'  readers  can 
give  me  information  confirming  the  above 
statement,  or  tell  me  how  I  can  find  any 
facts  relating  to  the  aforesaid  Tydemmanus, 
who  and  what  he  was. 

66,  Cecil  Road,  Upton  Manor,  E. 

TION CEREMONY. — Can  any  reader  give 
information  as  to  the  origin  of  the  remark- 
able ceremony  at  the  consecration  of  this 
Cathedral  on  Tuesday,  the  28th  of  June  ? 
I  believe  that  its  history  has  long  been  a 
puzzle  to  ecclesiastical  archaeologists.  Arch- 
bishop Bourne  traced  the  letters  of  the  Greek 
and  Latin  alphabets  on  forty-seven  heaps 
of  ashes  on  the  floor  of  the  Cathedral.  The 
Illustrated  London  News  of  the  2nd  of  July, 
under  an  illustration  of  the  ceremony, 
states  : — 

"  The  most  popular  theory  is  that  it  originated  io 
the  procedure  of  the  Roman  land  surveyors,  who 
traced  two  transverse  lines  in  the  first  instance  on 
the  lands  they  wished  to  measure." 

The  Rev.  Herbert  Thurston,  writing  in 
The  Month,  suggests  that  Celtic  influences 
have  much  to  do  with  the  ceremony,  and 
quotes  as  one  of  several  points  in  favour  of 
lis  view,  Nennius's  statement  concerning 
St.  Patrick  :— 

*  He  wrote  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  alpha- 
Dets  or  more,  and  he  also  founded  churches  in  the 
same  number,  three  hundred  and  sixty-five.  He 
ordained  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  bishops  also, 
or  more,  in  whom  was  the  Spirit  of  God." 

A.  N.  Q. 

CHIDEOCK. — What  is  the  origin  of  the 
above  as  a  Christian  name  ?  Elizabethan 
imes  supply  two  fairly  well-known  Hamp- 
shire examples  in  the  persons  of  Lord 
Uhideock  Paulet,  and  Mr.  Chideock  Tich- 
Dorne,  the  conspirator.  HARMATOPEGOS. 

[s  anything  known  as  to  the  right  to  keep 
pigeons  in  columbaria  in  the  Middle  Ages  ? 
[s  it  a  fact  that  it  was  a  privilege  enjoyed 
only  by  lords  of  manors  ?     At  Broughton 
n    Hampshire   is   a   well-preserved    colum- 
Darium  standing  near  the  Rectory,  and  still 
nhabited      by     semi-wild     pigeons.       This 
columbarium   is   mentioned  in    1341,   when 
Broughton  Church  was  taxed  for  the  French 
wars  of  Edward  III.     There  was  at  that  time 
'  a  rectory  house,  with  forty  acres  of  land, 
wo  acres  of  pasture,  and  a  columbarium." 
The  structure  stands  in  a  field  (adjoining  the 
churchyard)    which    anciently    belonged    to 
he  glebe,  but  in  the  course  of  time  it  passed 
o  the  lords  of  the  manor,  and  was  lost  to 
he  church.     In  recent  years,   the  church- 
/ard  requiring  an  extension,  Mr.  Baring  of 
Gorman  Court  (the  then  lord)  made  over  the 
ield    containing    the    pigeon-house    to    the 
church.     At    that    time    the    question    was 
aised   of  removing   the   building,    but   the 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       pi  s.  n.  JDLV  ie, 1910. 

then  Bishop  of  Winchester  desired  that  so 
ancient  and  unusual  a  rectorial  possession 
should  be  preserved.  Is  anything  known 
as  to  grants  of  columbaria  to  country 
rectories  ?  F.  H.  S. 


(11  S.  ii.  7.) 

THERE  have  been  four  statues  of  George  I. 
in  London,  viz.  :  — 

1.  In  Leicester  Square. 

2.  In  the  Royal  Exchange,  burnt  in  1838. 

3.  On  the  so-called  steeple  of  St.  George's 
Church,  Hart  Street,  Bloomsbury. 

4.  In  Grosvenor  Square. 

Of  the  four,  only  one,  that  on  St.  George's 
steeple,  remains.  • 

The  equestrian  statue  of  George  I.  which 
stood  in  the  centre  of  Leicester  Square  came 
from  Canons,  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of 
Chandos.  It  is  said  to  have  been  cast 
by  Van  Nost,  was  erected  in  Leicester 
Square  by  Frederick,  Prince  of  Wales  — 
Walpole  says  to  vex  his  father,  George  II. 
—  and  uncovered  with  some  ceremony  19 
November,  1748.  When  the  building  for 
"Wyld's  Great  Globe"  was  erected  in 
1851,  the  statue  was  taken  down  and  buried. 
On  the  removal  of  that  structure  in  October, 
1862,  the  statue  was  again  set  up,  but  minus 
a  leg  and  otherwise  disfigured.  It  was  sold 
22  May,  1872,  for  161.  This  is  part  of  the 
story  as  told  by  Mr.  Henry  B.  Wheatley 
in  'London  Past  and  Present,'  1891,  s.v. 
Leicester  Square. 

John  Hollingshead  in  '  The  Story  of 
Leicester  Square,'  1892,  p.  24,  says  :  _ 

"It  could  not  have  been  erected  in  1748,  as 
generally  stated,  as  a  print  of  the  Square  in  the 
.British  Museum,  dated  1751,  shows  a  Dutch-looking 
tree  in  the  middle.  Perhaps  the  print  is  wrongly 

On  this  point  Peter  Cunningham  in  his 
'  Handbook  of  London,'  new  edition,  1850, 
p.  285,  says  :  — 

•  "J  h££e  a  *?roof  of  the  view  of  Leicester  Square, 
m  the  1754  ed.  of  Stow,  ivithout  the  statue  in  the 
centre.  The  print  in  the  book  contains  the  statue  ; 
therefore  in  all  likelihood  erected  about 

As  Mr.  Wheatley  's  book  is  based  on  Peter 
Cunningham's  'Handbook,'  he  possibly  had 
good  reason  for  stating  1748  as  the  date,  not- 
withstanding what  Cunningham  had  written. 
f  It  will  be  remembered  that  some  practical 
jokers  painted  the  statue,  white  with  red 
spots  (I  think).  This  was  in  1866  ;  see 

Hollingshead's  book,  p.  73.  Some  time 
afterwards  the  statue  of  the  king  was  thrown 
off  the  horse.  I  remember  it  lying  on  the 
ground,  and  the  horse  on  the  pedestal  with 
the  hollow  in  its  back  in  which  the  statue 
had  sat. 

In  Hollingshead's  little  book  are  the  follow- 
ing prints  : — 

P.  11.  'Baron  Albert  Grant,  M.P.'— A 
caricature  of  him  sitting  on  the  spotted 

P.    53.   'The   Last  of   the   Old   Horse.'- 
"  Water-Colour  by  Mr.  John  O'Connor,  the 
Scenic  Artist,  when  he  had  a  studio  in  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds'  house  in  Leicester  Square." 

P.  71.  '  The  Statue  in  1866.'— This  is  a 
caricature  of  the  statue  after  it  had  been 
painted  (as  above).  Written  on  a  scroll  in 
the  background  is  the  following  : — 

"The  Statue" 

in  Leicester  Square,  on 

Wednesday  morning 

October  17th 

A.D.  1866. 

On  the  pedestal  are  inscribed  the  initials 
"  A.D.G."  In  the  sinister  corner  of  the 
print  is  "  W.  Gee  RA.  delt." 

P.  72.  '  After  the  Fire  at  Savile  House.'— 
This  gives  a  back  view  of  the  statue,  with 
Stagg  &  Mantle's  shop,  &c.,  in  the  back- 

According  to  '  Paterson's  Roads,'  18th  ed., 
1826,  p.  176,  the  Duke  of  Chandos's  mansion, 
Canons  Park,  was  pulled  down,  and  the 
materials  sold  by  auction,  after  his  death  in 
1 744.  Presumably  the  statue  was  sold  about 
that  time. 

There  were  statues  of  the  first  two  Georges 
by  Rysbrack,  as  well  as  one  by  Wilton  of 
George  III.  and  one  of  George  IV.,  in  the 
second  Royal  Exchange,  i.e.,  that  built  after 
the  Great  Fire  of  1666.  This  building  was 
also  destroyed  by  fire  10  January,  1838. 
Apparently  the  only  statue  which  escaped 
was  that  of  Sir  Thomas  Gresham.  It  had 
also  escaped  in  the  Great  Fire.  ( '  London 
Past  and  Present,'  iii.  183-4.) 

There  is  a  statue  of  George  I.  on  the  top 
of  the  steeple  of  St.  George's  Church,  Hart 
Street,  Bloomsbury.  It  was  erected  by 
William  Hucks,  the  rich  brewer  (d.  1740 
The  steeple  appears  in  the  background  of 
Hogarth's  'Gin  Lane'  (ibid.,  ii.  97).  The 
figure  is,  I  think,  in  Roman  military 

Now  as  to  the  statue  in  Grosvenor  Square. 

"In  the  centre  [i.e.  of  Grosvenor  Square],  on  the 
now  vacant  pedestal,  was  '  a  doubly  gilt '  equestrian 
statue  of  George  I.  by  Van  Nort  [Nost],  erected  in 
1726  by  Sir  Richard  Grosvenor.  In  March,  1727,  the 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  16, 



statue  was  maliciously  defaced  and  mutilated  by 
some  virulent  partizan  of  the  Pretender  —  as 
appeared  from  a  coarse  paper  attached  to  the 
pedestal."— Ibid.,  ii.  164. 

'  London,'  edited  by  Charles  Knight,  1844, 
vi.  202,  speaks  of  it  as  existing  at  that  time 
(1844)  "  within  the  enclosure. . .  .almost 
hidden  in  summer  by  the  surrounding 

Mr.  E.  Beresford  Chancellor  in  his  '  History 
of  the  Squares  of  London,'  1907,  p.  39,  says 
it  was  long  since  removed,  its  site  being 
occupied  by  a  summer-house.  He  repro- 
duces, facing  p.  23,  a  view  of  Grosvenor 
Square  with  the  statue  in  it  from  Strype's 
edition  of  Stow,  1755,  adding  that  it  is 
practically  identical  with  a  smaller  plan  by 
Bocque,  1741-5  (p.  39). 

Mr.  Chancellor  in  his  book,  p.  170,  gives 
Van  Nost  as  the  author  of  the  statues  in 
Leicester  and  Grosvenor  Squares,  and  re- 
marks that  the  date  of  the  unveiling  of  the 
Leicester  Square  statue,  19  November,  1748, 
was  the  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Frederick, 
Prince  of  Wales,  and  of  Charles  I.  A  foot- 
note says  :  "  Curiously  enough,  the  horse 
had  been  modelled  from  Le  Sueur's  beauti- 
ful statue  of  Charles  at  Charing  Cross." 

It  may  interest  LOUD  CUBZON,  and  others, 
to  know  that  the  gilded  lead  equestrian  statue 
of  George  I.,  which  stood  for  some  time  in 
Leicester  Square,  is  the  same  one  by  Van 
Nost  that  stood  at  the  Duke  of  Chandos's 
place,  Canons,  at  Edgware  till  it  was  pulled 
down.  It  is  frequently  stated  in  guide- 
books, notably  in  '  London  Past  and  Present,* 
by  Wheatley,  that  it  was  uncovered  with 
some  ceremony  on  19  November,  1748.  But 
as  to  this  ambiguity  exists,  and  there  was 
some  interesting  correspondence  on  the 
subject  in  the  Third  Series  of  '  N.  &  Q.*  in 
1862  (i.  227  and  ii.  150,  170,  400,  416,  436, 
and  495). 

The  statue  of  George  I.  on  the  top  of  St. 
George's  Church  in  Hart  Street,  Bloomsbury, 
was  characterized  by  Horace  Walpole  as  a 
masterpiece  of  absurdity:  Some  wag  wrote 
of  it : — 

When  Henry  VIII.  left  the  Pope  in  the  lurch, 
The  Protestants  made  him  the  head  of  the  Church  ; 
But  George's  good  subjects,  the  Bloomsbury  people, 
Instead  of  the  Church  made  him  head  of  the  steeple ; 
and  yet  another  at  the  time  of  its  erection : — 

No  longer  stand  staring, 

My  friend  at  Cross  Charing, 
Amidst  such  a  number  of  people, 

For  a  man  on  a  horse 

Is  a  matter  of  course, 
But  look,  here 's  a  king  on  a  steeple ! 

There  used  to  be  a  statue  of  George  I.  in 
Grosvenor  Square,  but  what  has  become  of  it 

1  have  failed  to  discover.     MB.  PAGE  asked 
if  any  one  knew  (10  S.  x.  123),  but  I  do  not 
think  his  inquiry  elicited  any  response. 


[See  MR.  PIERPOINT'S  reply  on  this  page.] 

The  equestrian  statue  of  George  I.  which 
was  in  Leicester  Square  was  the  one  formerly 
at  Canons.  It  was  the  work  of  Buchard, 
and  was  executed  for  the  Duke  of  Chandos. 

In  1747,  when  Canons  was  dismantled, 
the  inhabitants  of  Leicester  Square  bought 
the  statue  and  placed  it  in  the  centre  of  the 
Square.  In  1812  it  was  regilt,  but  after  a 
time  it  was  allowed  to  perish,  and  ultimately 
was  pulled  to  pieces  by  the  populace. 

Swallowfield  Park,  Reading. 

The  statue  of  George  I.  which  embellishes 
the    steeple   of    St.    George's,    Bloomsbury 
is  the  work  of  Nicholas  Hawksmoor. 

W.  A.  H. 

The  statue  at  Hackwood  is  included  in  my 
fifth  list  of  *  Statues  and  Memorials  in  the 
British  Isles  z  (see  ante,  p.  43).  I  am,  how- 
ever, unable  to  furnish  further  information 
concerning  it.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

Long  Itchington,  Warwickshire. 

In  the  issue  of  The  Weekly  Irish  Times  for 

2  July   is   a  paragraph   which  may  be  of 
interest  to  LOBD  CUBZON  : — 

"The  equestrian  statue  of  George  I.,  which  at 
present  stands  at  the  left  hand  of  the  Mansion 
House,  Dawson  Street,  was  originally  erected  in 
the  year  1720,  on  Essex  Bridge  (now  Grattan 
Bridge),  where  it  continued  until  the  rebuilding  of 
that  structure  in  1755.  It  was  then  removed  to 
Aungier  Street,  where  it  remained  until  1798,  when 
it  was  '  re-elevated '  in  its  present  somewhat  obscure 
position.  It  is  a  fine  specimen  of  the  old-fashioned 
equestrian  type,  but  few  people  know  whom  it  is 
intended  to  represent.  The  following  is  the  in- 
scription on  the  pedestal : — 

Be  it  remembered,  that 

at  the  time  when  Rebellion  and  Disloyalty 

Were  the  Characteristics  of  the  Day 

the  loyal  Corporation  of 

the  City  or  Dublin 
re- elevated  this  Statue  of  the 

First  Monarch  of  the 

Illustrious  House  of  Hanover. 

Thomas    Fleming,     Lord     Mayor. 

Jonas  Paisley  and  William  Henry  Archer, 

Anno  Domini  1798." 

The  above  account,  which  occurs  in  a  series 
called  '  Dublin  Monuments  and  Statues,' 
is  illustrated  with  a  photograph,  but,  owing 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [ii  s.  n.  JULY  ie,  IQIO. 

to  the  printing,  it  is  only  a  pale  silhouette. 
As  no  mention  is  made  of  the  sculptor's  name, 
that  is  doubtless  forgotten. 

39,  Renfrew  Road,  Lower  Kennington  Lane. 
[J.  S.  S.  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

"  SENPERE  "  :  ?  BRIDGEKEEPER  (11  S. 
i.  510). — I  think  the  sense  is  not  exactly 
"  bridgekeeper,"  but  simply  *'  porter. n  If 
we  refer  to  Lumby's  edition  of  '  Floriz  and 
Blauncheflur,  which  gives  a  much  older  text, 
we  find  (1.  138)— 

Whane  thee  comest  to  the  yate, 
The  porter  thee  schalt  find  tharate. 
As    to    the    connexion    between    this    and 
"senpere,"    see    my    'Etym.    Diet.,2    s.v. 
'  Samphire.1     I  there  quote  from  Cotgrave 
to  show  that  sampire  (as  it  was  formerly 
spelt)  is  short  for  herbe  de  St.  Pierre,  or 
"  herb  of  St.  Peter  "  ;    that  is  to  say,  the 
M.E.  Senpere  or  Sanpere  means  "  St.  Peter." 
There  is  no  difficulty  in  explaining  St.  Peter 
to   mean   "porter."     See   the   first   line   of 
Byron's   '  Vision  of  Judgment l : — 
St.  Peter  sat  by  the  celestial  gate. 


PUBLIC  SCHOOL  REGISTERS  (11  S.  i.  203, 
269,  294,  431).— It  may  be  as  well  to  record 
the  fact  that  there  are  omissions  from  the 
excellent  and  valuable  '  Register  of  Merchant 
Taylors'-  School,1  edited  by  the  late  Rev.  C.  J. 
Robinson ;  indeed,  he  expressly  states  in 
his  preface  that  "  no  accurate  record  was 
kept  until  the  institution  of  the  School's 
Probation  in  1607,n  and  therefore  he  had  to 
compile  his  list  for  the  first  forty  years 
from  various  sources,  and  principally  from  the 
"  Minute  Books  of  the  Court  of  the  Merchant 
Taylors'  Company." 

The  following  information,  taken  from  the 
'  List  of  Admissions  to  Gonville  and  Caius 
College,  Cambridge,1  edited  by  Mrs.  S.  C. 
Venn,  and  printed  in  1887,  five  years  after 
the  issue  of  the  M.  T.  S.  Register,  supplies 
names  which  apparently  do  not  appear  in  the 
records  examined  by  Mr.  Robinson  : — 
Estofte,  John,  of  Eastoft,  Yorks,  s.  of  Thomas,  Esq. 

Admitted  (to  the  College)  9  Oct.,  1571,  set.  20 

M.T.S.  4  years,  St.  John?s  College  3  years. 
Muffet,  Thomas,  s.  of  Thomas,  citizen  of  London. 

Adm.  6  Oct.,  1572,  set.  19.   M.T.S.  5  years,  Trinity 

College  4  years. 
Garwaye,  William,  s.  of  Walter,  merchant.  Adm. 

4  Aug.,  1574,  get.  20.    M.T.  and  Tunbridge  Schools 

4  years,  Trinity  College  2  years,  i 
Tippinge,   Edward,  of    Hoxton,    Middlesex,  s.  of 

Kodolph,  Yeomau.    Adm.  2  April,  1577,  set.  16. 

M.  T.  S.  4  years. 

A  bell,    Samuel,    of    Earith,    Cambs.,   s.  of  John, 

yeoman.    Adm.  27  June,  1577,  set.  18.    M.  T.  S. 
Hunnings,   Roger,  s.  of  Peter,  citizen  of  London. 

Adm.  27  April,  1579,  set.  17.    M.  T.  S.  3  years. 
Kempe,  Arthur,  s.  of  John,  citizen  and  merchant  of 

London.    Adm.  14  May,  1579,  set.  19.    M.  T.  S. 

3  years. 
Claydon,  William  &  John,  of  Bures,  Suffolk,  sons 

of  Barnabas.     Adm.  8  April,  1583,  set.  17  &  15. 

M.  T.  S. 
Hosier,  Geoffrey,  s.  of  John  of  London,  deceased. 

Adm.  29  Sept.,  1584,  set.  17.    M.  T.  S. 
Iken,    James,    par.    St.    Mildred    London,    s.    of 

Thomas,  citizen  of  London.    Adm.  6  Aug.,  1604, 

»t.  16.    M.  T.  S. 

Probably  the  early  matriculation  books 
of  Pembroke  College  would  give  the  names 
of  other  scholars  from  my  old  school  un- 
recorded by  Mr.  Robinson. 


363). — The  useful  lists  of  provincial  book- 
sellers contributed  to  10  S.  v.  and  at  the 
above  references  by  W.  C.  B.  are  very  incom- 
plete as  regards  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  ana 
Gateshead.  Many  additional  booksellers 
and  printers  in  these  towns  will  be  found 
in  Archceologia  JEliana,  Third  Series,  vol.  iii. 
pp.  128,  129, 134.  RICHARD  WELFORD. 


Under  Greenwich  W.  C.  B.  gives  Thomas 
Cole,  1770.  For  bibliographical  purpose 
I  should  be  pleased  if  W.  C.  B.  would  oblige 
with  a  reference,  as  the  date  is  earlier  than 
any  in  my  list  of  that  place.  A.  RHODES. 

An    '  Account   of   the    Parish   Church    of 
Fairford    in    the     County    of    Gloucester,' 
published     1791,     was     printed     by     John 
Nichols,  London,  for  Richard  Bigland,  Esq., 
and  sold  in  the  following  towns  by  the  book- 
sellers named  : — 
Bath.— Bull  and  Marshall. 
Cheltenham.— S.  Harward. 
Cirencester. — T.  Steevens. 
Bristol.— J.  Lloyd. 
Gloucester. — J.  Washbourn. 
Stroud.— Jenner. 
Tewkesbury.— Wilton. 

The  subjoined  names,  I  think,  are  addi- 
tional : — 

Canterbury.— J.  Abree,  1740. 
Gosport.— J.  Legg  (date  ?). 
Gravesend.-R.  Pocock,  1798. 
Margate.— Silver  and  Crow,  1776. 
Sandgate  and  Folkestone.— Thomas  Purday,  1799. 
Sandwich. — Mrs.  Silver,  1741. 
Sevenoaks.— B.  Holland,  1753. 
Tunbridge  Wells.— Smith,  J.  Sprange,  1797. 


ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

"  BARN  "   OB  "  BABM  r   IN  PLACE-NAMES  Street  (St.  Edward's  parish),  where  he  lived 

(11  S.  i.  468). — The  places  your  correspon-  till  his  death,  which  apparently  took  place 

dent    mentions     are     almost     certainly    of  in  1814. 

Scandinavian  origin,  hence  I  should  suggest  This  Thomas  Paris  was  perhaps  the  father 

(particularly  from  regard  to  their  situation)  of  John  Ayrton  Paris,  M.D.      (It  may  be 

that  they  have  been  named  from  Danish  noted   that   in   Cooper's    '  Annals,'-   v.    242, 

6arm=bosom    or    hollow      (Skeat's     '  A.-S.  the  physician  is  said  to  have  been  the  son 

Diet.'),  and  that  barn  is  in  the  cases  men-  of  John  Paris,  organist  of  Peterhouse.) 

tioned  merely  a  variant  of  barm.     In  other  An  earlier  Thomas  Paris  (who  may  have 

instances  barn= storehouse  (A.-S.  bere,  bar-  been  the  father  of  the  bookseller)  lived  at  the 

ley  ;    _|_  ern>  a  house,  receptacle). 

south-west    end    of    University    Street,    or 

A  possible,  but  not  very  probable,  deriva-  Regent  Walk,  the  celebrated  street  which 
tion  might  be  from  a  Saxon  personal  name  ran  from  the  west  door  of  Great  St.  Mary's 
Barm ;  cf.  Barming,  in  Kent,  &c.  Church  to  the  University  Schools.  The 

R.  A.  H.  UNTHANK.        building  in   which  he   dwelt   had  formerly 
been  a  well-known  coffee-house,  and  has  a 

I  feel  confident  that  m  many  instances  higt  as  the  property  of  Prof.  Christopher 
this  Barn"  or  'Barm-  Represents  the  |  Greenf  Thig  £hoPma£  who  was  church- 

.  J. 

Barn  "    or    "  Barm 

s-^.     -»-..  1  i-%    *  «  f~"  tt  I      VJI  i  C7C71.I.*  -L  J.J.J.0  J.  J.J.V/XiACfO»  VV  JLJ.\_f  VT  C*O  ^/AJ.  <^i.A 

Q.N.    personal   name    B;om= bear,    or    the    warden  of  Great  St.  M ary>s  in  1729  (see  G 
A.-S.  personal  name  £eorn= warrior,  noble-    Q       ,fl  CAS  0/the  buildings  near 

man.     The  latter  name  seems  to  have  been    fchft/  church))  <££  in  1744.     His  name  and 
fairly  common,  and  many  instances  of  it  are    that  of  hig  widow  occur  frequentiy  in  con- 
noted    in     Searle  s       Onomasticon     Anglo-          {         ith  t    in  that  neighbourhood. 
Saxomcum.'     We  see  the  patronymic  m  the  H    p6  gTOK:ES 
various    Barnmghams    that    are    found    in       St.  Paul's  Vicarage,  Cambridge. ' 
Norfolk  and  Yorkshire.     Barnsley  appears 

in  Domesday  Book  as  Berneslai,  which  '  WATERLOO  BANQUET  ?  :  '  THE  NOBLE 
probably  means  "  Beorn's  Lea."  This  change  ARMY  OF  MARTYRS  ?  :  KEYS  WANTED  (11  S 
from  eo  to  a  through  M.E.  e  is  not  uncom-  i.  408,  515). — W.  S.  S.  in  his  reply  says  he 
mon  ;  cf.  "  farm  ?l  from  A.-S.  feorm,  "  barm  "  would  be  glad  to  know  where  a  key  to  the 
from  A.-S.  beorma,  "  far  "  from  A.-S.  feor.  '  Waterloo  Banquet l  may  be  got.  Some 
In  some  cases,  perhaps,  "Barn"  represents  ten  years  ago  I  purchased  one  at  Messrs. 
A.-S.  bern,  i.e.,  bere- ern= barley  house,  barn.  Graves's  in  Pall  Mall,  and,  so  far  as  I  know, 
Compare  what  Prof.  Skeat  says  about  the  key  may  be  got  there  now. 

EtymologicaU)ictionary.s  *  The  Waterloo  Banquet l  was  painted  by 

Mr.  Salter,  and  is  now  in  the  possession  of 

C.  E.  LOMAX. 

B.   R.  HAYDON  AND   SHELLEY   (11    S.   *.    mi_ 
461).— The    "Dear    Mayor »    of    Haydon's  '  lnames- 
interesting    letter    is,    I    suggest,    William 
Mayor,  not  "  M.  Mayor."     He  was  a  friend 

Mr.  Mackenzie  of  Fawley  Court,  Henley-on- 

O.  E.  G. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF  LONDON  (11  S.  i.  407, 

Be^Cand'simSr  enthSslast™    495).-This  suggestion  is  not  exactiy  novel, 
bat  not  gifted  artists  in £  ~% ^^.thh-  SSZMS.  %S££gt,  t£ 

K  ABRAHAMS.        ^       ^     Harland-Oxley  and  others ;    and 

PARIS  FAMILY  (11  S.  i.  508). — The  follow-  William  Upcott  made  large  MS.  collections 
ing  notes  on  the  Paris  family  of  Cambridge  towards  a  volume  on  London  to  supplement 
may  interest  E.  H.  his  important  work  on  the  '  Bibliography  of 

A  Thomas  Paris  was  in  1 781  the  residuary    English  Topography.* 

•legatee  in  the  will  of  his  father  John  Paris,  I  am  not  familiar  with  the  bibliography 
a  bookseller,  in  St.  Benedict's  Parish,  Cam-  which  W.  S.  S.  says  is  "  issued  by  the 
bridge  :  40Z.  a  year  was  left  to  his  mother  British  Museum  authorities  "  ;  perhaps 
Ann,  and  certain  property  to  his  sister  he  can  afford  us  further  particulars.  The 
Bridget,  a  minor.  section  '  London  J  in  the  General  Catalogue 

This  Thomas  Paris  was  the  owner  of  four  cannot  be  meant,  as  he  adds  :  "As  this 
messuages  in  (what  is  now)  Silver  Street,  work,  however,  does  not  appear  to  be 
on  the  site  of  the  Pitt  Press.  These  houses  generally  accessible,  I  am  unable  to  speak 
he  had  inherited  in  1768  from  an  aunt  of  the  of  its  nature  and  contents."  It  is  hardly 
same  name  as  his  sister,  who  had  acquired  necessary  to  indicate  such  well-known  works 
them  in  1757.  Thomas  parted  with  them  of  reference,  but  W.  S.  S.  might  supplement 
in  1 795,  when  he  moved  into  Trumpington  |  his  list  with  the  Catalogue  of  the  Guildhall 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  11.  JULY  ie,  1910. 

Library,  the  Catalogue  of  Gough's  Collec- 
tions at  the  Bodleian,  the  Catalogue  of  the 
Library  of  the  London  Institution,  ii.  347 
et  seq.,  and  such  sale  catalogues  as  Jolley 
(1853),  Tyrrell  (1864),  W.  L.  Newman  (1835), 
Thomas  Whitby  (1838),  and  James  Comer- 
ford  (1881).  Russell  Smith's  'Catalogue 
of  10,000  Tracts,1  &c.,  1878,  is  very  useful. 

468). — The  following  five  words  constitute 
the  motto  of  Venice  :  "  Pax  tibi,  Marce, 
Evangelista  meus  !  " 


SERVATION (11  S.  i.  249,  476). — I  have  not 
seen  the  references  mentioned  by  W  S.  S. 
in  his  reply  but  I  fancy  they  would  relate 
rather  to  work's  bound  in  volume  form. 
For  portfolio  (loose)  prints,  provided  they 
are  not  too  far  gone,  I  do  not  think  one 
could  do  better  than  copy  the  professional 
colourer,  and  size  the  backs  with  a  broad 
flat  brush  (or,  if  preferred,  pour  on  or  spray 
the  liquid). 
,  As  alternative  protecting  I  might  suggest : 

1.  5  parts  of  bleached  shellac  dissolved  in 
100  parts  of  absolute  alcohol. 

2.  7-5  parts   of  gum  sandarac   dissolved 
in  100  parts  of  alcohol. 

3.  40  parts  of  white  shellac,  20  parts  of 
gum  sandarac,  940  parts  spirits  of  wine. 

Any  of  these  should  be  passed  over  the 

39,  Renfrew  Road,  Lower  Kennington  Lane. 

EDW.  HATTON  (US.  ii.  9). — No  doubt  the 
person  about  whom  XYLOGRAPHER  inquires 
is  the  Dominican  who,  under  the  pseudonym 
of  "  Constantius  Archseophilus,'*  wrote  the 
1  Memoirs  of  the  Reformation  of  England.' 
He  lived  from  1701  to  1783  ;  see  '  D.N.B.1 


248,  334,  453).— In  the  '  Catalogue  of  Books 
in  the  Free  Reference  Library,  Birming 
ham,'  which  was  printed  1883-90,  under 
'  Patrologia  Grseca  *  and  '  Patrologia 
Latina,'  pp.  920-36,  will  be  found  an  index 
of  the  names  of  the  Fathers. 

When  is  this  library,  one  of  the  best  in  the 
provinces,  going  to  print  another  edition 
of  its  Catalogue  ?  If  printed  in  sections, 
as  was  the  one  of  1883-90,  at  popular  prices, 
a  portion,  at  all  events,  of  the  cost  would 
be  covered.  E.  A.  FRY. 

227,  Strand,  W.C. 

AND  HIS  PACK  (11  S.  i.  487). — In  connexion 
with  the  stained -glass  window  in  Lambeth 
hurch  representing  the  pedlar  and  his  pack, 
associated  with  the  piece  of  land  known  as 
Pedlar's  Acre,  it  may  be  noted  that  there 
was  a  sign  of  "  The  Pedlar  and  his  Pack  " 
on  London  Bridge  in  the  seventeenth 
century.  George  Herbert,  in  a  letter  written 
on  6  October,  1619,  and  printed  at  the  end 
of  Isaak  Walton's  '  Lives  l  (4th  ed.,  London, 
1675,  8vo,  p.  340),  says  :— 

"I  pray,  sir,  therefore,  cause  this  enclosed  to  be 
carried  to  his  brother's  house  [Sir  Francis  Nether- 
sole],  of  his  own  name,  as  I  think,  at  the  sign  of 
the  Pedlar  and  his  Pack  on  London  Bridge,  for 
there  he  assigns  me."  — 'Chronicles  of  London 
Bridge,'  1839,  p.  274. 

I  have  no  note  of  where  I  obtained  the 
following  rimed  description  of  the  pedlar 
and  his  wares  and  ways,  but  it  seems  to  be 
curious  and  accurate  enough  to  reproduce  in 
'  N.  &  Q.*  :— 

Needles  and  pins  !  Needles  and  pins ! 
Lads  and  lassies,  the  fair  begins ! 

Ribbons  and  laces 

For  sweet  smiling  faces ; 

Glasses  for  quizzers ; 

Bodkins  and  scissors ; 

Baubles,  my  dears, 

For  your  fingers  and  ears  ; 

Sneeshin  for  sneezers, 

Toothpicks  and  tweezers ; 

Garlands  so  gay 

For  Valentine's  day ; 

Fans  for  the  pretty ; 

Jests  for  the  witty ; 

Songs  for  the  many, 

Three  yards  a  penny ! 

I  'm  a  jolly  gay  pedlar,  and  bear  on  my  back, 
Like  my  betters,  my  fortune  through  brake  and 

through  briar ; 

I  shuffle,  I  cut,  I  deal  out  my  pack  ; 
And  when  /  play  the  knave,  'tis  for  you  to  play 
higher ! 

In  default  of  a  scrip, 
In  my  pocket  I  slip 
A  good  fat  hen,  lest  it  die  of  the  pijD ! 
When  my  cream  I  've  sipp'd 
And  my  liquor  I  've  lipp  d, 
I  often  have  been,  like  my  syllabub— whipp  'd  ; 
But  a  pedlar's  back  is  as  broad  as  it 's  long, 
So  is  my  conscience,  and  so  is  my  song ! 

There  is  a  very  interesting  account  of  the 

?edlar  and  his  roguish  ways  and  means  in 
usserand's  'English  Wayfaring  Life,3  1901, 
pp.  231  et  seq. 

An  announcement  with  regard  to  the 
issue  of  pedlars'  licences,  at  the  Hawkers' 
and  Pedlars'  Office,  Holbourn  Court,  Gray's 
Inn,  will  be  found  in  The  London  Evening 
Post  of  26  February  and  25  May,  1732. 


Wroxton  Grange,  Folkestone. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


W.  Bray  in  his  '  Collections  relating  to 
Henry  Smith,'  &c.,  1800,  gives  in  a  foot- 
note at  p.  7  an  interesting  table  showing  the 
increase  of  the  rent  received  from  Pedlar's 
Acre  estate  between  1505  and  1705. 


The  Lambeth  estate  was  the  Pedlar's  Acre 
referred  to  in  George  Almar's  drama  of  that 
name,  produced  at  the  Surrey  Theatre  in 
1831,  and  published  in  Cumberland's  '  Minor 
Theatre.'  The  book  of  the  play  contains 
a  note  that  the  dress  of  the  Pedlar  was  copied 
from  the  painted  window  in  Lambeth  Church. 


125,  Helix  Road,  Brixton  Hill. 

(11  S.  i.  510).— Was  it  not  the  driver  of  the 
omnibus  who  was  known  as  &  dicky  bird  ? 
The  driver's  seat  in  a  carriage  is  the  "dicky," 
and  the  dicky  of  the  driver  of  one  of  the  old- 
fashioned  omnibuses  was  perched  so  high 
that  I  always  imagined  that  that  fact 
appealed  to  the  Cockney  humorist  of  a  past 
generation.  It  may  be  that  the  said 
humorist  saw  some  occult  resemblance  be- 
tween the  conductor  perched  upon  his  foot- 
board and  a  canary  upon  its  perch,  but  I 
believe  that  the  connexion  between  the 
driver  and  his  dicky  gave  rise  to  the  ex- 
pression. F.  A.  RUSSELL. 

4,  Nelgarde  Road,  Catford. 

A  "dicky"  was  not  only  the  seat  used 
by  the  driver  of  a  horsed  vehicle,  but 
also  one  at  the  back  of  a  carriage  for  ser- 
vants, &c.,  or  of  a  mail-coach  for  the  guard 
('H.E.D.').  Presumably  "dicky  bird," 
therefore,  bore  no  allusion  to  the  vocal 
powers  of  the  conductor  as  he  "  sang  out  " 
the  destination  of  the  omnibus,  although 
vocalists  of  every  grade  who  performed 
publicly  were  thus  known  in  theatrical 
language.  Is  this  so  ? 


^  In  Barrere  and  Leland's  *  Dictionary ' 
4 'dicky  bird  n  is  mentioned  as  a  theatrical 
expression  meant  to  include  "vocalists  of 
every  description  from  Madame  Patti  down 
to  a  singer  in  the  chorus.'*  Among  the 
meanings  assigned  to  "dicky  "  in  dictionaries 
is  one  in  which  it  signifies  "  the  tail-board  of 
an  omnibus  on  which  the  conductor  stood." 
The  conductor  hanging  on  to  his  perch  or 
•dicky,  and  with  raucous  voice  bawling  out  the 
destination  of  his  'bus,  no  doubt  suggested  to 
London  humorists  that  he  was  rivalling  by 
his  efforts  the  finest  orchestral  music. 

Hence  probably  the  application  of  the  phrase 
to  the  omnibus  conductor.  I  do  not  how- 
ever recollect  it  in  quite  this  sense. 

W.  S.  S. 

Possibly  the  expression  is  connected  with 
* '  Dickey  -  box,  the  seat  at  the  back  of 
a  stage-coach,  outside.'*  See  *  Slang.  A 
Dictionary  of  the  Turf,  the  Ring,'  &c.,  by 
"Jon  Bee,  Esq."  1823. 


HORACE,  '  CARMINA,'  BOOK  I.  5  (11  S.  i. 
488). — An  answer  to  this  query  will  be  found 
in  *  N.  &  Q.'  for  1880  (6  S.  ii.  399)  in  a  review 
of  "Horace's  Odes  Englished  and  Imitated 
by  Various  Hands.  Selected  by  C.  W.  F. 
Cooper."  The  author  of  the  translation  of 
Ode  V.  was  Thomas  Hood  the  younger,  son 
of  Thomas  Hood  the  elder.  Under  the  title 
'  To  Golden-Hair  *  the  version  appeared  for 
the  first  time  in  the  second  number  of  The 
Cornhill  Magazine,  February,  1860. 


LATIN  QUOTATION  (11  S.  i.  426). — 
I  pete  coelestes,  ubi  nulla  est  cura,  recessus. 

This  line  belongs  to  the  epitaph  of  Lord 
Brougham's  only  daughter,  who  died  in 
1839.  The  epitaph  was  composed  by  Lord 
Wellesley,  then  eighty  years  old.  The 
verses  will  be  found  in  Linwood's  '  Antho- 
logia  Oxoniensis,'  p.  201  ;  and  NEL  MEZZO 
can  see  the  tablet  itself  if  he  will  mount  a 
few  steps  of  the  left-hand  staircase  leading 
to  Lincoln's  Inn  Chapel.  H.  E.  P.  P. 

i.  408,  455,  514).— The  quotation,  "An 
ounce  of  enterprise  is  worth  a  pound  of 
privilege,1  is  taken  from  *  The  Companion- 
ship of  Books/  which  was  published  for  me 
by  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  New  York  and 
London,  1905.  The  line  may  be  found  on 
p.  318.  The  book  was  reprinted  in  1906. 
So  far  as  I  know,  I  am  the  author  of  the  line. 
I  knew  there  were  sayings  in  other  languages 
that  resembled  my  line  in  form,  but  I  am 
sure  your  correspondents  will  find  no  line 
elsewhere  that  has  the  same  meaning. 


Troy,  N.Y. 

[As  MB.  MARVIN  is  the  author  of  the  phrase  we 
print  his  letter,  although  another  New  \  ork  corre- 
spondent supplied  the  reference  to  MB.  MABVIN'S 
hook  at  p.  514  of  our  last  volume.  MB.  J. 
McDoNOUGH  also  supplies  the  reference.] 

ii.  8). — The  original  representative  of  Little 
Isaac  (Isaac  Mendoza)  was  Quick.  Mrs. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  ie,  wio. 

Billington  never  played  the  Duenna.  If  she 
ever  acted  in  the  piece,  it  must  have  been  in 
the  part  of  Clara,  the  first  singing  character. 
Probably  the  print  has  some  satirical  allusion 
to  persons  not  connected  with  the  theatre. 

'  The  Duenna l  was  one  of  Sheridan's 
most  successful  pieces.  WM.  DOUGLAS. 

125,  Helix  Road,  Brixton  Hill. 

COUNT  D'ORSAY'S  JOURNAL  (11  S.  i.  447). 
— In  a  sketch  of  Count  D'Orsay  contained 
in  the  '  Maclise  Portrait  Gallery,'  edited  by 
Mr.  William  Bates,  reference  is  made  to  the 
journal  which  excited  in  Byron  so  great  an 
admiration.  The  editor  shrewdly  discounts 
its  probable  literary  value,  and  states  that 
the  proprietor  of  Fraser  made  overtures  to  the 
author  to  communicate  the  journal  and  its 
continuation  to  the  pages  of  the  magazine, 
but  that  he  declined  to  accede  to  the  request. 
In  view  of  this  fact  the  likelihood  is  that  the 
manuscript  of  the  journal  was  destroyed  in 
Count  D'Orsay's  lifetime.  W.  S.  S. 

i.  408,  517).— If  A.  C.  H.  will  give  some 
particulars  of  size  and  style,  the  identifica- 
tion of  his  engraving  will  be  facilitated.  It 
is  probably  an  oblong  folio  (8|  in.  by  13  in.) 
line  engraving,  with  the  old  church  in  middle 
distance  to  left,  tiled  sheds  and  buildings  in 
centre,  and  a  view  of  London  on  the  right. 
A  driver  is  seated  on  a  stone  with  his  dog 
in  foreground.  Robert  Wilkinson  evi- 
dently got  possession  of  the  plate  and  had 
the  clouds  re-etched.  It  was  then  issued  as 
"A  North  View  of  Pancrass  [sic]  London, 
Re-published  4th  June,  1805,  by  Robt. 
Wilkinson,  No.  53,  Cornhill."  It  was 
possibly  the  original  drawing  which  occurred 
in  his  sale,  22  March,  1826,  as  lot  508, 
"  St.  Pancras  Church  in  its  ancient  state, 
and  others  "  (Evans,  13s.).  If  so,  it  may  be 
in  the  Coates-Gardner  Collection. 


PBINCE  RUPERT  (11  S.  ii.  10).— In  'A 
Royal  Cavalier  :  the  Romance  of  Prince 
Rupert  Palatine'  by  Mrs.  Steuart  Erskine, 
there  is  an  illustration,  facing  p.  139,  called 
'  Contemporary  Caricature  of  Prince  Rupert,' 
representing  him  firing  a  pistol  at  the 
weathercock  of  a  church. 


Craigston  Castle,  Turriff,  KB. 

The  legend  MB.  FBEEMAN  seeks  authority 
for  is  perhaps  the  one  told  in  Dr.  Plot's 
'  History  of  Staffordshire.'  The  story  is 
related  there  of  Prince  Rupert  practising 

with  his  pistol  in  a  garden  at  Stafford,  and 
using  the  weathercock  on  St.  Mary's  tower 
as  a  target.  R.  B. 


FEOFFMENT  SEPARITITE  (11  S.  i.  510).— 
The  word  which  A.  F.  H.  supposes  to  be 
"  separitite  '*  is  no  doubt  "tripartite." 

An  explanation  of  conveyance  by  feoff- 
ment  would  take  up  too  much  space  in  your 
columns,  and  would  be  too  technical  for  the 
general  reader.  Any  good  textbook  on  the 
law  of  real  property  would  explain  this  old 
mode  of  conveyance,  though  possibly  a 
"  layman  n  might  have  difficulty  in  under- 
standing the  description  of  it. 


Would  not  this  be  a  conveyance  by 
common  law  of  property  for  the  separate 
use  of  a  married  woman  ?  See  Wharton's 
'  Law  Lexicon '  s.v.  '  Feoff ment l  and 
'  Separate  Estate  * 


DOGE'S  HAT  (11  S.  ii.  8). — Molmenti  says  : 
"The  cap  of  crimson  velvet,  formed  like  an 
ancient  mitre,  and  generally  known  later  on  as  the 
'Corno  Ducale,'  came  to  assume  the  shape  of  a 
Phrygian  cap,  and  in  the  thirteenth  century  the 
Doge  Rinieri  Zeno  gave  it  a  golden  circlet,  while 
Lorenzo  Celsi  (1361-5)  added  a  golden  cross  on  the 
top.  In  1473  Niccolo  Marcello  made  the  'Corno' 
entirely  golden." 

At  the  opening  of  the  fifteenth  century 
the  ducal  corno  was  studded  with  precious 
gems.  In  his  private  habit  the  Doge'& 
cap  was  of  red.  I  know  of  no  other  name  for 
it  than  "  corno  "  or  cap.  C.  R.  DAWES. 

The  following  extract  from  p.  10  of  '  The 
Dogaressas  of  Venice,'  by  Edgcumbe  Staley 
(T.  Werner  Laurie),  gives  the  answer 
required  : — 

"  Paolo  Lucio  Anafesto  of  Aquileia  was  hailed  as 

the  first  of  Venice  Doges The  Patriarch  of  Grado- 

blessed  the  new  Head  of  the  State,  and  the  twelve 
electors  joined  in  crowning  him  with  the  '  Corno ' — 
the  horned  Phrygian  bonnet  of  renown  and  liberty." 

G.  S.  PARRY. 

In  Mueller  and  Mothes's  '  Archaeolo- 
gisches  Woerterbuch  '  this  hat  is  illustrated 
on  p.  535  of  vol.  i.,  fig.  122.  In  the  text  the 
hat  granted  to  the  Dukes  of  Austria  in  1156 
is  described  as  "  ducalis  pileus  circumdatus 
serto  pinnito,'8  which  fits  the  Venetian 
ducal  hat  very  well.  The  illustration,  how- 
ever, differs  slightly  from  the  one  in  Bellini's 
picture.  L.  L.  K. 

[The  REV.  L.  PHILLIPS  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

ii  s.  IL  JULY  16,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


<11  S.  i.  448  ;  ii.  18).— If  W.  S.  S.  will  con- 
sult some  modern  work  on^  astronomy 
<I  only  name  my  own  'Remarkable 
Comets ?  because  the  price  is  not  exactly 
prohibitive,  being  but  sixpence),  he  will 
find  that  the  conjecture  (it  was  never  any- 
thing more)  that  the  comet  of  A.D.  1680  was 
identical  with  those  of  B.C.  44,  A.D.  530,  and 
A.D.  1106  ceased  to  have  any  probability 
when  it  was  found  that  the  period  of  the 
comet  of  A.D.  1680  amounted  to  at  least 
nearly  a  thousand  years,  and  probably  much 
more  (see  also  my  note  at  6  S.  viii.  5). 

There  is  no  means  of  ascertaining  even 
probable  periods  for  the  comets  of  B.C.  44 
and  A.D.  1106.  It  is  possible  that  the  comet 
seen  in  A.D.  531  was  a  return  of  Halley's 
comet  (of  which  we  have  heard  so  much 
at  the  return  this  year),  with  a  period  of 
about  76  years. 

'The  Gallery  of  Nature1  appeared  more 
than  sixty  years  ago.  It  was  a  useful  popular 
compendium  of  science,  but  the  author  was 
not  an  authority  on  astronomy,  and  the 
information  is  now  quite  out  of  date. 

W.  T.  LYNN. 


HAMPSHIRE  HOG  (11  S.  i.  489).— To  the 
circumstance  of  this  county  having  been 
proverbially  famous  for  its  breed  of  hogs  is 
owing  the  fact  that  a  native  bears  the 
county  nickname  of  "Hampshire  Hog.'? 
This  description,  however,  is  quite  innocent  of 
any  uncomplimentary  intention.  As  in 
the  case  of  "  Silly  [i.e.,  simple]  Suffolk,"-  it 
is  intended  to  convey  the  meaning  of  a 
simple,  honest  countryman.  The  Hamp- 
shire breed  of  hogs  was  formerly,  and 
possibly  still  is,  the  largest  of  its  kind,  and 
consequently  was  encouraged  by  farmers 
as  the  most  profitable.  The  hogs  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  forests  were  principally  fed 
on  acorns  and  beech-mast,  which  gave 
them  a  superiority  over  all  others  in  the 
kingdom,  and  their  weight  was  from  sixteen 
to  forty  score.  At  first  the  animals  were 
chiefly  killed  for  bacon  ;  but  later  great 
numbers  for  home  consumption  were  pickled 
in  large  tubs.  The  bones  and  the  lean  were 
taken  away,  and  the  fat,  remaining  in  the 
brine  for  nearly  a  year  before  use,  became 
more  firm  and  profitable. 

If  is  owing  to  the  phrase  having  become 
a  complimentary  nickname  that  it  occurs  as 
a  tavern  sign  rather  frequently  in  London. 
There  is  a  "  Hampshire  Hog "  at  410, 
Strand.  There  was  also  one  in  Charles 
Street,  Grosvenor  Square.  Other  survivals 

are  in  Berwick  Street,  Soho,  and  at  227, 
King  Street,  Hammersmith.  "  The  Hamp- 
shire Hog  Inn,"  opposite  the  church  of  St. 
Giles -in-the -Fields,  gave  its  name  to  Hamp- 
shire Hog  Yard.  A  sum  of  £3  a  year, 
issuing  from  the  ground  rent  of  this  inn,  was 
in  1677  given  to  the  poor  by  Mr.  William 
Wooden,  a  vestryman  of  that  time  (see 
'  Bloomsbury  and  St.  Giles,'  by  George 
Clinch,  1890,  p.  49  ;  and  Parton's  '  St. 
Giles,'  p.  243).  J.  HOLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 
Wroxton  Grange,  Folkestone. 

Is  not  "Hampshire  hog "  a  nickname 
for  a  Hampshire  man,  just  as  "  Moonraker  " 
is  the  sobriquet  of  a  Wiltshire  man,  the 
allusion  being  derived  from  the  wild  hogs 
of  the  New  Forest  ?  The  late  Thomas  W. 
Shore,  F.G.S.,  in  his  'History  of  Hamp- 
shire,' 1892,  p.  42,  writes  that 

"wild  boars  were  common,  and  from  them  was 
probably  derived  the  old  breed  of  hogs  which  was 
at  a  very  early  period  iden titled  with  this  county, 
and  from  which  its  jocular  name  of  'Hoglandia' 
was  derived.  The  forest  land  of  Hampshire,  which 
is  so  considerable  at  the  present  day,  was  of  much 
greater  extent  in  Romano-British,  and  even  in 
mediaeval  time,  and  these  forests  have  always 
afforded  pannage  for  a  large  number  of  hogg. 
Traces  of  the  ancient  breed  still  remain  in  the 
swine  of  the  New  Forest." 

Near  Farnham,  just  over  the  border  in  the 
adjoining  county  of  Surrey,  is  the  narrow 
chalk  ridge  known  as  the  Hog's  Back.  In 
Southampton  there  was  formerly  common 
land  known  as  Hoggeslonde,  Hogland,  or 
Hoglands  (see  Rev.  J.  Silvester  Davies, 
'History  of  Southampton,1  1883).  The 
Hampshire  hog  will  probably  be  found  in 
many  place-names.  In  the  metropolitan 
borough  of  Hammersmith,  where  I  am 
writing,  there  is  a  public-house  called  ' '  The 
Hampshire  Hog,"J  and  leading  from  it  down 
to  the  riverside  is  a  narrow  lane  called 
Hampshire  Hog  Lane. 


MB.  BENTINCK  asks  whether  a  Hampshire 
hog  is  a  sheep  or  a  pig.  I  venture  to  think  it 
is  neither.  In  Hazlitt's  '  English  Proverbs  ' 
the  following  four  lines  are  quoted  taken 
from  '  Vade  Macum  for  Malt-worms  (1720), 
Part  I.  p.  50  :— 

Now  to  the  sign  of  Fish  let 's  jog, 
There  to  find  out  a  Hampshire  Hog, 
A  man  whom  none  can  lay  a  fault  on, 
The  pink  of  courtesie  at  Alton. 

It  would  thus  appear  that  a  Hampshire  hog 
was  simply  a  native  or  resident  in  the  county. 
At  the  same  time,  the  reference  does  not 
seem  to  be  altogether  complimentary. 

W.  S.  S. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  i6, 1010. 

'  E.  D.  D.'  gives  the  meaning  "  a  country 
simpleton."  It  used  to  have  this  significa- 
tion in  this  part  of  Sussex,  rather  hostile  in 
import.  I  well  remember  some  fifty  years 
ago  my  uncle's  carter -bailiff  saying  of  a 
new  hand  lately  come  over  the  border,  whose 
work  I  was  criticizing,  "  Wa-al,  what  can  yer 
'spect  ?  He  be  on'y  a  (H)ampshire  (h)og." 



[MR.  TOM  JONES  also  thanked  for  reply.] 


(10  S.  xi.  488;  xii.  71,  139,  214,  253,  514; 
11  S.  i.  338). — In  support  of  what  I  wrote  at 
the  penultimate  reference  on  the  derivation 
of  "Hocktide"  from  A.-S.  hedh  tid  and  a 
hypothetical  Anglo-French  haut  tide,  Douce 
inBrand's  'Popular Antiquities, 'p.  101,  note, 
is  made  to  say  :  "I  find  that  Easter  is  called 
'  Hye-tide  '  in  Robert  of  Gloucester  "  ;  and, 
strange  to  say,  the  same  authority  on  p.  100, 
speaking  of  Florence  of  Worcester,  Langtoff, 
and  Robert  of  Gloucester,  has  :  "  These 
three  last  writers  do  not  mention  a  word 
about  hocktide." 

To  me  it  seems  more  than  likely  too  that 
"high  day"  in  the  '  N.E.D.*  is  a  doublet 
of  "heyday"  (A.-S.  hedh,  M.E.  heh,  hetfi, 
hey-},  though  the  editors  prefer  to  regard  the 
latter  word  as  "of  uncertain  origin." 

N.  W.  HILL. 

New  York. 

COWES  FAMILY  (11  S.  i.  508).— On 
3  August,  1630,  the  will  was  proved  (P  C.C. 
Scroope,  72)  of  Simon  Cowse  of  the  parish 
of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great,  London, 
citizen  and  goldsmith,  by  his  widow  Alice. 

The  following  were  married  at  St.  James's, 
Duke  Place,  London  : — 

Alexander  Cowse  and  Anne  Mekins,  1667. 

John  Driver  and  Elizabeth  Cowes,  1 680. 

Will.  Dennis  and  Martha  Cowes,  1682. 

In  1 681  a  Robt.  Cowes  is  mentioned  in  the 
marriage  registers  of  the  same  church. 

H.  Cowe  of  22,  Parade,  Berwick-on-Tweed, 
changed  his  name  to  Co  wen  ;  see  Times,  1 9 
September,  1894.  B.  U.  L.  L. 

The  following  rough  jottings,  chiefly  on 
Scottish  family  names,  gathered  in  the  course 
of  desultory  reading  or  from  inspection  of 
records,  may  perhaps  be  of  use  to  Y.  T. 

Goose  is  found  in  the  '  Edinburgh  Marriage 
Registers  l  in  1622. 

The  author  of  a  book  on  '  Mechanical 
Philosophy,2  published  at  Boston,  U.S.A., 
in  1851,  S.  E.  Coues,  perhaps  indicates 
a  variation  of  Goose  or  Cowes. 

In  1618,  and  several  following  years, 
Thomas  Coo  appears  as  unjustly  detained  in 
Newgate  on  some  unspecified  charge. 

Cow,  as  a  family  name,  emerges  frequently 
in  Scotland,  as  in  Perthshire,  1594  and  1675  ; 
Forfarshire,  1614  and  1621  ;  Berwickshire, 
1653  ;  Edinburgh  (city  and  county),  1687 
and  1744  ;  Banffshire,  1740.  In  London  I 
have  only  seen  it  in  this  spelling  in  1816  and 

The  name  Cowe  appears  in  Aberdeenshire 
as  early  as  1550,  and  again  in  1650.  It  is 
mentioned  in  connexion  with  Middlesex  in 
1797  and  1806;  and  in  London  for  1816,  1842, 
1849,  and  1868. 

Cowie,  as  a  place-name,  is  found  as  early  as 
1090.  It  is  a  fishing  village  in  Kincardine- 
shire,  with  remains  of  a  castle — the  Castle  of 
Cowie — built  by  Malcolm  Canmore. 

As  a  family  name,  Cowie  occurs  very  fre- 
quently, as  in  Edinburgh,  1576,  1594,  1623, 
1658,  1702,  and  1765 ;  Perthshire,  1622  ; 
Fifeshire,  1626  ;  Forfarshire,  1628  ;  Stirling- 
shire, 1636;  Aberdeenshire,  1674,  1771, 
1799,  and  1800  ;  Lanarkshire,  1680  ;  Inver- 
ness, 1731;  Elginshire,  1766;  Montreal 
(Canada),  1809  and  1812  ;  London,  1816, 
1842,  1845,  1851,  1861,  and  1866  ;  India, 
(Civil  Servants),  1825,  1829,  and  1832  ;' 
Australasia  (Rev.  W.  G.  Cowie,  Bishop  of 
Auckland,  born  in  London,  1831)  ;  Dundee 
(R.  Cowie),  1871. 

Might  one  venture  the  opinion  that  the 
place-name  Cowie  is  the  source  whence  the 
different  varieties  of  the  family  name  have 
been  derived  ?  W.  S.  S. 

Why  cannot  this  family  have  come  from 
the  "  Coo  "  family  ?  The  pronunciation  of 
the  word  "  cow  "  on  Tyneside  is  "  coo." 

R.  B— R. 
[MR.  J.  T.  KEMP  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

J.  R.  SMITH = DR.  W.  SAUNDERS  (11  S. 
ii.  6). —  I  have  a  copy  of  this  print,  and 
append  a  description  which  owners  of  Mrs. 
Frankau's  book  may  like  to  have  for  in- 
sertion therein.  It  is  rather  curious  that 
Mrs.  Frankau  should  have  omitted  the 
portrait  from  her  catalogue,  seeing  that 
Chaloner  Smith  describes  it. 

William  Sannders.  Nearly  whole  length,  sitting, 
directed  towards  left,  facing  and  looking  to  front. 
White  hair,  dark  clothes ;  coat  buttoned  across 
vest ;  right  arm  on  table  to  left,  on  which  lie  books  ; 
fore-finger  pointing.  Left  elbow  on  arm  of  chair. 
Under :  in  centre  various  medical  emblems  and 
books.  Inscribed :  Published  April  29th  1803  by 
I.  R.  Smith  31  King  Street  Covent  Garden  &  I. 
Ackerman  101  Strand.  J.  R.  Smith  pinxt  et  ex- 
cudit  William  Saunders  M.D.  F.R.S.  &  S.A.  From 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  16,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  Original  Picture  in  the  possession  of  James 
Curry,  M.D.  Physician  to  Guy's  Hospital."  Height 
19 £  inches.  Subject  18  inches.  Width  13|  inches.— 
See  Chaloner  Smith,  '  British  Mezzotinto  Portraits,' 
vol.  iii.  p.  1300. 


510). — The  arms  described  by  Mr.  G. 
MATTHEWS  are  those  given  for  Stoneley 
Abbey  by  Pap  worth  ('  Ordinary  of  British 
Armorials '),  who  cites  as  his  authority 
Dugdale's  '  Monasticon.'-  S.  D.  C. 

"TEART"  (11  S.  i.  466,  497;  ii.  11).— 
This  word  is  the  pronunciation  here  of 
"  tart  "= sharp.  A  gooseberry  tart  is  said 
to  be  "  tart,"  or  "  teart,"  as  it  is  sometimes 
pronounced.  The  word  "pert"  is  pro- 
nounced "peart."  R.  B — R. 

South  Shields. 

MOCK  COATS  OF  ARMS  (11  *S.  i.  146,  313, 
497)._On  the  title-page  of  'The  Lord 
Chief  Baron  Nicholson,  an  Autobiography, 
I860,'  there  is  a  very  funny  mock  coat  of 
arms  with  the  motto  "  Ecce  incorporo 
hilaritatem  cum  lege." 


[Modern  instances  are  those  published  by  the 
militant  Suffragettes.  See  Coat  of  Arms  of  Henry 
Asquith,  Votes  for  Women,  16  July,  1909.] 

0n  ?800ks,  &t. 

Grammar    of    the    Gothic    Language.     By    Joseph 

Wright,  Ph.D.  (Oxford,  Clarendon  Press.) 
WITH  untiring  energy  Prof.  Wright  has  followed 
up  his  '  Old  English  Grammar  '  and  '  Historical 
German  Grammar  '  with  one  on  the  same  lines 
dealing  with  Gothic.  It  is  needless  to  say  that 
it  is  thoroughly  scientific  and  minutely  accurate 
in  its  phonology  and  accidence.  No  English 
student  who  desires  to  possess  a  comparative 
knowledge  of  his  own  tongue  can  afford  to  stop 
short  of  Gothic  as  the  ne  plus  ultra  of  the  Teutonic 
branch  of  languages.  Sufficient  specimens  of 
Ulfllas's  translation  of  the  New  Testament  are 
given  to  serve  as  a  praxis,  with  notes  and  a 
complete  glossary,  to  which  Old  English  and  Old 
High  German  cognates  are  added.  The  first 
entry  in  the  Glossary  only  gives  "  man,  husband," 
as  the  meaning  of  aba,  while  in  the  text  (pp.  96, 
170)  that  of  "  father  "  is  also  assigned  to  it,  this 
being  probably  the  original  meaning,  if  the  word 
is  akin  to  abba.  Ulfilas,  however,  it  must  be 
admitted,  seems  always  to  use  it  in  the  sense  of 
11  husband,"  keeping  fadar  for  the  paternal 

Ix  The  National  Review  politics  occupy,  as 
often,  a  dominant  part,  and  are  discussed  in  the 
usual  trenchant  style.  Mr.  Alfred  Austin's 
'  Byron  in  Italy  '  goes  over  a  good  deal  which  is 
familiar  to  us,  but  possibly  not  to  the  rising 
generation.  Byron  has  hardly  held  his  place 
witli  the  modern  critic,  and  we  take  leave  to 
doubt  if  all  readers  of  Mr.  Austin's  paper  know 
by  heart  the  stanza  concerning  the  Dying 

Gladiator.  His  scorn  for  those  who  "  prefer 
erotic  lyricism  and  egotistical  sentiment  to  the1 
noblest  poetry  on  the  rise,  fall,  and  decline  of  the 
Roman  Empire  "  is  somewhat  overdone.  As  Mr. 
Austin  shows  a  few  lines  earlier,  Byron  is  himself 
not  free  from  "  splendid  egotism,"  and  the  fact  is 
as  much  a  commonplace  as  many  pronouncements- 
on  poetry  which  now  flourish  in  the  press.  Com- 
pliments from  Goethe  concerning  Byron  are 
quoted  to  which  we  do  not  object,  but  it  may  be 
added  that  more  searching  sentiments  from  the 
same  source  are  available. 

We  are  delighted  with  Mr.  H.  C.  Biron's  article 
on  '  A  Red-faced  Nixon.'  Such,  it  may  be 
recalled,  was  the  designation  of  a  somewhat 
mysterious  prophet  in  '  Pickwick.'  Mr.  Biron 
found  at  a  second-hand  bookstall  a  slender 
volume  which  dispelled  his  doubts  as  to  the 
soundness  of  commentators  on  the  prophet.  It 
was  '  Nixon's  Prophecies  :  the  Original  Predic- 
tions of  Robert  Nixon,  commonly  called  the 
Cheshire  Prophet,'  and  contained  some  details 
of  his  shrewdness  which  Mr.  Biron  comments 
on  in  an  agreeable  style.  The  prophecies  quoted 
have  that  vein  of  wide  application  which  we 
remember  in  certain  Greek  oracles,  and  has,  we 
dare  say,  always,  as  Gibbon  suggests,  distin- 
guished the  discreet  seer.  Mr.  J.  Barnard- James 
has  an  interesting  article  '  In  the  Track  of  the 
Locust.'  The  account  of  the  efforts  made  to 
divert  or  destroy  the  advance  of  these  insects  is 
most  striking.  The  devastation  they  cause  is 
almost  beyond  belief,  and  "  each  female  is  esti- 
mated to  lay  about  10,000  eggs.  These,  clinging 
together  and  forming  a  kind  of  brown  cocoon, 
are  deposited  on  the  ground,  which  they  resemble 
in  colour,  and  they  are  therefore  not  easily  dis- 

Mr.  A.  Maurice  Low  writes  well,  as  usual,  on 
'  American  Affairs,'  indicating,  amongst  other 
things,  that  President  Taft  will  have  to  be  re- 
nominated  ;  otherwise  it  is  "  tantamount  to  an 
admission  that  he  personally  or  his  administration 
as  a  whole  has  been  a  failure,  and  that  is  a  heavy 
handicap  to  overcome." 

Mr.  Austin  Dobson  has  one  of  his  neat  and 
informative  articles  on  '  Chambers  the  Architect,' 
who  is  known  to  Fame  as  the  layer-out  of  the 
grounds  at  Kew  Palace  and  the  architect  of 
Somerset  House,  and  on  whom  MR.  ALECK 
ABRAHAMS  had  a  note  in  last  week's  '  N.  &  Q.' 
(ante,  p.  25).  The  article  on  '  Greater  Britain  ' 
has  some  remarkable  facts  concerning  Australia- 
For  instance,  there  is  good  land  only  twenty- 
five  miles  from  Melbourne  that  has  never  been 
cultivated.  Such  a  state  of  affairs  may  rightly 
be  called  "  disease." 

IN  The  Burlington  Magazine  the  usual  editorial 
articles  do  not  figure,  but  Mr.  Lionel  Cust  leads 
off  with  '  A  Portrait  of  Queen  Catherine  Howard  * 
by  Hans  Holbein  the  Younger.  The  discovery 
of  a  new  and  authentic  portrait  of  an  English 
queen,  painted  in  England  by  such  a  hand,  is 
"  an  event  of  no  little  interest."  Illustrations  of 
the  picture  and  of  others  of  the  same  lady  are 
given  for  purposes  of  comparison.  The  new  find 
from  a  private  collection  in  the  West  of  England 
is  said  to  excel  in  every  detail  the  portrait  of  the 
same  queen  acquired  for  the  National  Gallery  in 
1898.  It  is  further  recognized,  it  appears,  by 
foreign  critics  as  a  genuine  and  important  speci 
men  of  Holbein's  work. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  IB,  iaio. 

!*Mr.  G.  F.  Laking  continues  his  criticism  of 
'  The  Noel  Pa  ton  Collection  of  Arms  and  Armour,' 
and  is  able  this  tune  to  award  high  praise  to  some 
of  it.  '  Early  Chinese  Pottery  and  Porcelain  at 
the  Burlington  Fine-Arts  Club  '  is  considered  in  a 
brief  article  by  Mr.  Edward  Dillon,  who  points 
out  that  recent  times  of  stress  in  China,  leading 
to  the  breaking-up  of  many  old  native  collections, 
and  excavations  for  new  railways,  have  given 
"  the  ruthless  antiquary  and  those  who  cater 
for  him  "  a  rich  harvest.  So  the  early  wares  of 
China  are  now  for  the  first  tune  exhibited  in  some 
profusion  to  Londoners.  '  The  Old  Plate  of  the 
Cambridge  Colleges,'  a  recent  book  by  Mr.  E.  A. 
Jones,  is  reviewed  by  Lieut.-Col.  Croft  Lyons. 
The  plate  of  Corpus  is,  we  think,  the  best,  Trinity 
not  being  so  conspicuous  in  this  respect  as  it  is 
in  most  academic  distinctions.  Mr.  D.  S.  Mac- 
Coll  writes  on  '  Twenty  Years  of  British  Art ' 
at  the  Whitechapel  Gallery,  and  his  article  is  one 
of  the  most  satisfactory  in  an  expert  paper  which 
is  more  concerned  with  the  glories  of  the  past 
than  the  efforts  of  the  present  day.  Two  illus- 
trations— of  Mr.  Wilson  Steer's  '  Richmond  Castle 
in  Storm,'  and  Mr.  Augustus  John's  '  Nirvana  ' — 
represent  pictures  which  may  rank  as  Old  Masters 
some  day.  Mr.  MacColl  points  out  incidentally 
that  the  Committee  which  inquired  in  1904  into 
the  administration  of  the  Chantrey  Bequest 
proposed  that,  instead  of  a  Council  of  ten  as 
purchasers,  a  committee  of  three  should  be  ap- 
pointed including  an  Associate  nominated  by 
the  Associates,  who  had  hitherto  had  no  voice 
in  deciding  purchases.  Such  a  committee  was 
appointed  for  the  following  year,  and  is  under- 
stood to  have  recommended  a  good  example  of 
Mr.  Rothenstein,  and  one  of  Buxton  Knight's 
masterpieces,  the  '  Winter  Sunshine.'  "  Both 
recommendations  were  thrown  out  by  the  Council." 
The  Academy  thus  shows  once  more  the  farcical 
character  of  official  committees,  which  seem  only 
a  means  of  stopping  the  course  of  public  inquiry 
by  resolutions  which  are  of  no  avail. 

— An  informal  meeting  was  held  on  the  29th  of  June, 
at  which  it  was  agreed  that  an  attempt  should  be 
made  to  secure  the  support  of  fifty  representative 
genealogists.  These,  as  founders,  will  subscribe  a 
guinea  apiece  for  the  purpose  of  placing  before  the 
greater  genealogical  public  a  scheme,  and  one  that 
shall  be  well-considered  and  likely  to  endure,  for 
the  formation  of  a  "Society  of  Genealogists  of 
London."  Influential  support  has  been  already 
promised,  and  those  interested  will  be  advised  of 
the  progress  of  the  movement  if  they  will  send  their 
names  to  the  Hon.  Secretary  pro  tern.,  Room  22, 
227,  Strand,  W.C. 

DR.  FURNIVALL. — The  veteran  scholar  Dr. 
Frederick  James  Furnivall,  who  died  on  the  9th 
inst.,  and  was  born  as  long  ago  as  1825,  had 
contributed  to  '  N.  &  Q.'  for  many  years,  both 
under  his  own  name  and  the  initials  F.  J.  F. 
His  work  is  well  known  to  all  lovers  of  English, 
for  he  was  a  champion  founder  of  societies  for 
literary  study,  beginning  with  the  Early  English 
Text  Society  in  1864.  His  share  in  the  Philological 
Society  led  to  his  being  one  of  the  early  pro- 
moters of  the  Oxford  English  Dictionary,  and 
he  was  indefatigable  in  supplying  quotations 
for  that  great  work.  He  was  also  deeply  interested 

in  Shakespeare,  a  subject  on  which  he  wrote 
several  times,  introducing,  for  instance,  the 
"Leopold  Edition"  of  several  years  ago,  and 
adding  to  the  "  Century  Edition  "  two  years  ago, 
with  Mr.  John  Munro,  a  characteristic  little 
volume  on  the  poet's  life. 

Throughout  his  career  Dr.  Furnivall  was  a  man 
of  splendid  enthusiasms,  who  was  able  to  achieve 
much  for  his  favourite  subjects  by  his  untiring 
energy.  An  essential  part,  perhaps,  of  such  a 
temperament  was  that  he  "  loved  a  row."  His 
life  was  certainly  unconventional,  like  his  spelling, 
and  his  taste,  as  exhibited  in  various  outbursts 
of  his  which  got  into  print,  was  repugnant  to 
many.  But  such  things  are  as  nothing  when  we 
consider  his  long  labours  (largely  labours  of  love) 
for  the  cause  of  English,  and  the  generous  way 
in  which  he  always  encouraged  and  helped  other 
workers.  It  is  some  while  since  his  eminence  was 
recognized  by  the  unusual  compliment  of  a 
"  Festschrift  "  presented  to  him  by  a  represen- 
tative body  of  scholars  on  the  occasion  of  his 
seventy-fifth  birthday. 

We  need  more  such  impassioned  students  if 
English  in  these  days  of  commercialism  is  to  hold 
its  own. 

D.  W.  FERGUSON. — The  Times  of  the  2nd  inst- 
notices  the  death  at  Croydon  on  29  June  of  Mr. 
Donald  William  Ferguson,  who  had  for  some 
time  been  suffering  from  consumption  : — 

"  Mr.  Ferguson  was  the  younger  surviving 
son  of  the  late  A.  M.  Ferguson,  C.M.G.,  a  well- 
known  publicist  and  leading  colonist,  who  arrived 
in  Ceylon  from  the  Scottish  Highlands  in  1837, 
and  lived  there  for  55  years  till  his  death.  He 
became  chief  proprietor  and  editor  of  The  Ceylon 
Observer,  &c.,  and  his  son  succeeded  him  for  a 
time  ;  but  eventually  in  1893  retired  to  England 
where  he  worked  on  the  past  history,  especially 
in  the  Portuguese  and  Dutch  annals  and  records, 
of  Ceylon  administration." 

We  may  add  that  both  in  The  Athenceum  and 
our  own  columns  Mr.  Ferguson's  work  was  highly 
valued.  He  had  a  remarkable  knowledge  of  the 
earlier  history  of  India,  and  of  the  class  of  tra- 
vellers whose  writings  have  been  published  by 
the  Hakluyt  Society.  His  latest  contribution  is 
at  US.  i.  41. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 

:ut  in  parentheses,   immediately  after  the  exact 
eading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which    they    refer.    Correspondents    who    repeat 
queries   are  requested    to  head    the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "The  Pub- 
lishers "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

H.  P.  LEE.— Forwarded  :  delayed  through  change 
of  address. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  23, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUEEIES. 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  23,  1910. 

CONTENTS.— No.  30. 

:NOTES  :— Skeat  Bibliography,  61— Peacock  on  Fashionabl6 
Literature,  62— South  African  Slang,  63— Sir  W.  Godbold 
64— Jeremy  Taylor  and  Petronius— Royal  Tombs  at  St 
Denis — Boys  in  Petticoats,  65 — "Vote  early  and  vote 
of  ten  "— "  Obsess  "— "  Dispense  Bar  "— Dalmatian  Nighi 
Spectres,  66. 

•QUERIES :— General  Haug— St.  Leodegarius  and  the  St 
Leger— 'Jane  Shore,'  66— Holy  Crows  at  Lisbon— Ben 
Jonson — C.  Gordon,  Publisher — American  Words  anc 
Phrases,  67 — Licence  to  Eat  Flesh — Prince  Bishop  o 
Basle  —  Egerton  Leigh  —  F.  Peck  —  '  Reverberations '  — 
E.I.C.'s  Marine  Service— Mrs.  Fitzherbert's  Sale -Wind 
sor  Stationmaster,  68— "Seersucker"  Coat — Warren  anc 
Waller  Families— Egyptian  Literary  Association— John 
Brooke— J.  Faber— Thompson,  R.A.,  69. 

REPLIES  :— Clergy  retiring  from  the  Dinner  Table,  69  — 
Edwards,  Kings  of  England  —  Princes  of  Wales,  70— 
Arabian  Horses  —  "  Denizen,"  71  —  Chapel  le  Frith  — 
Earthenware  Tombstone,  72— Ansgar,  Master  of  Horse- 
Sir  M.  Philip  —  Manchester  Volunteers,  73— Sir  Isaac's 
Walk— Beke's  Diary— Sir  J.  Robinson— Maginn's  Writings, 
74 — Hewoi  th — Donne's  Poems,  75 — '  Lovers'  Vows ' — Dame 
Elizabeth  Irvvin— B.  Rotch— Authors  Wanted— Andro- 
nicus  Lascaris,  76—"  British  Glory  Revived  "—City  Poll- 
Books—'  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor '  —  Lieut.  Pigott,  77— 
Botany — Doge's  Hat  —  Folly  —  Roosevelt  —  Newspapers 
printed  with  Bibles— Mark  Twain,  78— Robin  Hood's  Men 
—  "  Scribble  "  —  Toasts  and  Sentiments— Princess  Clara 
Emilia  of  Bohemia,  79. 

TTOTES    ON   BOOKS:— Leadam's   'History  of  England 
1702-60 '— Jamieson's  Scottish  Dictionary. 

Booksellers'  Catalogues. 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 

ON  a  previous  occasion  (see  8  S.  ii.  241) 
I  gave  a  list  of  fifty-two  books,  as  published 
down  to  1892.  In  1896,  at  p.  Ixxix.  of  my 
*  Student's  Pastime,'  I  continued  the  list 
down  to  that  date  with  one  alteration  in  the 
numbering.  The  book  numbered  52  in 
1892  was  then  altered  to  36*,  because  I  did 
no  more  than  edit  it. 

I  now  beg  leave   to  continue  the  list  of 
1892,  beginning  with  No.  52  as  newly  applied. 

52.  Chaucer's  House  of  Fame.     Oxford,   1893. 
Crown  8vo,  pp.  136. 

53.  (a)  The  Bruce.     By  John  Barbour.     Part  I. 
(Scottish     Text     Society.)     Edinburgh,     1893-4. 
Demy  8vo,  pp.  1-351.     (6)  The  same  ;    Part  II. 
1893-4.     Pp.     i-viii,     1-431.     (c)     The     same  ; 
Part  III.   1894-5.     Pp.  i-xci.     N.B.   'c)  and   (a) 
form  Vol.  I.  ;   (6)  is  Vol.  II. 

54.  The  Complete  Works  of  Geoffrey  Chaucer. 
Oxford,    1894.     Six    vols.    demy    8vo.     Vol.    I. 
The  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,  and  Minor  Poems  ; 
pp.    Ixiv,    568.     Vol.     II.    Boethius  ;      Troilus  ; 
pp.    Ixxx,    506.      Vol.    III.    House    of    Fame  ; 
Legend  of  Good  Women  ;   Astrolabe  ;    Sources  of 
the  Tales  ;    pp.  Ixxx,  504.     Vol.  IV.  Canterbury 
Tales  ;  Tale  of  Gamelyn  ;  pp.  xxxii,  667.     Vol.  V. 

Notes  to  the  Canterbury  Tales  ;  pp.  xxviii,  515. 
Vol.  VI.  Introduction  ;  Glossary ;  Indexes  ; 
pp.  ciii,  445. 

55.  The     Student's     Chaucer.     Oxford,     1895. 
Crown  8vo,  pp.  xxiv,  732  ;   with  Glossarial  Index, 
pp.   149.     [This   Glossarial  Index  was  also  pub- 
lished separately.] 

56.  Nine     Specimens      of     English      Dialects. 
(E.D.S.,    No.    76.)     Oxford,    1895.     Demy    8vo, 
pp.  xxiv,  193. 

57.  Two    Collections    of    Derbicisms.     By    S. 
Pegge,  A.  M.      Edited  by  W.  W.  S.  and  Thomas 
Hallam.     (E.D.S.  No.  78.)     Oxford,  1896.    Demy 
8vo,  pp.  c,  138.      [From  Pegge's  MS.  copy.] 

58.  A  Student's  Pastime  ;    being  a  select  series 
of  articles  reprinted  from  '  N.  and  Q.'     Oxford, 

1896.  Crown  8vo,  pp.  Ixxxiv,  410. 

59.  The  Complete  Works  of  Geoffrey  Chaucer. 
Vol.      VII.      (supplementary).     Chaucerian      and 
other    Pieces.     Oxford,    1897.     Demy    8vo,    pp. 
Ixxxiv,  608. 

60.  Chaucer :     The    Hous    of    Fame.     Oxford, 

1897.  Extra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  136. 

61.  The  Chaucer  Canon.     Oxford,  1900.   Crown 
8vo,  pp.  xi,  167. 

62.  Notes     on     English     Etymology.     Oxford, 

1901.  Crown  8vo,  pp.  xxii,  479. 

63.  The  Place-Names  of  Cambridgeshire.   (Cam- 
bridge  Antiquarian    Society.)     Cambridge,  1901. 
Demy  8vo,  pp.  vi,  80. 

64.  The   Lay  of  Havelok  the   Dane.     Oxford, 

1902.  Extra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  Ix,  171.     See  No.  9. 

65.  The     Place-Names     of     Huntingdonshire. 
(Cambridge    Antiquarian     Society.)     Cambridge, 

1903.  Demy  8vo,  pp.  317-60  (in  vol.  x.). 

66.  The  Knight's  Tale.     By  Geoffrey  Chaucer 
Done  into  modern  English.     London,  A.  Moring 
&  Co.  1904.     16mo,  pp.  xxiii,  106. 

67.  The  Man  of  Law's  Tale,  the  Nun's  Priest's 
Tale,  and  the  Squire's  Tale.     By  Geoffrey  Chaucer. 
London,  A.  Moring  &  Co.  1904.     16mo,  pp.  xxiii, 

68.  The  Prioress's  Tale  and  other  Tales.     By 
Geoffrey   Chaucer.     Done   into   modern   English. 
London,  A.  Moring  &  Co.  1904.     16mo,  pp.  xxvi, 

69.  The  Place-Names  of  Hertfordshire.     Hert- 
ford, 1904.     Demy  8vo,  pp.  75. 

70.  The  Vision  of  Piers  the  Plowman  ;  prologue 
and     Passus     I.-VII.     By     William     Langland. 
Done  into  modern  English.     London,  A.  Moring 
&  Co.  1905.     16mo,  pp.  xxix,  151. 

71.  A  Primer  of  Classical  and  English  Philology. 
Oxford,  1905.     Extra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  viii,  101. 

72.  Pierce    the    Ploughman's    Crede.     Oxford, 

1906.  Extra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  xxxii,  73. 

73.  The  Place-Names  of  Bedfordshire.     (Cam- 
aridge  Antiquarian   Society.)     Cambridge,    1906. 
Demy  8vo,  pp.  vii,  74. 

74.  The  Legend  of  Good  Women.     By  Geoffrey 
Chaucer.     Done  into  modern  English.     London, 
"hatto  &  Windus,  1907.     16mo,  pp.  xxiii,  131. 

75.  The    Prologue    to    the    Canterbury    Tales, 
and  Minor  Poems.     By  Geoffrey  Chaucer.     Done 
nto  modern  English.     London,  Chatto  &  Windus, 

1907.  16mo,  pp.  xxxi,  168. 

76.  The    Proverbs    of    Alfred.     Oxford,    1907. 
Sxtra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  xlvi,  94. 

77.  The  Parliament  of  Birds  and  The  House  of 
?ame.     By  Geoffrey  Chaucer.     Done  into  modern 

English.     London,     Chatto     &     Windus,     1908. 
~6mo,  pp.  xxvii,  135. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  11.  JULY  23, 1910. 

78.  Early  English  Proverbs.  Oxford,  1910. 
8vo,  pp.  xxiv,  147. 

The  following  are  later  editions  of  books 
first  published  before  1896,  and  not  noticed 
in  the  former  list  : — 

35.  (d)  JElfric's  Lives  of  Saints.  Part.  IV. 
(E.E.T.S.)  Vol.  II ;  concluding  part.  1900.  Pp. 
Ixiii,  225-474. 

38.  (D)    An    Etymological    Dictionary    of    the 
English  Language.     Third  edition.     Oxford,  1898. 
4to,  pp.  xxxiv,  844.     (E)  The  same  ;   New  edition, 
revised   and   enlarged.     Oxford,    1910.     4to,   pp. 
xliv,  780. 

39.  (E)    A    Concise    Etymological    Dictionary 
of    the    English    Language.     New    edition  ;     re- 
written and  rearranged.     Oxford,   1901.     Crown 
8vo,  pp.  xv,  663. 

40.  (B)  The  Tale  of  Gamelyn  ;   with  notes  and 
a    glossary.     Oxford,     1893.       Second     edition. 
Extra  fcap.  8vo,  pp.  xl,  64. 

46.  (B)  Chaucer:  the  Minor  Poems.  Oxford, 
1896.  Second  and  enlarged  edition.  Crown  8vo, 
pp.  Ixxxvi,  502. 

50.  (B)  A  Primer  of  English  Etymology.  Second 
edition.  Oxford,  1895.  (C)  Third  edition,  1898. 
(D)  Fourth  edition,  1904.  (E)  Fifth  edition,  1910. 


(Concluded  from  p.  5.) 

I  NOW  give  the  remainder  of  the  first  part 
of  Peacock's  Essay  from  MS.  36,815  in  the 
British  Museum  : — 

"  The  monthly  publications  are  so  numerous 
that  the  most  indefatigable  reader  of  desultory 
literature  could  not  get  through  the  whole  of  their 
contents  in  a  month — a  very  happy  circum- 
stance, no  doubt,  for  that  not  innumerous  class 
of  persons  who  make  the  reading  of  reviews  and 
magazines  the  sole  business  of  their  lives.  All 
these  have  their  own  little  exclusive  circles  of 
favour  and  fashion,  and  it  is  very  amusing  to 
trace  in  any  one  of  them  half-a-dozen  favoured 
names  circling  in  the  pre-eminence  of  glory  in 
that  little  circle,  and  scarcely  named  or  known 
out  of  it.  Glory,  it  is  said,  is  like  a  circle  in  the 
water  that  grows  feebler  and  feebler  as  it  recedes 
from  the  centre  and  expands  with  a  wider  circum- 
ference ;  but  the  glory  of  these  little  idols  of 
little  literary  factions  is  like  the  many  circles  pro- 
duced by  the  simultaneous  splashing  of  a  multi- 
tude of  equal-sized  pebbles,  which  each  throws 
out  for  a  few  inches  its  own  little  series  of  con- 
centric circles,  limiting  and  limited  by  the  small 
rings  of  its  brother  pebbles. 

"  Each  of  these  little  instructions  of  genius 
has  its  own  little  audience  of  admirers,  who,  read- 
ing only  those  things  belonging  to  their  own  party 
or  gang,  peep  through  these  intellectual  telescopes 
and  think  they  have  a  complete  view  of  the  age, 
while  they  see  only  a  minute  fraction  of  it.  Thus 
it  fares  with  the  insulated  reader  of  a  solitary 
review,  the  inhabitants  of  large  towns,  the  fre- 
quenters of  reading-rooms  who  consult  them  '  en 
masse.'  In  these  publications  the  mutual  flattery 
of  'learned  correspondents '  to  their  own  'inestim- 

able miscellany '  carries  the  '  Tickle  me,  Mr. 
Hayley,'  principle  to  a  surprising  extent.  There 
is  a  systematical  cant  in  criticism  which  passes 
with  many  for  the  language  of  superior  intelli- 
gence ;  such,  for  instance,  is  that  which  pro- 
nounces unintelligible  whatever  is  in  any  degree 
obscure,  more  especially  if  it  be  really  matter  of 
deeper  sense  than  the  critic  likes  to  be  molested 
with.  A  critic  is  bound  to  study  for  an  author's 
meaning,  and  not  to  make  his  own  stupidity 
another's  reproach. 

"  Knight's  '  Principle  of  Taste  '  is  as  admirable 
a  piece  of  philosophical  criticism  as  has  appeared 
in  any  language.  One  of  the  best  metaphysical 
and  one  of  the  best  moral  treatises  in  any  language 
appeared  at  the  same  time.  The  period  seemed 
to  promise  the  revival  of  philosophy,  but  it  has 
since  fallen  into  deeper  sleep  than  ever,  and  even 
classical  literature  seems  sinking  into  the  same 
repose.  The  favourite  journals  of  the  day,  only 
within  a  very  few  years,  were  seldom  without  a 
classical  and  philosophical  article  for  the  fear  of 
keeping  up  appearances  :  but  now  we  have 
volume  after  volume  without  either,  and  almost 
without  anything  to  remind  us  that  such  things 
were.  Sir  William  Drummond  complains  that 
philosophy  is  neglected  at  the  universities  from  an 
exclusive  respect  for  classical  literature.  I  wish 
the  reason  were  so  good.  Philosophy  is  dis- 
couraged from  fear  of  itself,  not  from  love  of  the 
classics.  There  would  be  too  much  philosophy 
in  the  latter  for  the  purposes  of  public  education 
were  it  not  happily  neutralised  by  the  very  ingeni- 
ous process  of  academical  chemistry  which 
separates  reason  from  grammar,  taste  from- 
prosody,  philosophy  from  philology,  and  absorbs 
all  perception  of  the  charms  of  the  former  in 
tedium  and  disgust  at  the  drudgery  of  the  latter 
Classical  literature,  thus  discarded  of  all  power 
to  shake  the  dominion  of  venerable  iniquity  and 
hoary  imposture,  is  used  merely  as  a  stepping- 
stone  to  church  preferment,  and  there,  God  knows 
Small  skill  in  Latin  and  still  less  in  Greek 
Is  more  than  adequate  to  all  we  seek. 

"  If  periodical  criticism  were  honestly  and 
conscientiously  conducted,  it  might  be  a  question 
how  far  it  has  been  beneficial  or  injurious  to 
literature  ;  but  being,  as  it  is,  merely  a  fraudulent 
and  exclusive  tool  of  party  and  partiality,  that 
it  is  highly  detrimental  to  it  none  but  a  trading 
critic  will  deny.  The  success  of  a  new  work  is 
made  to  depend,  in  a  great  measure,  not  on  the 
degree  of  its  intrinsic  merit,  but  on  the  degree  of 
interest  the  publisher  may  have  with  the  periodical 
press.  Works  of  weight  and  utility  break  through 
these  flimsy  obstacles,  but  on  the  light  and 
transient  literature  of  the  day  its  effect  is  almost 
omnipotent.  Personal  or  political  alliance  being 
the  only  passports  to  critical  notice,  the  inde- 
pendence and  high  thinking  that  keeps  an 
individual  aloof  from  all  the  petty  subdivisions 
of  fashion  makes  every  gang  his  foe.  There  is  a 
common  influence  to  which  the  periodical  press 
is  subservient :  it  has  many  ultras  on  the  side  of 
power,  but  none  on  the  side  of  liberty  (one  or 
two  publications  excepted).  And  this  is  from 
want  of  sufficient  liberty  of  the  press,  which 
is  ample  to  all  purposes  ;  it  is  from  want  of  an 
audience.  There  is  a  degree  of  spurious  liberty 
a  Whiggish  moderation  with  which  many  will  go 
hand  in  hand,  but  few  have  the  courage  to  push 
enquiry  to  its  limits.  Now  though  there  is  no 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2.3,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

censorship  of  the  press,  there  is  an  influence  widely 
diffused  and  mighty  in  its  application  that  is 
almost  equivalent  to  it.  The  whole  scheme  of  our 
government  is  based  on  influence,  and  the  immense 
number  of  genteel  persons,  who  are  maintained  by 
the  taxes,  gives  this  influence  an  extent  and  com- 
plication from  which  few  persons  are  free.  They 
shrink  from  truth,  for  it  shows  those  dangers 
which  they  dare  not  face.  Corruption  must  be 
stamped  upon  a  work  before  it  can  be  admitted 
to  fashionable  simulation. 

"  In  orthodox  families  that  have  the  advan- 
tage of  being  acquainted  with  such  a  phenomenon 
as  a  reading  parson  or  any  tolerably  literate 
variety  of  political  and  theological  orthodoxy — 
the  reading  of  the  young  ladies  is  very  much 
influenced  by  his  advice.  He  is  careful  not  to 
prohibit  unless  in  extreme  cases — Voltaire's,  for 
example,  who  is  by  many  well-meaning  ladies 
and  gentlemen  in  leading  strings  considered 
little  better  than  a  devil  incarnate.  He  is  careful 
not  to  prohibit,  for  prohibition  is  usually  accom- 
panied with  longing  for  forbidden  fruit — it  is  much 
more  easy  to  exclude  by  silence,  and  preoccupy 
by  counter-recommendation.  Hence  ladies  read 
only  for  amusement :  the  best  recommendation 
a  work  of  fancy  can  have  is  that  it  should  incul- 
cate no  opinions  at  all,  but  implicitly  acquiesce  in 
all  the  assumptions  of  worldly  wisdom.  The  next 
best  is  that  it  should  be  well-seasoned  with 
'  petitiones  principii  '  in  favour  of  things  as  they 

"  Fancy  indeed  treads  a  dangerous  ground  when 
she  trespasses  in  the  land  of  opinion — the  soil 
is  too  slippery  for  her  glass  slippers,  and  the 
atmosphere  too  heavy  for  her  filmy  wings.  But 
she  is  a  degenerate  spirit  if  she  be  contented 
within  the  limits  of  her  own  empire.  She  should 
keep  the  mind  continually  poring  upon  phan- 
tasies without  pointing  to  more  important  realities. 
Her  province  is  to  awaken  the  mind,  not  to 
enchain  it.  Poetry  precludes  philosophy,  but 
true  poetry  prepares  its  path.  Cervantes — 
Rabelais — Swift  — Voltaire — Fielding — have  led 
fancy  against  opinion  with  a  success  that  no 
other  names  can  parallel.  Works  of  mere  amuse- 
ment that  treat  nothing  may  have  an  accidental 
and  transient  success,  but  cannot,  of  course,  have 
influence  in  their  own  times,  and  will  certainly 
not  pass  to  posterity.  Mr.  Scott's  success  has 
been  attributed,  in  a  great  measure,  to  his  keeping 
clear  of  opinion.  But  he  is  far  from  being  a 
writer  who  teaches  nothing.  On  the  contrary, 
he  communicates  fresh  and  valuable  information. 
He  i3  the  historian  of  a  peculiar  and  minute 
class  of  our  own  countrymen  who,  within  a  few 
years,  have  completely  passed  away.  He  offers 
materials  to  the  philosopher  in  depicting,  with 
the  truth  of  life,  the  features  of  human  nature 
in  a  peculiar  state  of  society  before  comparatively 
little  known.  Information,  not  enquiry — manners, 
not  morals — facts,  not  inferences — are  the  taste  of 
the  present  day.  If  philosophy  be  not  dead,  she  is, 
at  least,  sleeping  in  the  country  of  Bacon  and 
Locke.  The  seats  of  learning  (as  the  universities 
are -still  called  according  to  the  proverb  '  Once  a 
captain  always  a  captain  ')  are  armed  cap-a-pie 
against  her.  The  metaphysician,  having  lifted 
his  voice  and  been  regarded  by  no  man,  folds  up 
his  Plato  and  writes  a  poem." 

The   second   part   of   the   essay   consists 
of  a  long  defence  of  Coleridge's  '  Christabel ' 

and  '  Kubla  Khan '  against  Thomas  Moore, 
who  reviewed  them  in  The  Edinburgh  Review 
in  1816,  and  contains  references  to  the  Scotch 
periodical,  and  those  connected  with  it, 
which  equal  in  sarcasm  and  virulence  any 
passages  on  the  same  subject  in  Peacock's 
novels.  Although  of  considerable  length, 
it  is  incomplete  ;  the  sentences  are  in  places 
unfinished,  while  some  have  been  com- 
mitted to  paper  rapidly,  and  only  here  and 
there  exhibit  their  author's  singular  but 
genial  style.  A.  B.  YOUNG,  M.A.,  Ph.D. 

May  I  point  out  that  the  name  Romeo 
"  Loates  "  (ante,  p.  4,  col.  2,  1.  22  from  foot) 
should  be  Romeo  Coates,  the  self-styled 
"  Amateur  of  Fashion  "  ? 


125,  Helix  Road,  Brixton  Hill. 


IN  Dr.  Karl  Lentzner's  '  Worterbuch  der 
englischen  Volkssprache  Australiens  und 
einiger  englischen  Mischsprachen,'  which  has 
the  sub -title  '  Colonial  English,  a  Glossary  * 
(Halle,  Leipzig,  and  London,  1891),  I  find 
on  p.  101,  under  the  heading  '  South  African 
Slang,'  the  following  item  : — 

"  Foptsac,  be  off !  An  apostrophe  to  drive  away 
intrusive  dogs.  Apparently  a  compound  of  the 
French  f outre,,  pronounced  foute,  and  sacre." 

As  this  word  may  perhaps  find  its  way 
into  a  supplement  to  the  '  N.E.D.,'  it  may  not 
be  useless  to  point  out  that  it  is  simply  a  con- 
traction of  Dutch  Voort,  zeg  ik,  "  Away 
(forth],  say  I." 

The  "High"  Dutch  zeggen  has  become 
ze  or  se  in  South  Africa,  as  leggen  has  beccme- 
le,  &c.,  and  as  M.E.  seggen  and  leggen  became 
"say'*  and  "lay.'*  Voort  ^vort ;  so  we 
have  vort  ze'k,  and  this,  heard  by  English 
ears  and  pronounced  by  an  English  tongue,, 
quite  explains  the  "  word.'* 

On  p.  102  of  the  same  book  scoff,  food,  and 
to  scoff  or  to  scorf,  "  to  devour,  eat  voraci- 
ously "  (this  definition  is  not  correct  :  it 
means  simply  "  to  eat  "),  are  compared  with 
Danish  skaffe,  a  naval  term  "to  eat.'1  But 
there  is  a  Dutch  schaffen  or  schaften,  "to 
knock  off  work  for  taking  meals,"  a  work- 
man's term,  and  doubtless  originally  a 
Dutch  naval  term.  The  word  occurs  in 
English  dialects  as  well ;  Wright,  '  E.D.D.,* 
also  defines  it  "to  eat  voraciously,  to 

There  is  a  bit  of  a  knot  in  the  etymology. 

The  word  means  in  Dutch  also  "to  pro- 
cure "  (ver-schaffen,  procure),  and  "  to  do," 
"to  bring  about.'1  In  these  meanings  it  i& 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [n  s.  n.  JULY  23,  1910. 

certainly  from  Germ,  schaffen,  and  connectec 
by  the  prolific  root  skap  with  schopfen,  Du 
scheppen,  Engl.  scoop. 

All  through  the  history  of  this  root  run 
two  meanings,  "to  scoop  (up)"  and  "to 
create,  make,  form,"  and  they  meet  in  Du. 
scheppen.  "They  cannot  be  separated,' 
says  J.  Franck.  ' '  The  original  meaning  is 
obscure,  because  this  root  is  not  known  out- 
side Germanic."-  Let  me  say  that  French 
has  chope,  a  large  beer-glass  and  measure, 
from  Germ.  Schoppen  ;  and  chopine,  a 
popular  (and  by  no  means  obsolete,  as  the 
dictionaries  state)  measure  for  wine,  about 
half  a  litre.  Thus  it  seems  easy  to  explain 
the  verb  to  scoff,  "  to  eat,"  through  the 
meanings  "to  make,"  "to  prepare"  (for 
eating),  "  to  dish  up." 

But  in  the  Dutch  language  they  have  a 
verb  schoften,  "'to  knock  off  work  for 
meals,"  which  would  be  derived  from  the 
noun  schoft,  "the  fourth  part  of  a  workday," 
separated  by  the  meals.  This  noun  has 
equivalents  in  Scandinavian  and  Low- 
German.  Dutch  has  both  schaft-tyd  and 
schoft-tyd,  meaning  the  same  thing,  yet 
Franck  would  have  them  unrelated.  "  This 
word  schoft,"  he  says,  "  relates  to  schuiven,  to 
glide,  to  shove"  Does  it  though  ?  Not 
more  than  in  so  far  as  the  root  of  shove  may 
be  related  to  the  root  of  scoop.  It  seems  to 
me  that  the  similarity  of  schaften  and 
schoften,  and  their  derivatives,  has  escaped 
the  attention  of  Franck.  Might  not  the 
meaning  "working-time,"  "part  of  the 
day,"  be  secondary,  and  the  result  of  trans- 
position— from  the  meaning  "  meal-times  " 
to  "  the  time  between  meals  "?  The  plural  of 
schoft,  schoven,  shows  that  the  t  is  excrescent; 
so  is  that  in  schaften  ;  they  may  both  be  due 
to  the  compound  schaf(t)-tyd,  schof(t)-tyd= 
41  scoff-time,"  "  scoffing-time." 

If  that  is  so,  then  they  are  evidently 
identical,  and  the  noun  schoft  in  the  above 
sense  is  derived  from  the  verb.  Then  the 
etymologist  in  connecting  scoff  with  the 
root  of  scoop,  &c.,  is  safe.  N.  RAAFF. 

SIB  WILLIAM  GODBOLD. — Sixty  years  is  a 
long  period  for  a  query  in  your  ever-interast- 
ing  paper  to  remain  unanswered. 

While  it  is  doubtful  if  the  original  querist 
be  still  alive  to  glean  the  information,  I  wish 
to  place  on  record  a  partial  reply  to  G.  A.  C., 
who  upon  p.  93  of  the  first  volume  of  the 
First  Series  of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  on  8  December, 
1849,  asked  for  information  about  Sir 
William  Godbold,  to  whose  memory  a  mural 
monument  still  exists  in  the  church  of 

Mendham,  Suffolk.  A  similar  inquiry  had 
been  made  in  The  Gentleman's  Magazine  for 
July,  1842,  but  without  eliciting  any  reply. 

The  monument  states  that  Sir  William  was 
of  illustrious  and  ancient  lineage,  had  made 
seven  journeys  into  Italy,  Greece,  Palestine, 
Arabia,  and  Persia  in  the  pursuit  of  litera- 
ture, and  grew  old  in  his  native  land,  dying 
in  London  in  April,  MDCXCIIIC. 

Up  to  the  present  no  reply  has,  I  belisve, 
been  forthcoming.  It  is  remarkable  that  no 
records  have  come  to  light  of  so  great  a 
traveller  at  a  period  when  it  was  no  easy 
matter  to  get  about  the  world. 

S.  H.  A.  H.  in  his  book  upon  the  Hearth 
Tax  in  Suffolk  considers  him  to  have  been 
a  bogus  or  blunder  knight.  (He  was  charged 
for  ten  hearths  at  Mendham,  seven  at  West- 
hall,  and  three  at  Weybread.)  I  find,  how- 
ever, that  in  the  Allegations  of  Marriages  at 
Canterbury,  when,  in  1669,  he  was  about  to 
wed  the  widow  of  the  Third  Sir  Nicholas 
Bacon,  he  is  described  as  Sir  William  God- 
bold.  One  would  hardly  think  that  upon 
such  an  occasion  any  honourable  man 
would  assume  a  title  to  which  he  had  no 
right,  nor  would  the  Bodleian  Library  with- 
out good  reason  describe  him  thus  in  its 
printed  catalogues  of  manuscripts,  as  it  does' 
in  several  places. 

I  am  indebted  to  that  library  for  the 
information  contained  in  a  manuscript 
letter  which  I  transcribe  from  a  photo- 
graphic reproduction,  and  which  contains 
evidence  of  his  having  been  in  Italy  in  1654  : 
Rome  25th  July  1654. 

:or  newes,  we  haue  our  sceanes  here  as  well  as  you, 
many  jealousies,  the  markes  of  future  troubles,  stil 
more  great  ones  in  disgrace  ;  his  holinesse  <fc  the 

Spanyard  dayly  affronting  &  affronted,  ready  to  lay 

landes  to  sword,  florentines  &  Genoes  dispute  the 
greatnesse  of  theur  little  Commonwealths  :  in  short 

;his  age  is  active  in  all  parts.  The  23rd  Instant  at 
midnight  we  had  here  a  terrible  earthquake  ;  some 

louses  &  a  part  of  the  wall  of  this  place  is  falne, 
many  quitted  their  houses,  we  only  our  beds,  which 

vith  the  whole  fabrick  of  our  pallace  was  rocked  as 
a,  cradle,  which  put  vs  in  minde  of  our  Infancy  & 
caused  vs  to  wish  for  the  like  innocency :  God 

protect  &  deliver  vs  from  such  prodigies. 


It  would  be  interesting  to  learn  at  which 
Dalace  in  Rome  Godbold  was  staying,  and  if 
records  exist  of  this  earthquake,  for  they 
vould  confirm  the  authenticity  of  the  letter. 

Before  discovering  this  letter  I  was  in- 
clined to  consider  the  account  of  his  various 
oyages  somewhat  mythical,  in  spite  of  the 
mural  inscription  ;  but  since  it  partly  con- 
irms  them,  I  hope  it  may  lead  to  further 
ight  upon  his  travels. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Although  bearing   the    same   surname,    I 
do  not  claim  to  be  a  descendant  of  his,  but 
belong  to  a  collateral  branch  of  the  family. 

6,  Loris  Road,  Hammersmith,  W. 


11  S.  i.  466.) — In   '  A  Course  of  Sermons  for 
all  the  Sundays  of  the  Year,'  Summer  Half- 
year,   Serm.    xxiii.,   there    is    the    following 
anonymous  quotation  : — 

mendacium  in  damnum  potens. 

This  remains  unidentified  in  Eden's  edition 
of  Taylor's  works  (iv.  612).  The  words  are 
from  Petronius,  an  author  not  unfrequently 
quoted  by  Taylor  : — 

Hoc  ad  furta  compositus  Sinon 
Firmabat,  et  mendacium  in  damnum  potens. 

Petronius,  cap.  89,  vv.  13,  14  of  the  poem 
on  the  taking  of  Troy. 

The  right  reading  of  the  second  line,  as  in 
Buecheler's  text,  seems  to  be 

et  mens  semper  in  damnum  potens. 
which  spoils  the  application  in  Taylor. 


ROYAL  TOMBS  AT  ST.  DENIS. — I  have 
before  me  an  interesting  pamphlet,  16  pp. 
8vo,  entitled,  '  Inventaire  ou  Denombrement 
tant  des  Corps  Saints  et  Tombeaux  des 
Hois,  qu'autres  Raretez  qui  se  voyent  en 
1'Eglise  de  S.  Denys,  hors  le  Thresor.' 
Other  than  "  A  Paris,"  it  has  no  imprint 
or  date  indication,  but  it  was  clearly  pub- 
lished about  1680,  as  "  Dans  le  Caveau  com- 
munes des  Ceremonies n  are  buried  three 
infant  daughters  of  the  King  (Louis  XIV.), 
and  the  last  important  interment  was  "  Hen- 
riette-Marie,  Reyne  d'Angleterre,  le  10 
Septembre,  1669." 

Prepared,  and  probably  sold,  by  the 
attendants  who  explained  the  monuments 
to  curious  visitors,  it  is  much  earlier  than 
anything  of  the  kind  issued  for  Westminster 
Abbey,  and  we  may  assume  that  either  the 
local  demand  was  sufficient,  or  the  numerous 
visitors  from  other  countries  justified  such 
enterprise.  The  date  is  about  forty  years 
later  than  John  Evelyn's  visit  ('Diary,' 

12  November,  1643),  but  a  great  many  of  the 
"  Raretez    qui    sont    dans    le    Choeur "    are 
described  by  him.     Unfortunately,  the  little 
guide    terminates    with    this     characteristic 
sentence  :    "  Ceux  qui  montreront  le  Thresor 
&  les  Tombeaux,  diront  le  reste  de  ce  que  les 
Curieux   veulent   S9avoir  " !  ;     so   we   cannot 
through  this  source  authenticate  the  marvels 

which  Evelyn  describes — the  "  large  gundola 
of  Chrysolite,"'  Solomon's  cup,  &c.  Very 
enthusiastic  and  full  are  the  notes  of  what  he 
saw,  and  we  can  believe  that  it  was  with 
much  satisfaction  that,  "having  rewarded 
our  courteous  fryer,  we  tooke  horse  for 
Paris  "  ;  and  I  like  to  think  he  brought 
away  a  copy  of  some  earlier  issue  of  this 
visitors'  guide  with  him. 


COATS AND  FAIRIES. — Harper's  Magazine  for 
May  contains  an  article  on  the  Aran  Islands, 
in  which  is  the  following  passage  : — 

"  Little  boys,  until  they  are  ten  or  eleven,  dress 
in  long  petticoats  ;  nobody  knows  why." 

Possibly  an  explanation  may  be  found  in  a 
paragraph  which  appeared  in  The  Hospital 
in  1905  :— 

"  In  Connemara,  in  some  of  the  districts,  a 
nurse  has  met  with  boys  of  twelve  and  fourteen  in, 
petticoats.  The  mothers  insist  that  the  petticoats 
are  worn  to  prevent  the  fairies  from  taking  their 
boys,  but  the  common-sense  nurse  often  attributes 
the  custom  to  motives  of  economy." 

Even  if  the  nurse's  explanation  (which 
seems  somewhat  surprising  to  the  mere 
man)  were  correct  of  the  present  day,  it  is 
evident  that  the  belief  in  fairies  and  their 
habit  of  stealing  boys  must  have  existed  quite 
recently.  A  similar  superstition  seems  to 
exist  in  the  Far  East.  Thus  in  'The 
World's  Children,'  by  Menpes,  we  read  that  in 
China  the  mother  of  a  family 

*'  is  continually  occupied  with  trying  to  deceive 
these  evil  spirits  ;  and  if  there  is  only  one  boy 
in  the  family,  and  several  girls,  she  will  cunningly 
change  their  clothing  and  their  mode  of  dress, 
putting  the  girl's  dress  on  the  boy  and  the  boy's 
on  the  girl,  so  that  if  the  spirits  do  come  they 
may  take  one  of  the  girls  by  mistake." 

Readers  of  '  Kim  '  may  now  call  to  mind 
how  the  Jat  relates  all  that  had  been  done 
to  cure  his  sick  child  : — 

"  We  changed  his  name  when  the  fever  came. 
We  put  him  into  girl's  clothes." 

To  revert  to  Ireland.  A  man  who  stayed 
in  Galway  more  than  twenty  years  ago  told 
me  that  at  that  time  the  custom  in  question 
was  not  confined  to  Connemara,  as  he  used  to 
see  big  boys  in  petticoats  in  other  parts 
of  the  county  ;  he  had  not  inquired  the 
reason  of  the  dress. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  know  if  there 
are  any  traces  of  this  superstition  in  other 
parts  of  the  United  Kingdom.  I  presume 
that  it  has  no  connexion  with  the  genesis  of 
the  Highland  kilt.  G.  H.  WHITE. 



NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [n  s.  n.  JULY  a,  mo. 

"  VOTE    EARLY    AND    VOTE    OFTEN." This 

expression  occurs  in  1858.  Mr.  W.  P. 
Miles  of  South  Carolina  said  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  on  31  March  : — 

"  It  has  been  recently  told  me  that  not  long  ago, 
at  an  election  held  in  one  of  our  northern  cities, 
justly  considered  one  of  the  brightest  centers  of 
intelligence  and  refinement,  banners  were  openly 
displayed  with  this  inscription,  for  the  guidance  of 
the  popular  sovereignty,  upon  their  folds,  'Vote 
early  and  vote  often.' " — Appendix  to  '  The  Congres- 
sional Globe,'  35th  Congress,  1st  Session,  p.  286. 

36,  Upper  Bedford  Place,  W.C. 

"OBSESS":  "OBSESSION." — This  is  an 
old  dictionary  word,  obsolete  for  centuries, 
but  I  venture  to  doubt  whether  it  was  ever 
used  by  Shakespeare,  Milton,  Scott,  Thacke- 
ray, or  Dickens.  Modern  journalists  have 
got  hold  of  it,  and  it  is  now  finding  its  way 
into  serial  fiction.  One  cannot  resist  a 
feeling  of  repugnance  whenever  it  occurs, 
as  at  an  unnecessary,  ostentatious,  and 
impertinent  intruder.  E.  M. 

[The  use  of  words  is  largely  a  matter  of  taste. 
Our  own  feeling  is  in  favour  of  "  obsession,"  and 
against  "obsess,"  to  which  we  should  prefer 
"  obsede,"  used  by  R.  L.  Stevenson.] 

"DISPENSE  BAR." — I  note  that  one  of 
the  compartments  in  a  Brighton  hotel  is 
labelled  "  Dispense  Bar,"  and  presumably 
it  is  used  for  service  to  the  waiters.  The 
name,  however,  is  a  striking  instance  of 
survival,  for  one  of  the  three  meanings  of 
"  dispense  "  as  a  substantive  given  in  the 
'  N.E.D.'  is  "  A  place  where  provisions  are 
kept  ;  a  storeroom,  pantry,  or  cellar  "  ;  and 
an  illustrative  quotation  of  1622  mentions 
"  a  little  Dispense,  or  Pantrie." 

A.  F.  R. 

imagination  in  Croatia  and  the  neighbour- 
ing country  of  Dalmatia  has  evolved  a  series 
of  nocturnal  monsters  with  singular  names. 
I  do  not  remember  hearing  of  the  following, 
which  I  have  just  come  across  in  a  Servian 
passage  in  a  Slavonic  reading-book.  Some 
of  them  suggest  the  '  Arabian  Nights.' 

The  orcho  marin  is  a  sea-monster,  at  home 
on  land,  which  can  assume  any  shape  at 
will,  attain  a  huge  size,  and  travel  at  great 
speed.  The  mora  is  a  fearsome  creature 
which  can  assume  any  shape,  and  goes 
about  at  night  killing  the  servants.  The 
maninyovo  resembles  the  orcho  marin.  The 
mitsitch  is  a  familiar  spectre.  The  tentsima 
frightens  children,  and  haunts  dark  spots. 
The  vukodlatsy  appear  during  grape  harvest. 

They  can  change  shape,  and  generally  re- 
semble ragamuffins  with  sacks  on  their 
shoulders,  going  round  at  night  to  steal 
grapes.  The  last  name  recalls  the  better- 
known  vourdalak,  vampire  (e.g.,  in  A.  S. 
Pushkin's  songs  of  the  Southern  Slavs), 
discussed  long  ago  in  '  N.  &  Q.J 

Streatham  Common. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

GENERAL  HAUG. — I  shall  be  much  obliged 
if  any  of  your  readers  can  give  me  infor- 
mation about  General  Haug,  who  fought 
in  the  defence  of  Rome,  1849,  and  again 
under  Garibaldi  in  1866.  Between  those 
dates  he  took  part  in  various  campaigns 
on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic,  especially 
distinguishing  himself  in  the  Polish  revolu- 
tion, at  which  time  he  went  by  the  name  of 
Bossack.  I  have  an  impression  that  he 
was  connected  with  the  family  of  the  Counts 
of  Erbach,  but  I  have  been  unable  to  verify 
this.  There  may  exist  a  biography  in 

Sale,  Lago  di  Garda. 

STAKES. — I  should  be  glad  to  be  referred 
to  some  account  of  the  history  of  the  con- 
nexion of  the  saint  with  the  race  at  Don- 
caster  which  bears  his  name.  The  histories 
of  Doncaster  mention  the  last  week  of 
September  as  the  date  of  the  races,  and  St. 
Leger's  day  is  2  October  ;  but  late  in  the 
eighteenth  century  the  race  would  hardly 
have  got  its  name  from  the  saint  except 
for  some  special  reason.  I  do  not  know 
where  to  look  for  the  reason. 


Queen's  College,  Oxford. 

'  JANE  SHORE.' — I  shall  be  greatly  obliged 
if  any  reader  can  favour  me  with  information 
regarding  the  authoress  of  this  old  novel : — 

"Jane  Shore;  or,  The  Goldsmith's  Wife.  An 
Historical  Tale.  By  the  Authoress  of  '  The  Jew's 
Daughter,'  'The  Canadian  Girl,'  etc.  [720  pp.]. 
London  :  John  Bennett,  Junr.,  9,  Newgate  Street, 
1836.  8vo." 

It  has  an  engraved  frontispiece,  portrait  of 
Jane  Shore,  and  other  steel  plates,  by  W. 
Watkins.  HENRY  T.  FOLKARD. 

Wigan  Public  Libraries. 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  23, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


"THE  HOLY  CHOWS,"  LISBON. — Can  any 
one  indicate  a  truthful  history  of  the  "  holy 
crows  "  which  were  kept  with  great  venera- 
tion at  the  Cathedral  of  Lisbon  in  1787  ? 

In  1834  Richard  Bentley  of  New  Burling- 
ton Street  published  "  Italy  ;  with  Sketches 
of  Spain  and  Portugal,  by  the  Author  of 
*  Vathek,' "  who  was,  it  need  hardly  be 
said,  William  Beckford.  The  two  volumes 
of  which  the  work  is  composed  are  made 
up  of  a  series  of  letters.  The  passages  we 
are  about  to  quote  from  vol.  ii.  occur  in  a 
letter  dated  8  November,  1787.  They 
indicate  that  some  Portuguese  believed  that 
these  birds  had  a  miraculously  prolonged 
existence,  and  that  they  were  deeply 
venerated  by  every  one.  Can  any  one  point 
out  when  they  were  first  introduced  into  the 
Cathedral  of  Lisbon,  and  how  long  their 
descendants  remained  there  ?  So  many 
changes  have  happened  between  the  period 
when  Beckford  wrote  and  to-day  that  it  is 
scarcely  probable  that  their  successors 
inhabit  the  cathedral  at  the  present,  though 
if  they  do  we  should  like  to  hear  of  it. 
Are  there  instances  of  birds  or  mammals 
being  kept  in  this  fashion  in  other  parts  of 
Europe,  or  of  the  world  in  general  ?  If  it 
be  so,  how  are  they  regarded  from  a  folk- 
lore point  of  view  ? 

Beckford,  leaving  another  subject,  re- 
marks : — 

*'  All  this  is  admirable  ;  but  nothing  in  comparison 
with  some  stories  about  certain  holy  crows.  '  The 
very  birds  are  in  being,'  said  the  sacristan. 

What!'  answered  I,  'the  individual  crows  who 
attended  St.  Vincent?'  'Not  exactly,'  was  the 
reply  (in  a  whisper,  intended  for  my  private  ear) ; 

but  their  immediate  descendants.'" 

A  note  added  at  a  later  date  states  : — 

"  At  the  time  I  wrote  this,  half  Lisbon  believed 
in  the  individuality  of  the  crows,  and  the  other 
half  prudently  concealed  their  scepticism."— P.  203. 

"At  length,  however  all  this  tasting  and  praising 

haying  been  gone  through  with  we  set  forth  on  the 

wings  of  holiness,  to  pay  our  devoirs  to  the  holy 

rows.    A  certain  sum  having  been  allotted,  time 

onal,  for  the  maintenance  of  two  birds  of 

118    species,    we    found    them    very   comfortably 

ished  in  a  recess  of  a  cloister  adjoining  the 

cathedral,  well  fed,  and  certainly  most  devoutly 


"£he  origin  of  this  singular  custom  dates  as  high 
the  days  of  St.  Vincent,  who  was  martyrized 
near  the  Cape  which  bears  his  name,  and  whose 
nangled  body  was  conveyed  to  Lisbon  in  a  boat 
attended  by  crows.  These  disinterested  birds, 
liter  seeing  it  decently  interred,  pursued  his 
murderers  with  dreadful  screams  and  tore  their 
eyes  out.  The  boat  and  the  crows  are  painted  or 
sculptured  m  every  corner  of  the  cathedral,  and 

upon  several  tablets  appears  emblazoned  an  end- 
less record  of  their  penetration  in  the  discovery  of 

"  It  was  growing  late  when  we  arrived,  and  their 
feathered  sanctities  were  gone  quietly  to  roost ;  but 
the  sacristans  in  waiting,  the  moment  they  saw  us 
approach,  officiously  roused  them.  Oh,  how  plump 
and  sleek  and  glossy  they  are  !  My  admiration  of 
their  size,  their  plumage,  and  their  deep-toned 
crpakings  carried  me,  I  fear,  beyond  the  bounds  of 
saintly  decorum.  I  was  just  stretching  out  my 
hand  to  stroke  their  feathers,  when  the  missionary 
checked  me  with  a  solemn  forbidding  look.  The 
rest  of  the  company,  aware  of  the  proper  cere- 
monial, kept  a  respectful  distance  whilst  the 
sacristan  and  a  toothless  priest,  almost  bent  double 
with  age,  communicated  a  long  string  of  miraculous 
anecdotes  concerning  the  present  hcly  crows,  their 
immediate  predecessors,  and  other  holy  crows  of 
the  old  time  before  them.  To  all  these  super- 
marvellous  narrations,  the  missionary  appeared  to 
listen  with  implicit  faith,  and  never  opened  his  lips 
during  the  time  we  remained  in  the  cloister,  except 
to  enforce  our  veneration  and  exclaim  with  pious 
composure,  '  honrado  com?.' " — Pp.  207,  208,  209. 

Do  the  Corvidse  breed  in  captivity  ? 

N.  M.  &  A. 

BEN  JONSON. — Will  some  one  kindly  give 
me  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  italicized 
words  in  the  three  following  quotations  from 
Ben  Jonson  ? — 

"We  have  the  dullest,  most  imbored  ears  for 
verse  amongst  our  females.'' — '  Staple  of  News,' 
II.  i. 

"  If  you  would  be  contented  to  endure  a  sliding 
reprehension  at  my  hands." — '  Magnetic  Lady,'  I.  i. 

"  Strummel-patch'd,  goggled-eyed  grumbledories." 
— 'Every  Man  out  of  his  Humour,'  v.  4. 

The  usual  interpretation  of  "  strummel " 
does  not  seem  to  go  comfortably  with 
"patch'd.'r  M.  E. 

Fyvie  Mayo  in  her  new  book  of  recollections 
makes  several  references  to  Mr.  Charles 
Gordon,  a  publisher  of  Paternoster  Row. 
He  had  also  a  nephew  in  the  publishing  line. 
I  have  made  various  inquiries  as  to  the 
identity  of  this  publisher,  but  have  failed 
to  find  any  facts  about  him.  Can  any 
reader  tell  me  who  he  was  and  when  he  died  ? 

118,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

tinued from  10  S.  xi.  469  ;  xii.  107.) 

Magooffer  (1795).— Some  kind  of  turtle  or  tortoise, 

apparently,  on  the  back  of  which  a  fire  might  be 

Mendoza  (1830).— "A  Mendoza  under  the  chin," 

with  allusion  to  the  Hebrew  pugilist. 
Mistake    one's    man    (1794). — Is    there   an    earlier 

instance  ? 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  u.  JULY  23, 1910. 

Moeock  (10  S.  viii.  107).— This  is  a  birch-bark  basket 
or  pannier.  The  word  occurs  as  early  as  1827. 

Mud-wasp  (1824). — Is  this  creature  separately  re- 
cognized by  entomologists  ? 

Mung  news  (1844).  —False  news  (?).  Earlier 
examples  ? 

Nail-driver  (1872). — A  rapid  horse. 

Pikery  (1878,  Mrs.  IS  to  we).— Something  bitter ;  but 
what  ? 

Place  (1855).— To  place  a  person  is  to  identify  him. 
Scantily  noticed  in  'N.E.D.' 

Plug-muss  (1857).— An  uncommonly  lively  "row." 
Earlier  examples? 

Pot  and  can  (1789). — Hand  in  glove. 

Powder- falbin  (1861). — Some  kind  of  root. 

Preach  a  funeral  (1851). — Earlier  examples? 

Prex,  a  college  president  (1828).— Ditto. 

Prickly  heat  (1830).— Ditto. 

Priming,  no  part  of  a  (1833).— Ditto. 

Propaganda  (1800).— The  '  N,E.D.'  gives  no  early 
example  ;  but  surely  the  term  was  used  in  Eng- 
land in  the  18th  century  with  reference  to  political 
and  other  opinions. 

36,  Upper  Bedford  Place,  W.C. 

I  shall  be  grateful  if  any  correspondent  of 
'  N.  &  Q.'  will  say  what  the  statute  of 
5  Elizabeth  is  which  is  referred  to  below. 
The  extract  is  from  the  Penshurst  register, 
and  I  have  seen  a  similar  entry  in  the 
register  of  Sandhurst  Church,  Kent,  signed 
or  witnessed  by  the  curate  of  the  parish. 
The  two  entries  are  of  about  the  same 
date  : — 

**  Mem :  that  Sir  John  Rivers  and  his  Lady, 
bryng'  certificate  from  Paul  Dane,  Physician,  of 
their  indisposition  of  body,  and  so  of  hurt  that 
might  come  to  them  by  eating  of  fish  in  time  of 
Lent,  had  licence  given  them  to  eate  flesh  by  me 

Henry  Hammond of  Penshurst  for  the  space  of 

eight  days statute  Eliz.  5th  which  time  now 

desire  to  have  it  renewed,  which  of registered 

it,  in  the  presence  of " 

Dr.  Henry  Hammond  became  Rector  of 
Penshurst  in  1633.  A.  L.  F. 

PRINCE  BISHOP  OF  BASLE,  1790. — Can 
any  one  tell  me  if  the  Prince  Bishop  of 
Basle  in  1790-92  was  a  Roman  Catholic  or 
Lutheran  ?  I  know  he  had  a  residence  at 
Arlesheim  at  that  date,  but  am  not  sure  if  his 
palace  at  Basle  had  been  given  up.  I  should 
also  like  to  know  his  name. 


Heathcote,  Wellington  College,  Berks. 

EGERTON  LEIGH  was  admitted  to  West- 
minster School,  19  June,  1771.  Particulars 
of  his  parentage  and  the  date  of  his  death 
are  wanted.  He  must  surely  have  been 
one  of  the  Leighs  of  West  Hall,  High  Leigh, 
but  I  cannot  find  him  in  my  edition 
of  Burke's  '  Landed  Gentry. * 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

FRANCIS  PECK,  son  of  Francis  Peck  of 
Hythe,  Kent,  was  elected  from  Westminster 
to  a  scholarship  at  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, in  1706.  He  was  admitted  to 
Trinity  as  a  pensioner  28  May,  1706,  and  as 
scholar  25  April,  1707  ;  he  graduated  B.A. 
1709,  and  M.A.  1713.  I  should  be  glad  to 
know  any  further  particulars  of  his  career 
and  the  date  of  his  death. 

I  ought  perhaps  to  add  that  this  Francis 
Peck  is  not  the  antiquary  of  that  name,, 
with  whom  he  is  confused  by  the  writer  of 
the  article  in  the  '  Diet,  of  Nat.  Biog.'  (xliv. 
184).  The  antiquary,  who  was  educated  at 
the  Charterhouse  and  St.  John's  College,. 
Cambridge,  graduated  B.A.  1715,  and  M.A. 
1727.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

'  REVERBERATIONS.' — I  have  a  volume  of 
short  poems  with  this  title  which  belonged 
to  the  late  William  Davies  of  Warrington,  the 
author  of  '  The  Pilgrimage  of  the  Tiber  * 
and  other  works.  It  has  his  name  and  the 
date  1853  written  on  the  top  of  the  title,. 
and  contains  many  notes  and  verbal  correc- 
tions by  him.  It  is  in  two  parts  :  Part  I.. 
pp.  IV,  68  ;  Part  II.  pp.  IV,  108,  12mo, 
1849.  It  has  been  somewhere  stated,  I 
believe,  but  with  what  authority  I  do  not 
know,  that  William  Davies  had  intimate- 
relations  with  D.  G.  Rossetti  and  his  circle. 
Can  any  of  your  readers  say  who  is  the 
author  of  these  poems  ?  He  was  evidently 
deeply  imbued  with  Saga  lore. 

Heaton,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

— I  shall  be  glad  if  some  reader  will  oblige 
me  with  the  name  of  the  author  of  a  bio- 
graphy (or  autobiography)  which  gives  a 
spirited  account  of  an  officer's  adventures  in 
the  East  India  Company's  marine  service- 
against  French  privateers,  Arab  pirates,  &c. 

A.  E.  DENHAM. 

92,  Clarence  Road,  Wimbledon. 

MRS.  FITZHERBERT'S  SALE.  —  Mrs.  Fitz- 
herbert  died  at  Brighton  in  March,  1837, 
and  a  sale  of  her  effects  took  place  there 
soon  after.  I  shall  be  glad  to  know  if  there 
is  a  catalogue  in  existence.  A.  H.  S. 

reader  remember  the  name  of  the  G.W.R. 
stationmaster  at  Windsor  towards  the  end 
of  the  seventies  ?  Having  quarrelled  with 
his  company,  he  resigned  his  position,  and 
published  some  amusing  reminiscences, 
which  I  should  like  to  read  again. 

L.  L.  !rv. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


"  SEERSUCKER  "  COAT. — In  a  recent  nove 
by  an  American  writer  "  in  a  seersucker 
coat "'  occurs  thrice  in  the  first  twelve 
pages,  and  it  is  recorded  as  an  East  Indian 
material  in  'The  Century  Dictionary.' 
'  Hobson-  Jobson  '  makes  no  mention  of  it, 
and  I  ask  its  origin.  Can  the  latter  part  of 
the  word  be  a  corruption  of  shikar  ? 

H.  P.  L. 

Burke's  'Landed  Gentry  l  it  is  stated  that 
the  family  of  Waller  of  Cully  and  Finoe,  co. 
Tipperary,  is  a  branch  of  the  Warrens  of 
Poynton,  co.  Chester,  and  that  one  William 
Warren,  alias  Waller,  of  Bassingbourne, 
co.  Cambridge,  and  of  Ashwell,  co.  Herts 
assumed  the  name  of  Waller,  probably  from 
an  intermarriage  with  an  heiress  of  the  Waller 
family.  Any  information  on  the  subject 
will  be  welcomed.  The  Wallers  of  Cully 
and  Finoe  bear  the  Warren  and  Waller  arms 
quarterly.  The  Wallers  of  Prior  Park,  co. 
Tipperary,  use  the  Warren  arms  only. 

'  Nouvelles  Annales  des  Voyages,'  Paris, 
1845,  tome  ii.,  it  is  stated  that 
"lasociete  litteraire  d'Egypte  (Egyptian  Literary 
Association)  a  public  le  premier  volume  de  ses 
Memoires,  sous  le  titre  de  *  Miscellanea  ^Egyptiaca,' 
tome  ler,  premiere  partie." 

Prince  Ibrahim-Hilmy,  in  his  '  Literature 
of  Egypt,'  vol.  ii.,  1888,  p.  438,  has  this 
entry  : — 

"  Miscellanea  ^Egyptiaca  de  1' Association  Litte- 
raire d'Egypte.  Anno  1842vVol.  I,  part  1,  pp.  20, 125. 
Alexandria,  1842.  4to.  [No  more  published.]" 

Where  can  I  find  any  information  about 
this  Association  ?  And  where  can  a  copy 
of  the  '  Miscellanea  '  be  seen  ? 


39,  Agate  Road,  Hammersmith,  W. 

RISTER.— John  Brooke,  a  barrister  and 
bencher  of  the  Middle  Temple,  was  Treasurer 
of  that  Inn  of  Court  from  1501  to  1504. 

There  was  also  a  contemporary  John 
Brooke  who  became  a  serjeant-at-law  and  a 
judge.  It  is  not  known  to  which  Inn  of 
Court  he  belonged,  or  when  he  was  made 
serjeant,  but  he  died  in  1522.  He  was  a 
Somersetshire  man,  his  pedigree  being  given 
in  the  Visitations  for  that  county,  and  he 
was  buried  at  St.  Mary  Redcliffe  Church, 

Can  any  one  kindly  tell  me  to  which  Inn 
of  Court  Serjeant  Brooke  belonged  ?  If  the 
Middle  Temple,  the  two  John  Brookes  are 

possibly   the   same.     I   may   say   I   am   ac- 
quainted  with   the  printed   records   of   the 
various  Inns  of  Court.        B.  WHITEHEAD. 
2,  Garden  Court,  Temple. 

J.  FABER. — Who  was  this  artist  ?  His 
name  appears  below  a  portrait  of  my  great 
grandfather,  the  late  William  Rutter, 
formerly  of  Hull  and  Heligoland.  Ihe 
signature  is  followed  by  the  words  and  figures 
—"fee.  1814,  Heligo-land." 


formation about  him  is  desired — Christian 
name,  dates  of  birth  and  death.  He  painted 
the  portraits  of  three  members  of  the  family 
of  Mr.  James  Sykes  about  1793.  «*.« 

Hilfield,  Yateley. 



(11  S.  ii.  9.) 

SEE  the  annotated  edition  of  '  Esmond  '  in 
Macmillan's  "  English  Classics,"  1903,  p.  405, 
and  the  admirable  edition  by  T.  C.  and  W. 
Snow,  Oxford,  1909,  p.  470,  and  Index, 
s.v.  '  Clergy.'  It  was  not  the  clergy  in 
general,  but  the  private  chaplains,  that  were 
exposed  to  this  indignity. 

In  the   '  Satires  l   (ii.   6)  of  Joseph  Hall, 
1597,  we  read  : — 

A  gentle  squire  would  gladly  entertaine 
Into  his  house  some  trencher-chaplaine : 
Some  willing  man  that  might  instruct  his  sons, 
And  that  would  stand  to  good  conditions. 
First,  that  he  lie  upon  the  truckle-bed, 
Whiles  his  young  maister  lieth  o  'er  his  head. 
Second,  that  he  do,  on  no  default, 
Ever  presume  to  sit  above  the  salt. 
Third,  that  he  never  change  his  trencher  twise. 
Fourth,  that  he  use  all  common  courtesies ; 
•sit  beare  at  meales,  and  one  halfe  rise  and  wait. 
Last,  that  he  never  his  young  maister  beat, 
But  he  must  ask  his  mother  to  define 
How  many  jerkes  she  would  his  breech  should  line. 
All  these  observ'd,  he  could  contented  bee, 
To  give  five  markes  and  winter  liverie. 

I  have  copied  the  poem  from  Anderson's 
'  British  Poets,"  only  substituting  she  for 
he  in  the  last  line  but  two.  Of  course  it 
was  the  mother  who  was  to  decide  on  the 
number  of  jerks  (strokes,  lashes)  the  de- 
inquent  should  receive  in  each  case.  Prof. 
H.  V.  Routh  (in  the  '  Cambridge  History  of 
English  Literature,'  iv.  330)  calls  this  mock 
advertisement  the  most  perfect  piece  of 
workmanship  in  Hall's  '  Satires.' 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [ii  s.  n.  JULY  23, 1910. 

John  Oldham  (1653-83)  in  'A  Satire 
addressed  to  a  Friend  that  is  about  to  leave 
the  University  '  says  : — 

Some  think  themselves  exalted  to  the  sky, 

If  they  light  in  some  noble  family  ; 

Diet,  a  horse,  and  thirty  pounds  a  year, 

Besides  the  advantage  of  his  lordship's  ear, 

The  credit  of  the  business,  and  the  state, 

Are  things  that  in  a  youngster's  ears  sound  great. 

Little  the  inexperienced  wretch  does  know 

What  slavery  he  oft  must  undergo, 

Who,  though  in  silken  scarf  and  cassock  dressed, 

Wears  but  a  gayer  livery  at  best ; 

When  dinner  calls,  the  implement  must  wait, 

WTith  holy  words  to  consecrate  the  meat, 

But  hold  it  for  a  favour  seldom  known, 

If  he  be  deigned  the  honour  to  sit  down. 

Soon  as  the  tarts  appear,  Sir  Crape,  withdraw  ! 

Those  dainties  are  not  for  a  spiritual  maw  ; 

Observe  your  distance,  and  be  sure  to  stand 

Hard  by  the  cistern  with  your  cap  in  hand  : 

There  for  diversion  you  may  pick  your  teeth. 

Till  the  kind  voider  conies  lor  your  relief. 

Tor  mere  board  wages  such  their  freedom  sell, 

Slaves  to  an  hour  and  vassals  to  a  bell ; 

And  if  the  enjoyment  of  one  day  be  stole, 

They  are  but  prisoners  out  upon  parole ; 

Always  the  marks  of  slavery  remain, 

And  they,  though  loose,  still  drag  about  their  chain  < 

See  Oldham' s  '  Poetical  Works,'  edited  by 
B.  Bell  1854,  pp.  223-5.  The  editor 
explains  "voider  "  as  "the  basket,  or  tray, 
used  for  carrying  away  the  relics  of  the 

Macaulay,  'History/  i.  160,  161  (Popular 
Edition),  refers  to  The  Tatler,  Nos.  255,  258. 
He  is  wrong,  by  the  way,  in  saying  (at  the 
same  place)  that  Corusodes  in  Swift's  '  Essay 
on  the  Fates  of  Clergymen  '  has  to  take  up 
with  a  cast-off  mistress.  Swift  says  :  "He 
married  a  Citizen's  widow,  who  taught  him 
to  put  out  small  sums  at  ten  per  cent." 

L.  R.  M.  STRACHAN. 


The  alleged  custom  of  the  clergy  retiring 
before  the  sweets  has  no  recondite  signi- 
ficance, and  has  nothing  to  do  with  bishops 
and  archbishops,  who,  as  Thackeray  elsewhere 
says,  used  to  be  noted  for  the  excellence  of 
their  dinners.  Macaulay  alleges  the  custom, 
and  gives  three  authorities  in  support  of  his 
statement — Eachard,  Oldham,  and  The 
Tatler.  The  passages  clearly  prove  that 
some  private  chaplains  had  to  retire  before 
the  sweets,  and  Macaulay,  more  suo,  by  a 
brilliant  leap  from  the  particular  to  the 
general,  predicates  the  custom  of  all  clergy. 
But  the  custom,  such  as  it  was,  had  no 
mystic  significance.  It  was  pure  stinginess. 

W.  A.  H. 

"  We  may  guess  the  customary  nature  of  the  talk 
or  the  songs  after  dinner  when  we  find  that, 

in  great  houses,  the  Chaplain  was  expected  to  retire 
with  the  ladies." — 'History  of  England,'  by  Lord 
Mahon  [Stanhope],  7  vols.,  1854,  vol.  vii.  p.  479. 

No  authority  is  cited. 

G.  W. 

(11  S.  i.  501  ;  ii.  31). — I  apologize  for  my 
carelessness,  and  admit  that  SIB  HERBERT 
MAXWELL  is  right  in  objecting  to  the  sentence 
in  my  note  in  reference  to  Edward  the  Elder. 
It  would,  of  course,  have  been  more  exact 
had  I  written  that  he  was  the  first  chosen  by 
the  kings  of  Britain  ' '  for  father  and  for 
lord,"  as  the  '  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle ' 
expresses  it.  A.  S.  ELLIS. 


THE  PRINCES  OF  WALES  (US.  ii.  21).— 
I  venture  to  send  a  few  corrections  of 
some  errors  contained  in  The  Daily  Telegraph 
list  reproduced  at  the  above  reference. 

Edward  II.  of  Carnarvon.— Succeeded  to  the  crown 

1307,   murdered  1327.    Created  Prince  of  Wales 

and  Earl  of  Chester,  7  Feb.,  1301,  at  the  famous 

Lincoln  Parliament. 
Edward  III.  of  Windsor. — Summoned  to  Parliament 

as  Earl  of  Chester,  but  never  bore  the  title  of 

Prince  of  Wales. 
Richard  II.  of  Bordeaux  (1367-1400).— Succeeded  to 

the  crown  1377. 
Edward  V.  of  the  Sanctuary  (1470-83).—  Eldest  sou 

of    Edward  IV.     Created  Prince    of    Wales    on 

26  June,  1471.     Succeeded  to  the  crown  9  April, 

Edward  of  Middleham  (1476-84). -Created  Prince 

of  Wales  8  September,  1483.     Died  9  April,  1484, 

at  Middleham  Castle. 
Henry  VIII.   of  Greenwich   (1491-1547).— Created 

Prince  of  Wales  18  February,  1503. 
Mary  I.  (1516-58).— In  1525  styled  Princess  of  Wales. 

Two  years  earlier  Linacre,  when  dedicating  his 

'  Rudiments '  to  Mary,  had  addressed  her  as  Prin- 
cess of  Cornwall  and  Wales. 
Henry  Frederick  of  Stirling  (1594-1612).— Created 

Prince  of  Wales  4  June,  1610. 
Charles  I.  of  Dunfermline  (1600-49).— Created  Prince 

of  Wales  3  November,  1616. 
Charles  II.  of  St.  James's  (1630-85).— About  1638  an 

establishment  was  provided  for  him  as  Prince  of 

James  Francis  Edward  of  St.  James's  (1688-1766).— 

Only  son  of  James  II.  by  Mary  of  Modena.    He  is 

styled  by  his  father  Prince  of  Wales  on  Monday, 

22  October,   1688,  in    the    Depositions  made  in 

Council  concerning  his  birth. 
George  Augustus  II.  of  Herrenhausen  (1683-1760).— 

Created  Prince  of  Wales  27  September,  1714. 
Frederick    Louis  of   Hanover   (1707-51).— Created 

Prince  of  Wales  9  January,  1729. 
George  William  Frederick  III.  (1738-1820).— Born 

in  Norfolk  House,  St.  James's  Square,  London. 

Created  Prince  of  Wales  19  April,  1751. 
George  Augustus  Frederick  IV.  of  St.  James's  (1762- 

1830). —Created  Prince  of  Wales  17  August,  1762. 
A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

n  B.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUEEIES. 


There  are  two  slight  errors  in  the  list 
reprinted  from  The  Daily  Telegraph. 

Under  the  first  name  it  is  stated  ' '  Became 
Edward  II.  in  1327."  The  date  should  be 
1307.  Oddly  enough,  the  opposite  mistake 
is  made  in  Low  and  Pulling' s  *  Dictionary 
of  English  History,'  1884,  s.v.  Edward  II.  : 
"It  is  generally  accepted  that  he  was 
secretly  murdered  in  Berkeley  Castle  on 
Sept.  21,  1307,"  instead  of  1327.  In  Haydn's 
*  Dictionary  of  Dates  ?  the  first  Prince  of 
Wales  is  divided  into  two,  there  being 
entries  for  "  Edward  Plantagenet  (afterwards 
king  Edward  II.)  "  under  1284,  and  "  Edward 
of  Carnarvon  made  prince  of  Wales  and  earl 
of  Chester  n  under  1301. 

The    second    error    is    under    the    name 

Edward  of  the  Sanctuary  (1470-83),  who  is 

stated  to  be  "  son  of  Edward  V."  instead  of 

"  son  of  Edward  IV.,  afterwafds  Edward  V.n 

W.  R.  B.  PBIDEAUX. 

DAYS  (11  S.  i.  421,  515).— MR.  ST.  CLAIR 
BADDELEY,  quoting  from  a  foreign  journal 
the  statement  that  horses  were  rare  among 
the  pre -Mohammedan  Arabs,  and  that  the 
camel  was  their  chief  means  of  locomotion, 
adds  that  this  would  involve  the  conclusion 
that  battles  among  the  tribes  were  fought 
exclusively  on  foot  or  on  camel-back. 
The  reply  is  simple,  and  is  given  by  Sir 
Charles  Lyall  in  the  Introduction  to  his 
'  Translations  of  Ancient  Arabian  Poetry,* 
p.  xxv.  When  men  went  on  an  expedition, 
they  rode  camels,  and  led  their  mares  along- 
side until  they  arrived  at  the  place  of  action, 
when  they  mounted  the  latter.  There  are 
few  poems  of  pre-Islamitic  times  in  which 
some  reference  is  not  made  to  the  war- 
horse.  For  instance,  in  the  great  war  of 
Al-Basus,  which  took  place  some  seventy 
years  before  Mohammed's  birth,  when  the 
wrath  of  the  heroic  Al-Harith  was  kindled  by 
the  death  of  his  son  Bujair,  he  at  once  gave 
orders  to  prepare  for  war,  and  cried  out : — 
Tie  close  by  my  tent  An-Na'amah,  my  war-mare— 
Y  ears  long  was  War  barren,  now  fruitful  her  womb. 

The  same  custom  prevails  to  this  day  in 
Abyssinia,  where  many  of  the  customs  of  the 
old  pre-Islamitic  Semites  survive,  the  only 
difference  being  that  the  mule  is  used  for 
riding  to  the  scene  of  war,  instead  of  the 
camel.  Every  warrior  has  his  charger  led 
alongside,  to  be  mounted  at  the  first  sign 
of  the  enemy.  When  travelling  through 
Abyssinia  many  years  ago,  my  companions 
and  I  were  compelled  to  follow  this  custom, 
the  horses  which  were  presented  to  us  by 

King  Theodore  being  never  used  on  the 
march,  but  only  for  an  evening  ride  after  we 
had  reached  our  camp. 

The  horse,  as  Sir  Charles  Lyall  points  out, 
was  a  rare  and  costly  possession  among  the 
early  Arabs,  who  employed  it  not  only  for 
military  purposes,  but  also  for  their  favourite 
pastime  of  horse-racing.  This  did  not 
cease  with  Al -Islam,  although  the  general 

Erohibition  against  games  of  chance  uttered 
y  the  Prophet  was  unfavourable  to  its 
continuance.  The  horses  were  run,  as  at 
Rome  in  the  Corso,  without  riders  ;  the 
usual  number  was  ten,  though  matches  were 
sometimes  made  up  (as  in  the  famous  race  of 
Dahis  and  Al-Ghabra,  which  gave  rise  to  a 
desolating  war)  with  smaller  numbers  ;  and 
the  ten  horses  received  special  names  accord- 
ing to  the  order  in  which  they  came  in 
(Lyall,  o.c.,  p.  19).  W.  F.  PRIDEATJX. 

Youatt — I  know  not  on  what  authority — 
states  that  among  the  articles  exported  from 
Egypt  to  Arabia  at  the  end  of  the  second 
century  were  horses  ;  also,  that  in  the  fourth 
century  200  Cappadocian  horses  were  sent 
by  a  Roman  emperor  as  the  most  acceptable 
present  he  could  offer  to  a  powerful  prince  of 
Arabia.  Youatt  further  adds  that  as  late  as 
the  seventh  century  the  Arabs  had  few 
horses,  and  those  of  little  value. 


Vermilion,  Alberta,  Canada. 

"  DENIZEN  ??  :  "  FOREIGN  "  (11  S.  i.  506). 
— The  assumption  by  PROF.  SKEAT  and  the 
'N.E.D.1  that  "denizen"  represents  L. 
de-intus,  Anglo-French  deinz  (modern  Fr. 
dans),  seems  to  me  untenable.  The  forms 
deinzein,  denzien,  point  to  a  very  different 
source.  In  the  Occitanian  dialects  of 
Southern  France  there  are  deinicha,  deinia, 
variants  from  the  Provencal  form  of  the  verb 
desnisa,  to  leave  the  nest,  to  leave  one's 
country ;  and  se  desnisat  se  denia,  is  to 
change  nests.  It  is  probable  that  desnisa 
was  originally  desniza,  since  in  the  sixteenth 
century  "  nest il  was  nizal  in  the  literary 
language  of  Toulouse. 

The  'N.E.D.*  under  the  verb  "  denize," 
to  make  a  denizen,  says  it  "probably  repre- 
sents an  A  Fr.  denizer  ;  in  med.  (Anglo-)  L. 
denizdre.™  But  the  clue,  obvious  to  any  one 
familiar  with  Provencal,  is  lost,  and  it  is 
assumed  that  the  verb  "  denize'*  is  *'f. 
Deniz-en,  by  dropping  the  termination." 
And  yet  the  quotations  under  "denize,'1 
though  of  later  date,  seem  to  show  that  its 
original  meaning  was  to  change  nests,  to 
acquire  a  settlement  in  another  country,  the 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [ii  s.  n.  JULY  23, 1910. 

equivalent  sense  of  Prov.  se  desnisa  and  of 
Gr.  metoikeo.  "Denizen"  is  the  equivalent 
of  Fr.  meteque  and  of  Gr.  metoikos,  as  dis- 
tinguished from  citizen  and  from  foreigner. 

The  final  n  of  "  denizen,*'  instead  of  in- 
fluencing that  of  "  citizen,'*  as  has  been 
suggested,  was  more  probably  influenced  by 
the  ending  of  the  latter  word,  often 
associated  with  it,  as  in  "  citizen  or  denysen  " 
(1467)  ;  and  the  common  use  of  "  denizen  " 
as  a  verb,  according  to  the  custom  of  our 
language,  tends  to  show  that  "  to  denize  " 
was  the  originally  introduced  word,  whence 
"denizen,*'-  first  as  a  noun,  then  as  a  verb. 
If  the  word  had  come  in  as  a  noun,  the  verb 
would  have  been  formed  from  it  as  "  deny- 
senize,"  corresponding  to  "citizenize"  (1593). 

While  the  '  N.E.D.*  under  "  denizen  "  says 
"cf.  foreign,  forein,'2  the  conference  is  only 
in  regard  to  the1  termination  ein.  And  yet 
it  is  so  probable  that  "  foreign  "  is  a  word 
out  of  the  same  nest  as  "denizen"  that  I 
venture  to  add  the  evidence  it  affords  to  that 
which  I  have  brought  forward  in  regard  to  the 
latter  word.  The  '  N.E.D.'  cannot  go  back 
further  than  Mid.  L.  foraneus,  O.F.  forain, 
which  it  derives  from  L.  foras,  out  of  doors, 
as  it  derives  "denizen"-  from  (de-)  intus, 
indoors.  I  consider  that  both  these  deriva- 
tions are  wrong,  and  that  both  words  have 
a  common  source  in  L.  nidus,  Prov.  nizal, 
nis.  Just  as  "  denizen '*  is  derived  from 
desnisa,  to  change  nests,  so  "  foreign "  is 
derived  from  foronisa,  to  leave  the  nest ; 
whence  enforonisa,  to  turn  out  of  the  nest  ; 
enfourniau,  a  fledgeling  taken  from  the  nest : 

E  per  rejougne 
Lis  enfourniau  qu  a  dins  soun  jougne. 

4  Mireio,'  ii. 

(And  to  stow  away  the  fledgelings  that  she  has  in 
her  bodice.) 

For  "  foreigner "  Proven£al  has  the 
words  estrangie,  fourestie,  foro-pais,  but  some 
dialects  retain  the  old  words  foronia  (corre- 
sponding to  deinia)  and  fouragna.  The 
people  of  Auvergne  like  maliciously  to  call 
their  neighbours  of  the  Forez  district 
forignat,  i.e.  foreigners.  The  forms  fouragna 
and  forignat  show  that  the  g  in  "  foreigner  " 
is  possibly  not  so  unmeaning  as  has  been 
assumed.  In  modern  French  the  old  sense 
of  forain  is  lost  ;  the  term  is  applied  to 
itinerant  booth -keepers  at  fairs,  and  hence 
has  been  incorrectly  connected  with  foire,  a 


CHAPEL  LE  FRITH  (11  S.  ii.  9). — I  still 
think  that,  in  this  name  as  in  others,  le 
represents  the  Anglo-French  Us,  i.e.  "near," 

which  gives  excellent  sense.  But  it  cannot 
be  denied  that,  at  a  somewhat  early  period, 
it  was  written  Chapel  en  le  Frith,  i.e.,  Chapel 
in  the  frith,  by  scribes  who  did  not  know  that 
les  was  a  preposition. 

As  to  frith,  especially  used  of  a  coppice  or 
wood  with  a  fence  round  it,  though  it  had 
other  senses  also,  it  can  be  found  in  Todd's 
'  Johnson,*  or  any  common  dictionary  of 
value.  It  is  fully  explained  in  '  N.E.D.,' 
and  there  is  an  excellent  article  on  all  the 
provincial  uses  of  it,  and  its  varieties  of 
spelling,  in  the  '  E.D.D.*  also.  Why  it  is 
that  the  '  English  Dialect  Dictionary  ?  still 
remains  so  unknown  is  a  puzzle  to  me. 
There  was  once  a  great  clamour  that  the  work 
ought  to  be  done  ;  and  now  that  it  is  done, 
it  is  not  much  consulted.  But  the  fullness  of 
its  information  is  wonderful.  It  duly  gives,, 
not  only  the  Devon  and  Cornwall  vraith, 
but  the  Glouc.,  Som.,  and  Devon  vreath  or 
vreathe,  the  N.  Devon  vreeth,  the  Devon 
vreth,  the  Glouc.,  Isle  of  Wight,  Devon,  and 
Dorset  vriih ;  and  further,  the  Pembroke 
freeth,  the  Kentish  fright,  and  the  Cumber- 
land frid.  The  sb.  is  used  in  five  senses, 
and  the  verb  in  four.  The  derivatives  are 
freathed  and  frithing.  And  the  etymology 
is  given,  with  references  to  the  '  Cursor 
Mundi '  and  Earle's  '  Charters.*  What  more 
can  reasonably  be  required  ? 


Chapel-en-le-Frith  signifies  the  "Chapel 
in  or  near  the  Forest,"  i.e.,  the  Peak  Forest. 
See  Dr.  Cox's  '  Derbyshire,*  "  Little  Guide  " 
Series.  S.  D.  C. 

[MR.  E.  LAWS  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

(11  S.  i.  189,  255,  312,  356,  409,  454  ;  ii.  14).— 
The  memorials  in  Burslem  and  Wolstanton 
churchyards  to  which  MR.  STAPLETON  refers 
as  earthenware  tombstones  are  made  of 
coarse  clay  got  in  the  locality.  They 
measure  respectively  above  ground  9  by  15 
in.,  16  by  21  in.,  and  18  by  10  in.  The 
inscriptions  are  almost  illegible  or  effaced. 
One  measures  32  by  20  in.,  but  I  doubt 
whether  this  is  earthenware.  The  incised 
letters  and  date  (1816)  are  clear  and  sharp. 
If  it  were  earthenware,  they  would  have 
been  distorted  in  baking. 

I  think  Church  uses  the  preterite  and  says, 
"There  were  many  earthenware  tomb- 
stones," &c.  He  also  says  there  are  repre- 
sentative pieces  of  this  class  in  the  Liverpool 
Museum,  and  refers  to  something  in  the 
British  Museum.  I  write  from  memory. 

B.    D.   MOSELEY. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

EDWARD  THE  CONFESSOR  (11  S.  i.  369).— The 
name  is  considered  by  Freeman  ( '  Norman 
Conquest  ')  to  be  identical  with  that  of 
Esegar  (see  note  E  E),  in  which  form  it 
occurs  in  the  chronicle  of  Guy  of  Amiens. 
He  was  the  son  of  ^Ethelstan,  a  son  of  the 
Danish  Tofi  the  Proud,  founder  of  the  church 
of  Waltham.  When  Tofi  fell  into  disgrace 
his  lands  were  granted  by  Edward  the  Con- 
fessor to  Earl  Harold,  who  immediately  con- 
stituted Waltham  an  abbey.  Several  men 
seem  to  have  held  the  office  of  Staller,  or 
Constable,  in  the  Confessor's  reign,  at  the 
same  time.  Freeman  mentions  eight  (vol.  iii. 
p.  34),  of  whom  Esegar  was  one.  Ansgar, 
Ansgardus,  or  Esegar  was  appointed  as 
early  as  1044,  and  retained  the  post  into  the 
reign  of  William  the  Conqueror.  In  addition 
to  this  he  was  nominated  in, the  same  year 
Shire-reeve  of  Middlesex,  then  a  position  of 
the  first  importance.  Thierry  erroneously 
supposes  Ansgardus  to  have  been  the 
denomination  of  an  office,  the  Hansgardus, 
or  chief  magistracy  of  London  ;  but,  as 
Freeman  points  out,  the  chief  magistrate  of 
London  in  those  days  was  the  Port-reeve. 

^  As  Shire-reeve  of  the  Middle  Saxons, 
Esegar  played  a  very  prominent  part  both 
prior  and  subsequent  to  the  battle  of  Hast- 
mus,  organizing  the  powerful  contingent 
which  the  City  furnished  to  King  Harold. 
Marching  with  his  men,  he  was  severely 
wounded  at  the  hill  of  Senlac,  but  was  borne 
off  the  field,  and  taken  to  London  by  his 
following.  While  the  Conqueror  was  en- 
camped at  Berkhampstead,  Esegar,  who 
had  become  the  heart  and  soul  of  the  City's 
defence,  was  acting  as  the  military  adviser 
of  the  Witan,  and  was  carried  about  from 
place  to  place  on  a  litter.  He  convened  an 
assembly  of  aldermen,  and  messages  are  said 
to  have  passed  between  him  and  William. 
Seeing  that  further  resistance  was  hopeless, 
he  finally  concurred  with  the  views  of  the 
assembly  in  the  advisability  of  accepting  the 

Duke  of  the  Normans  as  king.  Little  is 
known  of  his  subsequent  doings  ;  but  Free- 
man notes  that  his  widow  is  mentioned  in 
Domesday  as  suffering  an  illegal  tax  for 
certain  lands  held  by  her. 

N.  W.  HILL. 
IS  e\v  \  ork. 


24).— The    source    from    which 

Nicolas  and  Shaw  derived  their  information 

is  evidently  Numb,  xlviii.  p.  31,  Appendix, 

to  John  Anstis's  '  Observations  Introductory 

)   an   Historical   Essay  upon   the   Knight- 

hood of  the  Bath,'  1725,  where  the  date 
is  given  as  1464  ;  but  as  the  regnal  year 
5  Ed.  IV.  is  specified,  it  is  clear  that  a  mistake 
has  been  made,  and  that  1465  is  the  year 
intended.  Anstis  quotes  from  Sprott's  '  Chro- 
nicle '  the  fragment  published  by  Hearne, 
1719,  and  also  frcm  Fabian's  '  Chronicle.' 
Sprott  writes  (p.  295)  : — 

"And  on  the  xxvj  day  of  May  the  queene  Eliza- 
beth was  a°  5°  crownid  att  Westmonstre  with  grete 
solempriite,  where  as  were  made  knistes  of  the 
Bath,  as  I  knew,  the  lorde  Duras,  Sir  Bartelot  de 
Rybaire  of  Bayen  Gascons,  Sir  John  Wydevile 
brother  to  the  quene  :  &c.  and  of  the  cite  iiij 
Thomas  Cooke,  Matthew  Philippe,  Rauf  Josselyn 
and  Harry  Waffir,  where  also  were  made  dyvers 
othir  att  Wemonstre  the  day  biforesaide  of 

Fabian  (p.  655,  ed.  of  Sir  Henry  Ellis,  1811) 
writes  : — 

"And  in  this  Mayres  yere  [John  Stone]  and 
begynnynge  of  v.  yere,  that  is  to  say,  ye  xxyj  daye 
of  May  that  yere  Whytsonday,  quene  Elizabeth 
was  crowned  at  Westmynster  with  grat  solempny  tie. 
At  the  which  season  at  the  Tower  the  nyght  before 
the  coronacion  amonge  many  Knyghtesot  the  Bathe 
there  made,  was  as  of  ye  company  sir  Thomas  Cook, 
sir  Mathewe  Philip,  sir  Rauffe  losselyne,  and  Sir 
Henry  Wauyr,  cytezeins  of  London,  than  and  there 
made  knyghtes." 

This  agrees  with  Sprott.     What  does  MR. 
BEAVEN  say  to  this  ? 

[Reply  from  MR.  W.  D.  PIXK  shortly.] 

VOLUNTEERS  (11  S.  i.  484). — After  the  return 
of  the  72nd  Regiment  from  Gibraltar,  they 
were  received  with  enthusiasm,  and  their 
colours  were  deposited  with  much  ceremony 
in  the  Collegiate  Church,  whence  they  were 
removed  to  Chetham  College,  Manchester. 
They  were  presented  with  five  shillings  each, 
together  with  their  pay  and  arrears,  30 
August,  and  were  disbanded  9  September, 
1783.  The  colours  were  still  at  Chetham 
College  in  1866. 

On  24  August,  1794,  the  colours  of  the 
Royal  Manchester  Volunteers  were  con- 
secrated in  St.  Ann's  Church  by  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Seddon,  chaplain  to  the  regiment. 
The  corps  subsequently  became  the  104th 

Col.  Ackers's  Regiment  of  Manchester  and 
Salford  Volunteers  were  drawn  out  at 
Piccadilly,  and  presented  with  their  colours 
by  Mrs.  Hartley,  14  February,  1798. 

The  first  and  second  battalions  of  the 
Manchester  and  Salford  Volunteers  were 
disembodied.  The  colours  were  deposited 
at  the  house  of  Col.  J.  L.  Phillips  at  Mayfield, 
1  June,  1802. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  23, 1910. 

Col.  Ackers' s  regiment  of  Manchester  and 
Salford  Volunteers  were  disbanded,  and  the 
colours  deposited  in  the  Collegiate  Church, 
10  March  in  the  same  year. 

The  following  paragraph  appeared  in 
The  Manchester  City  News  of  Saturday 
25  June  last  : — 

Notable  June  Days. 
A  Manchester  Calendar. 

June  1.  —  Colours  which  had  belonged  to  the 
1st  Battalion  of  the  Independent  Manchester  and 
Salford  Volunteers  of  1803,  presented  to  the  Press 
Company  of  the  3rd  Manchester  Rifle  \  olunteers, 

Particulars  of  the  "  Volunteers  of  the 
Manchester  Military  Association  "  are  given 
in  Earwaker's  '  Local  Gleanings,'  Nos.  159, 
165,  187. 

2,  Welton  Place,  Rusholme,  Manchester. 

ii.  9),  was  called  after  Sir  Isaac  Rebow. 
He  was  M.P.  for  Colchester  in  the  reigns  of 
William  and  Mary,  part  of  Queen  Ajme's, 
and  the  first  of  George  I.  He  erected  a 
monument  in  the  church  of  St.  Mary-at-the- 
Walls,  in  the  west  of  the  town,  in  memory  of 
his  father  John  Rebow,  merchant  of  Col- 
chester, who  died  in  1699.  The  Rebow 
family  came  from  the  Netherlands  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  and  settled  as  manu- 
facturers of  the  cloths  called  bays  and 

Sir  Isaac's  Walk  appears  to  be  named  after 
Sir  Isaac  Rebow.  See  Cutt's  'Colchester,7 
"  Historic  Towns  Series."  S.  D.  C. 

[W.  G.  B.  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

DR.  BEKEZS  DIARY  (11  S.  i.  427,  511).— 
In  connexion  with  the  Rev.  Dr.  F.  Biallo- 
blotzky's  '  Journey  to  discover  the  Sources 
of  the  Nile  '  Beke  issued  several  circulars, 
dated  July,  1848,  January,  1849,  May,  1849, 
and  January,  1850.  Not  any  of  these  refer 
to  his  own  travels  or  any  diary,  although 
such  comparative  reference  would  have 
been  useful  and  convenient  in  explaining 
Bialloblotzky's  failure.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  this  strange  individual  styled 
himself  "Ex  itinere  Africano  redux."  MR. 
EDWARDS  is  welcome  to  the  loan  of  these 
Beke  circulars  if  they  interest  him. 


SIR  JOHN  ROBINSON,  BT.  (11  S.  i.  428, 
489). — MR.  HUMPHREYS  is  correct  in  stating 
that  Sir  John  Robinson  was  alderman 
successively  of  Dowgate  and  Cripplegate,  but 
his  total  service  for  these  wards  amounted 

to  less  than  eight  years  (Dec.,  1655,  to  Sept., 
1663),  whereas  he  served  for  Tower  Ward 
from  the  latter  of  these  dates  till  his  death 
in  Feb.,  1680,  a  period  of  more  than  sixteen 

The  date  "17  March,  1662,"  of  the 
reference  in  Pepys,  where  Robinson  is 
described  as  a  "  bufflehead  ?' — whatever 
that  may  mean — is  that  of  the  legal,  not  the 
historical,  year.  Robinson  was  not  elected 
Lord  Mayor  till  Michaelmas,  1662.  The 
Globe  edition  of  Pepys  gives  the  date, 
according  to  the  modern  computation,  as 
17  March,  1663. 


DR.  MAGINN'S  WRITINGS  (11  S.  i.  507). — 
Shelton  Mackenzie  in  his  collected  edition 
of  Maginn's  works,  vol.  i.  p.  179  (New  York, 
1855),  in  a  foot-note  to  '  Don  Juan  Unread  ' 
says : — 

"  This,  one  of  the  earliest  of  Maginn's  contribu- 
tions to  Blackwood,  appeared  in  November,  1819." 

In  the  memoir  prefixed  to  vol.  v.  (ib.,  1857) 
he  says  :-  - 

'"  In  the  early  part  of  1842  Dr.  Maepnn  was  thrown 
into  prison  for  the  expenses  incurred  by  the  publica- 
tion of  the  ten  numbers  of  his  '  Miscellanies.'" 

These  commenced  in  1840,  weekly  numbers  of 
16  pages  each.  Shackell  (I  think)  was  the 
printer.  Within  recent  years  the  British 
Museum  has  obtained  a  copy  of  this  un- 
fortunate and  now  rare  publication,  but  a 
list  of  its  contents  would  be  too  long  for  your 
pages.  Speaking  from  memory,  I  should  say 
they  are  all  his  best-known  pieces. 

The  late  Dr.  Kenealy  had  also  a  complete 
set,  which  may  still  be  in  the  library  of  his 
daughter,  Miss  Arabella  Kenealy  the  novelist. 

Kensal  Lodge,  N.W. 

Maginn  is  undeservedly  forgotten,  or  re- 
membered only  through  *  Pendennis  '  in 
which  there  are  sketched  but  a  few  com- 
paratively uninteresting  peculiarities.  How- 
ever, though  his  life  has  been  imperfectly 
investigated,  answers  can  be  given  to  MR. 
MCMAHON'S  questions. 

'  Don  Juan  Unread '  first  appeared  in 
Blackwood,  November,  1819.  Incidentally, 
it  may  be  added  that  R.  W.  Montagu  and  the 
'  D.N.B.'  are  at  variance  about  the  date  of 
Maginn's  personal  introduction  to  Black- 
wood,  nor  does  it  appear  probable  that  such 
a  brilliant  contributor  was  in  1819  unknown 
and  unpaid.  Curiously  enough,  the  parody 
does  not  appear  in  Coleridge  and  Prothero' 
fine  edition  of  Byron,  but  it  is  given  in  m 
ten-volume  edition  of  1879. 


n  s.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


In  Blackwood  it  came  out  covered  by  a 
detter  signed  M.  N.,  with  a  few  notes 
appended.  The  only  one  of  interest  is  that 
which  pretends  that  "  clovenfoot  "-  is  not  an 
^allusion  to  Byron's  infirmity. 

The  publication  '  Magazine  Misecllanies,5 
by  Dr.  Maginn,  appeared  without  date  or 
title-page.  The  British  Museum  copy  has 
a  pencil  note  by  one  J.  Hoblyn  to  the 
effect:  "  I  do  not  think  these  papers  can 
be  got  anywhere  except  a  few  detached  ones 
in  the  'Tales  from  Blackwood.''  The 
papers  are  numerous.  The  first  is  '  A  Story 
without  a  Tail,'  the  second  '  The  Wile  of 
Juno  '  (from  Homer),  the  third  '  Bob  Burke's 
Duel,'  and  so  on.  The  papers  on  Homer 
and  Shakespeare  appear  to  be  the  best. 

W.  A.  H. 

Dr.  Maginn's  '  Don  Juan  'Unread,'  con 
sisting  of  8  eight-line  stanzas,  finds  a  place  in 
Hamilton's  '  Parodies,3  vol.  iii.  p.  229. 

The  '  Magazine  Miscellanies  '  are  supposed 
to  have  been  nine  in  number.  In  '  N.  &  Q.' 
for  1850  (1  S.  ii.  13)  MB.  WILLIAM  CARPEN- 
TER gave  a  general  description  of  the 
•contents  of  these  numbers,  all  of  which 
were  then  in  his  possession.  About  thirty 
years  later  MR.  WILLIAM  BATES  stated,  in  a 
notice  of  Maginn,  that  after  twenty  years' 
search  among  London  bookstalls  he  had 
been  able  to  recover  only  an  odd  number  or 
two,  so  rare  had  copies  of  the  '  Miscellany  ' 
become.  W.  SCOTT. 

HEWORTH  :  ITS  ETYMOLOGY  (US.  ii.  9). — 
It  is  always  difficult  to  deal  with  Northern 
names,  owing  to  the  lack  of  pre-Conquest 
documents.  The  spelling  "  Heworth  iuxta 
'-  occurs  in  the  Inquisitiones  post 
Mortem  in  the  twentieth  year  of  Edward  I. 
Bardsley  quotes  Heworth,  and  refers  us  to 
Haworth,  which  is  an  unrelated  word,  as 
his  own  quotations  show.  Heworth  is  not 

Haworth,  for  the  reason  that  hew  differs  from 
haw  as  dew  from  daw  or  as  pew  from  paw, 
i.e.  fundamentally.  In  the  D.B.  spelling 
Heuuarde  "  we  plainly  see  that  the  prefix 
the  A.-S.  hlwa,  "a  domestic,"  which 
regularly  became  hewe,  once  a  common  word, 
used  by  Langland,  Chaucer,  and  Gower,  and 
fully  explained  in  the  '  N  E.D.'  The  suffix 
worth  is  correctly  derived  at  11  S.  i.  458  from 
the  A.-S.  weorthig ;  but  weorthig  itself  is 
incorrectly  derived,  at  the  same  reference, 

rom  an  imaginary  A.-S.  wdrian,  to  defend, 
the  true  form  being  warian  (with  the  a 
short),  with  which  weorthig  is  only  remotely 
connected.  ' 

It  would  appear,  therefore,  that  Heworth 
meant,  originally,  a  farm  or  homestead 
farmed  by  a  farming-man  or  farming-men. 
I  need  not  copy  out  all  that  the  '  N  E.D.' 
says  about  hewe.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

Heworth,  which  I  knew  fifty  years  ago, 
appeared  in  seventeenth-century  bocks  as 
Hey  worth.  The  Yorkshire  gentry  met 
Charles  I.  there,  and  presented  a  petition 
to  him.  Many  modern  writers  in  describing 
this  incident  repeat  the  form  "  Heyworth," 
without  inquiry,  and  I  have  been  asked,  as 
a  Yorkshireman,  to  tell  where  the  place  is. 
See,  e.g.,  '  D.N.B.,*  xviii.  141  b.  In  like 
manner  Hedon  is  disguised  under  the  un- 
authorized spelling  "Heydon"  ('D.N.B.,' 
Ix.  416  a).  W.  C.  B. 

The  name  of  this  village  appears  in  the 
Conqueror's  survey  as  "  Hewarde n  and 
"  Heworde.'*  It  is  not  derived,  like  Fingall  in 
the  valley  of  the  Ure,  from  the  name  of  a 
sometime  Saxon  possessor,  for  the  prefix 
precludes  the  assumption  that  the  name 
Haward  or  Hawart,  borne  by  the  thegn 
of  Stokesley,  might  be  the  same  name. 
The  prefix  in  Heworth  may  represent  a 
personal  name  or  the  sense  of  a  fence  or 
hedge,  as  applied  to  a  homestead,  A.-S. 
weorthig,  a  protected  place.  If  this  supposi- 
tion is  correct,  the  meaning  will  be  "a 
place  protected  by  a  hedge.  ' 


DONNE'S  POEMS  (11  S.  ii.  7). — PROF. 
GRIERSON  is  no  doubt  acquainted  with 
the  Donne  MSS.  in  the  Dyce  Collection  at 
South  Kensington.  Several  of  Donne's 
printed  books  are  also  noted  in  the  Cata- 
logue, but  none,  I  fear,  quite  corresponding 
to  those  inquired  after. 

The  library  of  the  Rev.  T.  R.  O'Flahertie 
was  sold  by  Messrs.  Sotheby  &  Co.  on 
14  January,  1896.  It  included  a  number  of 
Donne's  works,  MS.  as  well  as  printed.  The 
earliest  dated  work  sold,  *  Pseudo -Martyr,' 
first  edition,  1610,  was  acquired  by  Mr. 
Pickering.  The  other  lots  included  '  Prose 
and  Prose  Paradoxes  J  (with  poems  by  Donne 
and  others),  MSS.  of  date  1620  ;  '  Poems,' 
first  edition,  dated  1633,  with  MS.  additions  ; 
and  a  contemporary  MS.  of  the  poems  ' '  con- 
taining considerable  variations  from  the 
printed  texts."  These  were  all  purchased 
by  Mr.  Quaritch.  A  copy  of  the  'Five 
Satyres,'  in  MS.  written  by  John  Cave,  1620, 
became  the  property  of  Mr.  Catton.  The 
other  Donne  entries,  poetry  and  prose,  were 
of  a  later  date. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  11.  JULY  23, 1910. 

Might  not  the  Hazlewood-Kingsburgh 
MS.  perhaps  be  found  at  Hazlewood  Castle, 
Yorkshire  ?  W.  SCOTT. 

'  LOVERS'  Vows  '  (11  S.  i.  468).— This  play 

is  to  be  found  in  "  The  British  Theatre 

with ....  critical  remarks  by  Mrs.  Inch- 
bald,"  1808,  vol.  xxiii.,  also  in  '  The  British 
Drama,'  1872,  published  by  John  Dicks, 
vol.  x,  p.  129. 

It  was  "  altered "  from  the  German  of 
Kotzebue's  '  Child  of  Love  '  by  Mrs.  Inch- 
bald.  In  her  preface  she  alludes  to  various 
difficulties  which  she  had  to  deal  with, 
especially  that,  being  wholly  unacquainted 
with  the  German  language,  she  had  to 
depend  upon  a  "literal  translation"  into 
"  broken  English "  made  by  a  German. 
This  translation  was  given  to  her  by  the 
manager  of  Co  vent  Garden  Theatre.  She 
mentions  that  the  original  German  play  was 
printed  in  1791,  and  that  up  to  the  time  of 
her  adaptation  "no  person  of  talents  or 
literary  knowledge.  .  .  .has  thought  it  worth 
employment  to  make  a  translation  of  the 
work."'  Mrs.  Inchbald  did  not  write  every 
word  of  '  Lovers'  Vows.'  She  says  : — 

"I  suggested  the  verses  I  have  introduced;  but 
not  jbeing  blessed  with  the  butler's  happy  art  o!: 
rhyming,  I  am  indebted  for  them,  except  the  seventh 
and  eleventh  stanzas  in  the  first  of  his  poetic  stories, 
to  the  author  of  the  prologue." 

Neither  the  prologue  nor  the  name  of  its 
author  is  given.  ROBERT  PIERPOINT. 

.MURRAY  (11  S.  ii.  28). — Relationships  men- 
tioned in  wills  must  not  be  construed  too 
literally.  A  ' '  brother  "  may  be  a  brother-in- 
law,  a  "  daughter "  a  step -daughter,  a 
"  cousin  "  a  remote  kinsman.  In  making  a 
tentative  tabulation  of  the  particulars  given 
by  G.  D.  B.  I  did  not  hesitate  to  place 
Lettice  Loftus  as  a  stepdaughter  of  Dame 
Elizabeth  Irwin.  My  experimental  placing 
was  justified  when  I  afterwards  found  the 
marriage  of  "  Mr.  Dudley  Loftus,  Doctor  of 
ye  Law,  and  ye  Lady  Elizabeth  Ervin,? 
11  May,  1693,  at  St.  John's,  Dublin.  If 
Dame  Elizabeth  was  originally  a  Murray; 
she  must  have  married  four  times  :  1st,  Sir 
(?  John)  Irwin;  2nd,  in  1693,  Dr.  Dudty 
Loftus,  who  had  previously  married  Frances 
Nangle,  by  whom  he  had  a  daughter  Lettice 
Loftus  ;  3rd,  Mr.  Broughton  ;  4th,  in  1720 
Walter  Bunbury.  This  merely  explains  ho\\ 
Lettice  Loftus  was  "  daughter-in-law "  to 
Dame  Elizabeth  Irwin. 

There  are  hundreds  of  knights  not  includec 
in  Dr.  Shaw's  work.     A  John  Irvin,  knight 

lied  abroad  in  1705  ;  his  inventory  is  at 
Dublin.  This,  naturally,  could  not  be  the 
msband  of  the  much-married  Elizabeth,  for 
he  was  already  Dame  Elizabeth  Ervin  when 
he  married  Dr.  Loftus  in  1693  ;  but  he  is  not 
n  Dr.  Shaw's  list. 

In  wills  I  have  come  across  knights  men- 
ioned  as  baronets,  and  unknighted  indi- 
viduals mentioned  as  knights.  Perhaps 
here  is  still  a  chance  for  "  Sir  John  Murray." 

LEO  C. 

B.  ROTCH  (11  S.  i.  468  ;  ii.  37).— Benjamin 
Rotch's  widow,  Isabella  Anne  Rotch,  was 
Dorn  in  1808  and  died  in  1909.  Her  obituary 
lotice  in  the  Harrow  papers  stated  that  her 
husband  "  had  been  in  Paris  during  the 
terrible  days  of  the  Revolution."  This 
eems  to  throw  some  light  on  the  author- 
ship of  '  Manners  and  Customs  of  the 
French.5  HARROVIAN. 

ii   28).— 
Tis  the  faith  that  launched  point-blank  her  dart 

At  the  head  of  a  lie— taught  Original  Sin. 
The  Corruption  of  Man's  Heart. 

R.  Browning,  '  Gold  Hair,'  xxx.  • 

Theological  College,  Lichfield. 
[PROF.  E.  BENSLY  also  supplies  the  reference.] 

TOPHANES (11  S.  ii.  7). — Two  noble  Greeks 
named  Lascaris,  who  may  have  been 
brothers,  and  were  certainly  closely  related,, 
took  refuge  in  Italy  after  the  capture  of 
Constantinople  by  the  Turks  in  1453.  One 
of  them,  named  Constantine,  went  to  Milan,, 
thence  to  Rome,  next  to  Naples,  and  finally 
settled  at  Messina,  where  he  died  about 
1500.  In  1493  he  bequeathed  his  library  to 
Messina,  part  of  which  gift  was  afterwards 
carried  away  by  the  Spaniards,  and  is  now 
in  the  Escorial,  near  Madrid. 

The  other  Lascaris,  Andrew  John  by  name 
(frequently  mentioned  as  John  merely),  was 
probably  the  person  referred  to  in  the 
query.  He  took  up  his  abode  at  Florence, 
and  was  employed  by  Lorenzo  de?  Medici 
to  visit  Greece  and  purchase  certain  valuable  t 
manuscripts.  This  commission  he  executed 
some  time  previous  to  1494.  The  MS. 
mentioned  by  MR.  JOHNSON  WALKER  was 
in  all  likelihood  one  of  those  acquired  for  his 
employer  by  Andrew  John  Lascaris.  ^  Ii 
1494  he  entered  the  service  of  Louis  XI7 
of  France,  who  sent  him  as  his  envoy 
Venice.  Betaking  himself  to  Rome  in  1513, 



n  s.  ii.  JULY  23,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


became  Principal  of  the  Greek  College 
founded  by  Pope  Leo  X.,  and  was  also 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  Greek  press. 
Returning  to  the  service  of  France  in  1518, 
he  was  employed  by  Francis  I.  in  forming  the 
royal  library.  His  death  took  place  in  1535. 

w.  s.  s. 

ii.  29). — There  is  a  large  series  of  medals 
generically  known  as  "  Porto-Bello  Medals," 
which  are  fully  described  in  '  Medallic  Illus- 
trations of  the  History  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  to  the  Death  of  George  II.,'  1885, 
vol.  ii.  pp.  530-57,  wherein  some  ninety-odd 
medals  are  mentioned  (Nos.  92-183). 

It  is  here  stated  that 

"Admiral  Vernon,  who  had  always  been  a  most 
violent  opponent  of  the  Ministry,  somewhat  rashly 
declared  in  the  House  of  Commons  that  he  could 
take  this  place  (i.e.  Porto  Bello)  w^ith  six  ships,  and 
when  the  opportunity  was  given  him  he  fortunately 
succeeded.  Commodore  Brown  was  his  second  in 
command,  and  the  place  surrendered  after  a  siege 
of  two  days,  22  Nov.,  1739." 

The  medals  indicated  the  feeling  of  gratifi- 
•cation  that  an  Englishman  had  at  last  done 
something  to  check  the  Spaniards,  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  apathy  of  the  "  Ministry  of 
the  day,  who  were  charged  with  long  having 
allowed  the  Spaniards  to  insult  and  plunder 
our  merchants  and  interrupt  our  trade  with- 
out any  effectual  attempt  at  resistance," 
rather  than  an  appreciation  of  the  feat,  which, 
as  a  matter  of  fact,  was  not  particularly 
meritorious.  The  most  curious  perhaps 
of  the  whole  series  is  No.  182,  of  Admiral 
Haddock  and  Admiral  Vernon,  the  legend 
on  the  obverse  being 


It  was  commonly  believed  that  his  instruc- 
tions restricted  him  from  activity  with  his 
fleet  in  the  Mediterranean,  where  he  made 
two  unsuccessful  attempts  to  prevent  the 
junction  of  the  French  and  Spanish  fleets. 

I  have  a  small  collection  of  these  medals, 
and  among  them  there  are  twelve  with  the 
legend  of  "The  British  Glory  Revived  by 
Admiral  Vernon."  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

The  medal  bore  the  inscription  "The 
British  Glory  Revived"  because  Admiral 
Vernon  recovered  the  prestige  which,  by  no 
fault  of  his  own,  Admiral  Hosier  had  lost. 
The  story  is  given  in  full  in  the  introduction 
to  Glover's  famous  ballad  entitled  '  Admiral 
Hosier's  Ghost,'  in  Percy's  '  Reliques  of 
Ancient  Poetry,'  Series  II.,  Book  III. 
The  story  is  somewhat  long,  but  is  easily 
accessible.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT.  " 

(11  S.  ii.  29). — I  believe  I  am  right  in  saying 
that  no  poll -books  for  any  of  the  years  named 
in  MR.  GOULD'S  list  were  ever  published,  and 
it  is' hardly  likely  that  copies  of  these  polls  in 
MS.  are  accessible  anywhere.  With  regard 
to  five  of  MB.  GOULD'S  dates  (1742,  1758, 
1770,  1817,  1830)  his  question  is  superfluous, 
inasmuch  as  the  elections  in  those  years  were 
uncontested,  and  consequently  there  were  no 

In  my  '  Aldermen  of  London  '  (pp.  261-97) 
may  be  found  fuller  details  as  to  the  elections 
for  the  City  of  London  than  have  been 
collected  elsewhere. 



'  MERRY  WIVES  OF  WINDSOR,'  III.  i.  5 
(11  S.  ii.  28). — Might  not  the  phrase  quoted 
by  K.  D.  read  "Marry,  sir,  the  pit-ward," 
&c.  ? 

We  know  from  Act  I.  sc.  i.  there  were  bears 
in  the  town,  and  it  was,  perhaps,  near  the 
bearpit  where  these  animals  were  confined 
that  Simple  had  looked  for  Dr.  Caius. 

It  might  also  be  noted  that  in  Act  II. 
sc.  ii.  1.  19,  Falstaff  says  to  Pistol,"  To  your 
manor  of  Pict-hatch  !  Go."  TOUCHSTONE. 

In  the  list  of  hospitals  founded  in  England 
before  1547  given  in  the  appendix  to  Miss 
Clay's  '  Mediaeval  Hospitals  of  England  '  are 
the  following  :  "  Windsor,  St.  John,  1316  "  ; 
"Windsor  (Without),  St.  Peter,  1168." 
The  saints  named  are  those  to  whom  the 
hospitals  were  dedicated  ;  the  dates  are  those 
of  the  first  accredited  reference  to  them. 

C.  C.  B. 

(11  S.  i.  509).— This  Lieut.  John  Pigott,  who 
survived  the  Black  Hole  of  Calcutta  in  1756, 
according  to  the  records  at  Chelsea  Hospital, 
joined  the  12th  Regiment  as  captain  on 
26  December,  1778  ;  became  captain  of  one 
of  the  six  Independent  Companies  of  Royal 
Invalids  at  Plymouth,  7  February,  1780,  and 
died  on  Monday,  19  May,  1788. 

I  want  to  ascertain  if  he  was  identical  with 
a  Lieut.  John  Pigott  who  joined  the  39th 
Dorset  regiment  in  1750,  went  out  to  India 
with  this  regiment  in  1754,  and  took  part 
in  the  battle  of  Plassey  in  1757  ;  returned  to 
Dublin  with  the  regiment  in  1758,  and  in 
this  year  exchanged  into  Strode's  Regiment 
of  Foot  (the  62nd)  ;  was  in  Carrickfergus 
Castle,  Ireland,  in  February,  1760,  when 
attacked  by  the  French  officers  Flobert  and 
Thurot ;  and  married,  17  June,  1760, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  23, 1910. 

Elizabeth  Jefferson,  spinster,  of  the  parish 
of  St.  Andrew,  Dublin. 

Strode's  Regiment  seemingly  went  out 
to  the  West  Indies  in  1754-5,  and  this  John 
Pigott's  name  disappears  from  the  Army 
Lists  of  1775  as  a  "  Captain  in  the  Army." 
Is  there  a  probability  of  his  having  been 
transferred  to  the  12th  Suffolk  Regiment  in 
1778  ?  WM.  JACKSON  PIGOTT. 

Manor  House,  Dundrum,  co.  Down. 

(11  S.  ii.  29).— Probably  'Wild  Flowers 
Month  by  Month,'  by  Edward  Step,  F.L.S. 
(F.  Warne  &  Co.),  would  meet  MB.  PHILLIPS'S 
requirements.  A.  MOBLEY  DAVIES. 

See  '  Field  and  Woodland  Plants,'  by 
W.  S.  Furneaux  (Longmans,  1909),  in  which 
a  leading  feature  is  the  arrangement  of  the 
plants  and  trees  according  to  their  seasons, 
habitats,  and  habits.  W.  H.  PEET. 

Does  MB.  PHILLIPS  know  '  How  to  find 
and  name  Wild  Flowers,'  by  Thomas  Fox, 
F.L.S.,  published  by  CasseU  &  Co.  in  1906  ? 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

DOGE'S  HAT  (11  S.  ii.  8,  56).— This  is 
usually  called  the  doge's  cap.  In  German 
heraldry  it  is  a  Dogenhut.  In  Italian 
heraldry  it  is  a  corona  dogale,  but  it  is 
spoken  of  as  "il  corno  dogale."  LEO  C. 

FOLLY:  PLACE-NAME  (11  S.  ii.  29).— 
Since  a  "  Folly  "  is  generally  a  very  preten- 
tious or  highly  ornamented  house,  as  well  as 
any  curiosity  in  domestic  architecture, 
often  of  no  practical  use,  would  not  such  a 
place-name  as  that  alluded  to  at  Shenley 
in  Herts  be  likely  to  have  had  its  origin  in 
being  near  the  mansion  known  as  Colney 
Chapel,  erected  about  1774  by  Governor 
Bourchier  ?  It  was  built  of  Tottenhoe  stone 
at  an  expense  of  about  53,000/.,  including  the 
charges  for  laying  out  the  pleasure-grounds. 
A  more  extended  description  of  the  mansion 
will  be  found  in  Dr.  Dugdale's  '  British 
Traveller.'  J.  HOLD  EN  MACMICHAEL. 

I  can  speak  for  the  meaning  of  the  word 
"Folly"  as  used  in  Essex.  It  simply 
means  a  plantation  or  wood,  and  is,  I 
suppose,  connected  etymologically  with  Fr. 
feuille,  foliage.  For  example,  an  estate 
at  Walthamstow  abutting  on  the  Forest, 
called  by  its  eighteenth -century  owner 
Bellevue,  has,  since  two  oak  plantations  were 
made  upon  part  of  it  about  fifty  years 
ago,  been  commonly  known  as  "  Cooke's 
Folly " — Cooke  being  the  owner's  name. 

One  of  these  plantations  is  still  standing,  and 
is,  I  believe,  now  part  of  the  Forest,  while 
its  fellow  has  been  felled,  and  the  site  laid 
out  for  building.  Perhaps  the  lanes  referred 
to  by  your  correspondent  are,  or  have  been 
leafy  lanes.  F.  SYDNEY  EDEN. 

Maycroft,  Fyfield  Road,  Walthamstow. 

404). — Sunday  Times  of  5  June — there  is  no 
"The"  in  the  name  of  this  paper — prints 
a  letter  from  the  American  ex -President 
which  confirms  my  note.  It  is  as  follows  : — 

MY  DEAR  SIR, — My  name  is  pronounced  in  three 
syllables,  the  first  syllable  being  pronounced  like 
"  rose,"  the  flower.  Very  sincerely  yours, 



ii.  26). — I  have  a  volume  of  The  War-wick 
and  Staffordshire  Journal,  with  the  History 
of  the  Holy  Bible,  extending  from  Saturday,. 
12  November,  1737,  No.  xiii.,  to  Wednesday, 
18  June,  1740,  No.  cxlix.  It  appears  to 
have  been  published  for  some  time  on 
Thursdays,  but  afterwards  en  Wednesdays. 
The  Journal  consists  of  four  quarto  leaves  ; 
the  History  of  the  Bible  of  eight  quarto  leaves 
of  a  somewhat  smaller  and  better  paper,, 
fairly  well-printed,  and  having  every  other 
week  an  engraving  on  a  separate  quarto 
sheet  of  moderately  good  execution.  It  is 
published  by  "  R.  Walker,  the  Corner  of 
Seacoal  Lane,  next  Fleet  Lane  "  ;  and  I 
transcribe  the  opening  announcement,  which 
is  quaint  : — 

"  This  Paper  will  be  regularly  carried  on  every 
Week  at  the  easy  Rate  of  Two  Pence,  which  is  no> 
more  than  what  the  Country  News  Papers  cost. 
With  every  other  Number  will  be  given  Gratis,  a 
Curious  Scripture  Cut,  engraven  on  Copper.  When 
the  Book  is  finished,  it  will  be  a  very  valuable 
Legacy  from  Generation  to  Generation ;  and  abso- 
lutely necessary  for  instructing  Youth  in  the- 
Rudiments  of  the  Scripture  ;  for  which  reason  it  is- 
hop'd  One  Person  will  recommend  it  to  another." 


MABK  TWAIN  (11  S.  i.  367,  418,  457).— As 
an  addition  to  the  somewhat  contrary  ideas 
expressed  anent  this  American  humorist's 
style  as  a  lecturer,  the  following  excerpts 
from  a  review  of  the  book  '  Mark  Twain's 
Speeches  '  in  The  Observer  of  the  10th  inst. 
may  be  worth  recording  : — 

"I  shall  never  forget  hearing  him  lecture  in 
Vienna,  where  he  was  living  at  a  time  when  things 

English  were  not  particularly  popular He  was  so 

entirely   easy,  apparently  so  much  in  earnest,  so- 
terribly  outraged  by  the  length  of  his  own  sentences, 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  2.3, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


that  the  whole  audience  'rose'  to  him;  he  carried 
them  away  completely,  though  I  cannot  remember 
that  he  said  a  single  original  or  really  witty  thing. 
He  was  immensely  popular  there." 

The  reviewer  also  gives  it  as  his  opinion 
that  Mr.  Clemens  would  have  "  risen  to  the 
very  top  of  the  tree  as  an  actor. n 


Junior  Athenaeum  Club. 

(11  S.  i.  346,  493;  ii.  16).  —  "  Robin 
Hood "  customs  in  connexion  with  the 
"  Hooden  Horse'1  are  very  interestingly 
discussed  by  Mr.  Percy  Maylam  of  Canter- 
bury in  '  The  Hooden  Horse  :  an  East 
Kent  Custom,1  Canterbury,  1909. 

T.  S.  M. 

"  SCRIBBLE  "  (11  S.  i.  447,  494).— The  fol- 
lowing is  in  '  Josephi  Laurontii  Lucensis 
S.  T.  D.  Amalthea  Onomastica,'  Lucse,  1640  : 
"  Scribida,  epistola.  Isid.  gloss.'* 


TOASTS  AND  SENTIMENTS  (11  S.  i.  406  ; 
ii.  32). — The  four  following  books  are  of  the 
nature  of  collections  of  toasts  and  sentiments; 
they  are  all  modern.  References  to  the 
subject  occur  in  several  old  cookery  books 

Toasts  and  Maxims  :  A  Book  of  Humour  to  pass 
the  Time.  Collected  from  various  sources.  Green- 
ing &  Co.,  n.d.  (c.  1905). 

The  Banquet  Book.  By  Cuyler  Reynolds.  With 
an  introduction  by  Elbert  Hubbard.  G.  P.  Put- 
nam's Sons,  MCMII. 

Quotations  for  Occasions.  Compiled  by  Katharine 
B.  Wood.  T.  Fisher  Unwin,  1897. 

The  Diner-Out:  A  Classified  Collection  of  Apt 
Quotations  for  Toasts,  After-Dinner  Speeches,  &c. 
(Adapted  from  'The  Banquet  Book.')  By  Cuyler 
Reynolds.  George  Routledge  &  Sons,  1905. 

Kew  Green. 

(11  S.  i.  508).— Of  the  thirteen  children 
born  to  Frederick  V.  of  Bohemia  and  the 
Princess  Elizabeth  Stuart,  daughter  of 
James  I.,  five  were  females,  namely,  Eliza- 
beth, Louisa  Hollandina,  Henrietta  Mary, 
Charlotte,  and  Sophia.  No  such  name  as 
"  Clara  Emilia  '*  appears  among  them.  If 
it  be  allowed  me  to  hazard  a  guess,  I  would 
suggest  that  "  Clara  Emilia "  was  an 
assumed  name,  religious  rather  than  bap- 
tismal. Two  of  the  daughters  of  King 
Frederick  embraced  a  religious  vocation  : 
Elizabeth  became  Superior  of  the  Lutheran 
Abbey  of  Harvorden  in  Westphalia  ;  Louisa 
entered  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and 
died  Abbess  of  Maubisson  in  France. 

Possibly  the  Princess  Louisa  took  the  name- 
Clara  Emilia.  She  was,  at  all  events,  a  lady 
of  many  accomplishments,  and  a  patroness 
of  literature.  W.  S.  S. 

The  History  of  England  from  the  Accession  of  Anne 

to  the  Death  of     George  II.    (1702-1760).      By 

I.  S.  Leadam.     (Longmans  &  Co.) 
THIS  is  the  ninth  volume  of  '  The  Political  History 
of  England,'  edited  by  Dr.  William  Hunt  and  Dr.. 
Reginald  L.  Poole,  a  series  which  by  this  tune 
has  secured  the  regard  of  all  competent  scholars. 

It  is  almost  impossible  to  review  hi  a  brief 
space  any  political  history  without  rewriting  it,, 
so  complicated  are  the  threads  which  go  to  make 
up  the  fabric  of  native  and  foreign  intrigue.  We 
prefer  to  say  that  Mr.  Leadam's  book  is  welE 
worth  its  place  in  the  series,  and,  where  we  have 
tested  its  conclusions,  both  sound  and  clear. 

The  additions  to  the  volume  at  the  end  are 
thorough  and  satisfactory,  being  an  Appendix 
'  On  Authorities,'  and  another  on  '  Administra- 
tions '  ;  a  full  Index  ;  plans  of  the  battles  of 
Dettingen,  Ramillies,  Oudenarde,  Malplaquet, 
and  Fontenoy  ;  and  two  maps. 

Jamiesori's  Dictionary  of  the  Scottish  Language. 
Abridged  by  J.  Johnstpne,  and  revised  and 
enlarged  by  Dr.  Longmuir.  With  Supplement, 
to  which  is  prefixed  an  Introduction,  by  W.  M- 
Metcalfe,  D.D.  (Paisley,  Alex.  Gardner.) 
THIS  is  a  large  and  comprehensive  repertory  of 
the  Scottish  tongue  which  we  have  already 
profited  by  consulting.  At  the  same  time,  the 
work  of  Jamieson  which  forms  the  first  part  loses 
in  interest  by  its  brevity.  The  addition  of 
examples  of  the  words  with  their  context  serves 
to  fix  usages  in  one's  memory  which  are  apt  to  be 
forgotten  when  one  has  only  a  bare  explanation 
and  no  more.  In  this  way  the  book  compares 
unfavourably  with  such  a  work  as  Charles 
Mackay's  '  Dictionary  of  Lowland  Scotch  * 
(1888),  which  gives,  for  instance,  to  illustrate 
"  toom  "= empty,  quotations  from  Allan  Ramsay, 
Burns,  Dean  Ramsay  (2),  Donald  Cargill,  and 
James  Telfer. 

On  this  scale,  however,  the  book  would  outrun 
the  proportions  of  a  single  volume  ;  as  it  is,  the 
first  part  extends  to  635  pages  of  text,  apart  from 
introductory  matter,  while  the  Second  Part  has 
48  pages  of  Introduction,  and  263  of  Supplement, 
in  which  further  words  are  added.  Dr.  Metcalfe, 
who  is  responsible  for  this  section,  is  abreast  of  the 
scientific  scholarship  which  has  cleared  up  many 
things,  and  gives  an  excellent  selection  of  speci- 
mens of  Middle  Scots.  His  list  of  words  is 
fortified  by  references  to  the  E.E.T.S.,  S.T.S., 
and  S.B.R.S.,  and  various  published  records  due 
to  the  energy  of  recent  scholars.  A  main  source 
of  this  part  of  the  book  is  the  four-volume  edition 
of  Jamieson,  and  Mr.  Donaldson's  fifth  volume, 
which  forms  a  supplement  to  the  same.  Here, 
too,  illustrative  passages  have  been  but  sparingly 
used  for  want  of  space.  The  whole  forms  a  very 
useful  book  for  the  elucidation  of  words  which, 
though  in  many  cases  fairly  impressed  on  literary 
language,  are  a  puzzle  to  the  Southron. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  n.  JULY  23,  mo. 


MB.  P.  M.  BARNARD  sends  two  Catalogues  from 
Tunbridge  Wells.  One  is  devoted  to  Book 
Catalogues,  some  of  them  being  auction  catalogues, 
with  prices  and  names  of  purchasers.  The  other, 
No.  37,  is  devoted  to  Early  English  Books,  and 
contains  books  printed  in  England  and  books 
in  English  printed  abroad  up  to  1640,  books 
relating  to  the  Tudor  period,  and  purchases  from 
the  library  of  Coventry  School.  The  school  was 
founded  by  John  Hales  in  1548,  but  the  library 
was  not  formed  until  1601.  Mr.  Barnard  gives 
an  index  of  the  printers  and  booksellers  of  the 
works  in  the  first  part  of  the  catalogue. 

Messrs.   James   Rimell  &  Son's   Catalogue  222 
contains    Engravings    and    Drawings.     The    first 
items  are  on  a  subject  of  engrossing  interest  at 
the  present  time — aeronautics.      The  '  Battle  of 
the  Balloons,'  circa  1780,  shows  four  English  a,nd 
French  balloons,  with  cannon,  fighting  in  the  air  : 
Behold  an  odd  fight,  two  odd  Nations  between, 
Such  odd  fighting  as  this  was  never  yet  seen ; 
But  such  Fights  will    be  common    (as    Dunce    to 

feel  Rod) 
In   the  year    of    One    Thousand    eight    Hundred 

and  odd. 

The  ascents  include  Godard's  Montgolfier  balloon 
from  Cremorne,  1864  ;  that  of  "  M.  Blanchard, 
accompagne  par  le  Chevalier  Lepinard,  fait  a 
Lille,  en  Flandre,  le  26  Aout,  1785,"  full  of 
spectators,  with  cordons  of  troops  ;  the  Nassau 
from  Vauxhall,  with  Cocking's  fatal  descent, 
24  July,  1837;  Cornillot's  ascent  from  the  village  of 
:Seal,  25  August,  1825,  when  he  "  established  the 
principle  of  sailing  in  an  horizontal  direction  at 
any  point  of  elevation  required  "  ;  and  the 
destruction  of  the  Victoria  and  Albert  balloon, 
16  June,  1851,  injuring  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Graham, 
and  damaging  16,  Arlington  Street.  There  are 
many  caricatures,  balloons  waiting  for  hire,  &c. 
The  general  portion  contains  original  sketches 
by  Hablot  K.  Browne,  Cruikshank,  and  Phil  May. 
Under  Rowlandson  is  an  interesting  collection  of 
water-colour  drawings.  Under  Fires  we  find 
St.  Paul's,  Covent  Garden,  17  September,  1795  ; 
the  Great  Fire  ;  the  Houses  of  Parliament, 
16  October,  1834  ;  Newgate,  and  the  Royal 
Exchange.  There  are  long  lists  under  Military 
and  under  Napoleon,  that  under  Uniforms 
in3luding  Hull's  Army  and  Navy,  100Z.  A  collec- 
tion of  over  1,700  caricatures  comprises  the 
•Georges,  William  IV.,  the  French  Revolution, 
Napoleon,  Russia,  ladies'  fashions,  social ,  customs, 

Messrs.  Sotheran  are  removing  their  West-End 
house  from  37  to  43,  Piccadilly,  and  their  Price 
Current  706  is  devoted  to  the  first  part  of  a  clear- 
ance list  of  a  great  portion  of  the  second-hand 
stock,  at  a  discount  of  25  per  cent,  during  the 
next  two  months.  The  list  extends  from  A  to  G, 
and  as  it  contains  nearly  three  thousand  items, 
there  is  plenty  to  choose  from.  We  note  Robert 
and  James  Adam's  '  Works  in  Architecture,' 
3  vols.,  imp.  folio,  1773-1822  (one  of  500  copies), 
6Z.  6s.  ;  Ainsworth's  Novels,  16  vols.,  half- 
morocco  by  Riviere,  8Z.  8s.  ;  and  '  The  Annual 
Register,'  complete  to  1908,  with  index  volume, 
1758-1908,  3QL  There  is  a  cheap  copy  of  a  fine 
work,  '  Archeologie  de  1'Empire  de  Russie,' 

508  plates,  beautifully  coloured,  6  vols.  atlas, 
folio  in  4,  and  6  vols.  4to  of  text  (in  Russian)  in 2. 
uniformly  bound  in  crushed  levant,  Moscou", 
1849-53,  very  rare,  63Z.  A  set  of  the  works  of 
Arnold  of  Rugby,  16  vols.,  morocco,  1845,  is 
4:1.  4s.  ;  Pickering's  edition  of  Bacon,  17  vols., 
original  cloth,  4Z.  10s.  ;  the  large-paper  edition 
of  '  The  Badminton  Library  of  Sports,'  29  vols., 
4to,  one  of  250  copies,  30Z.  ;  an  edition  of 
Balzac  on  Japanese  vellum,  11  vols.,  1897, 
6L  10s.  ;  and  Bancroft's  works  on  Western  Ame- 
rican origins,  39  vols.,  191.  Under  Ward  Beecher 
is  Abbott's  sketch  of  his  career,  New  York,  1883, 
4s.  Qd.  This  volume  ends  with  statistics  of  the 
proceeds  of  the  auctions  by  which  the  preacher 
let  his  pews.  A  rich  collection  of  Bibles  includes 
a  fine  copy  of  the  rare  version  by  Matthew,  1537, 
551.  ;  also  two  fine  copies  of  the  second  edition 
of  Coverdale.  An  original  copy  of  Botta's 
'  Monument  de  Ninive  '  is  35Z.  There  is  Southey's 
copy  of  Brathwait's  '  English  Gentleman  and 
English  Gentlewoman  '  ;  it  is  the  third  edition, 
revised  and  enlarged,  1641,  11.  10s.  The  following 
is  part  of  the  note  written  by  the  poet  on  the  fly- 
leaf :  "  The  second  edition  of  the  English  Gentle- 
man (1633,  sm.  4to)  was  dedicated  to  the  Nobly 
accomplished  the  Right  Honourable  Thomas 
Viscount  Wentworth,  Lord  Deputy  of  Ireland. 
....  In  the  present  edition  it  is  enlarged  but  not 
otherwise  altered.  I  hope  the  Bookseller  and 
not  the  Author  may  have  been  the  person  who 
struck  out  from  the  superscription  the  name  of  the 
greatest  man  of  his  age  ;  and  substituted  in  its 
place  that  of  the  most  worthless."  There  are 
sets  of  The  Garden,  Fraser,  Engineering,  and  many 
other  publications. 

Two  volumes  for  subscribers  are  to  be  pub- 
lished of  the  excavations  at  the  Glastonbury 
Lake  Village,  1892-1907.  The  writers  are  Mr. 
Arthur  Bulleid,  the  discoverer  of  the  site,  and 
Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray,  well  known  for  his 
work  in  excavation.  There  will  be  an  intro- 
ductory chapter  by  Dr.  Robert  Munro,  and  also 
reports  on  the  human  and  animal  remains,  bird 
bones,  botanical  specimens,  and  metals,  by 
experts.  The  work  will  be  published  in  a  hand- 
some style  with  numerous  illustrations  by  the 
Glastonbury  Antiquarian  Society,  and  Mr.  Gray 
at  Taunton  Castle,  Somerset,  will  answer  further 
inquiries  concerning  it. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately, 
nor  can  we  advise  correspondents  as  to  the  value 
of  old  books  and  other  objects  or  as  to  the  means  of 
disposing  of  them. 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lishers "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.G. 

G.  W.  E.  R.  and  H.  K.  ST.  J.  S.— Forwarded. 

NORTH  MIDLAND  ("  George  III.'s  Birthday  "). 
—He  was  born  on  24  May,  1738,  before  the  altera- 
tion of  the  calendar.  See  the  interesting  note  by 
MR.  A.  F.  ROBBINS  at  9  S.  iv.  305. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  30,  1910. 


NOTES  :— S.  Joseph,  Sculptor,  81— Danteiana,  82— Richard 
Sare,  Bookseller  —  Hakluyt  and  Bristol— 'The  Star- 
Spangled  Banner,'  84— Pitt's  Statue  in  Hanover  Square- 
Thomas  Coryate's  Death— Prior  Thomas  Percy,  85— John 
Ranking— "  Sokol "  and  Bohemian  Physical  Culture- 
Sweepstake  as  Surname  —  "  Leap  in  the  Dark"  in 
Parliament,  86. 

•QUERIES  :-" Storm  in  a  teacup"— Rev.  M.  W.  Peters,  86 
—Col.  J.  B.  Glegg— Edward  Bull,  Publisher— Stone  in 
Pentonville  Road— J.  M.  Que"rard— Writers  on  Music- 
Sir  S.  Duncombe— Dickens  on  Royal  Humane  Society— 
Abp.  Montaigne,  87 — Authors  Wanted — Amaneuus  as 
Christian  Name  —  The  Sleepless  Arch  —  Christopher 
Moore  —  "  Portygne  "  —  Bp.  E.  Wetenhall  —  Sir  John 
Wilson— John  Worthen— Sir  John  Alleyn  :  Dame  Ethel- 
dreda  Alleyn,  88 — David  Hughson — Corio  Arms — 'The 
Case  Altered '  —  Friendless  Wapentake  —  '  Erlkonigs 
Tochter'— Pearson  Family,  89. 

REPLIES  : — Thames  Water  Company,  89 — Nelson's  Birth- 
place, 91  — Barabbas  a  Publisher  —  Authors  Wanted  — 
"  Merluche, "  92  —  Col.  Skelton  —  ' '  Tilleul "— ' '  Quilt  "— 
Snuff-box  Inscription— Sir  W.  B.  "Rush,  93— Strettell- 
Utterson  —  Paris  Family — iSir  Matthew  Philip — 'Draw- 
ing-Room Ditties '—Tennyson's  'Margaret,'  94— Knapp 
Family — Garrick's  Version  of  '  Romeo  and  Juliet' — Moses 
and  Pharaoh's  Daughter -Pigeon -houses  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  95 — '  Tess  of  the  D'Urbervilles ' — E.  Hatton — Stones 
in  Early  Village  Life— 'Sir  Ed  ward  Sea  ward's  Narrative,' 
96— Garibaldi  and  his  Flag— Cowes  Family— Circle  of 
Loda  — Market  Day,  97  —  Goldsmith  and  Hackney  — 
George  I.  Statues,  98— Queen  Katherine  Parr— Duchess 
of  Palata,  99. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :— '  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,'  edited 
by  Greg—"  The  Little  Guides." 


THE  following  list  has  come  into  my  hands 
through  granddaughters  of  the  sculptor. 
Busts,  like  portraits,  probably  easily  lose 
their  attribution,  and  it  is  well  to  have  them 
put  on  record.  It  will  also  be  useful  as  a 
list  of  portraits,  although  the  present  loca- 
tion is  lacking.  There  are  a  number  of  busts 
in  the  Scottish  National  Portrait  Gallery,  and 
several  in  the  Law  Courts  at  Edinburgh. 

In  England  the  best -known  work  of 
Joseph  is  the  delightful  statue  of  Wilber- 
force  in  Westminster  Abbey,  of  which 
Thomas  Brock.  R.A.,  says  :  "  The  fineness 
and  beauty  of  this  masterpiece  would  be 
•difficult  to  surpass  in  any  age."  The  original 
competition  plaster  sketch  for  this  is  still  in 
the  hands  of  the  family. 

This  is  by  no  means  a  complete  list  of  the 
sculptor's  works,  but  presumably  only  of 
those  of  which  the  plaster  casts  were  in  his 
hands  at  the  time. 

Joseph  was  a  pupil  of  Flaxman,  and  did 
much  of  the  work  of  the  famous  Achilles 
shield.  He  was  a  friend  of  Walter  Scott 
and  the  Edinburgh  literary  set  of  the  day, 

and  was  an  original  member  of  the  Scottish 
Royal  Academy.  He  came  to  London  about 
1830  and  was  a  favourite  in  artistic  and 
literary  circles.  It  may  be  worth  recording 
here  that  his  daughter  Emily  (afterwards 
Mrs.  Geo.  T.  Tweed  of  Honiton),  who 
died  in  1904,  was  the  model  from  whom 
Uwins  painted  the  well-known  '  Chapeau  de 
Brigand  *  now  in  the  National  Gallery  or 
on  loan.  > : 


To  be  seen  by  Tickets  at  his  House .... 
[the  rest  torn  off]. 


1.  Bust  of  His  Most  Gracious  Majesty  George  the 
Fourth.  Executed  by  command,  of  His 

The  late  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Morton. 
G.  Stuart  Monteath,  Esq.,  of  Closeburn. 
The  late  George  Rennie,  Esq.,  of  Phantassie. 
The  Revd.  Dr.  Chalmers. 

Thomas    Allan,    Esq.,    of    Laurieston,    Edin- 

The  late  Dr.  Barclay,  Lecturer  on  Anatomy, 
&c.,  in  Edinburgh. 

Esq.,     Advocate,     &e., 










Esq.,     Civil     Engineer, 


Thomas     Thomson, 

Robert     Stevenson, 


The  Revd.  Dr.  Peddie,  of  Edinburgh. 
The   late    John   Flaxman,    Esq.,    R.A., 

fessor  of  Sculpture  in  R.A. 
Lieut.-Gen.    Sir    Herbert    Taylor,    Adjutant- 
Gen,  of  H.M.  Forces. 
The  late  Professor  Dugald  Stewart. 
James  Hamilton,  Esq.,  of  Homehead,  N.B. 
Thomas  Stothard,  Esq.,  R.A. 
The  late  Revd.  Sir  Henry  Wellwood  Moncrieff, 


Miss  Margaret  Alison. 
His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Argyll. 
John  Jackson,  Esq.,  R.A. 
Robert  Ferguson,  Esq.,  of  Raith,  &c.  &c. 
David  Wilkie,  Esq.,  R.A.,  Principal  Portrait 

Painter  to  His  Majesty. 

Lieut. -General  Sir  Ronald  Ferguson,  K.C.B. 
John  Listen,  Esq. 
The  Hon.  Lord  Eldin  (formerly  John  Clerk, 

Esq.,  of  Eldin). 

The  late  Infant  Son  of  the  Hon.  Lord  Elcho. 
The  late  Dr.  Gregory,  of  Edinburgh. 
Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Lowry  Cole,  K.C.B. 
The  late  Sir  Humphry  Davy,  Bart. 
The  late  Matthew  Miller,  Esq. 
Lord  Moncrieff,  of  Edinburgh. 
John     Leslie,     Esq.,     Professor    of     Natural 
Philosophy  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  John  Campbell. 
Gen.  Hamilton,  of  Dalziel. 
Mrs.  Frederick  North. 
Charles  Kemble,  Esq. 
The  Rt.  Hon.  the  Countess  of  Kintore. 
Walter  Fergus,  Esq.,  Provost  of  Kirkcaldy. 
The  late  President  of  the  Royal  Academy, 

Sir  Thomas  Lawrence. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 

39.  Hamilton  Grey,  Esq.,  of  Carntyne,  N.B. 

40.  The    Lord    Provost    of    Edinburgh    (William 

Allan,  Esq.,  of  Glen  and  Hillside). 

41.  Mrs.  William  Russel,  Daughter  of  Lady  Char- 

lotte Campbell. 

42.  Alexander  Allan,  Esq. 

43.  The  late  Alexander  Allan,  Esq.,  of  Hillside, 


44.  Dr.  James  Hamilton,  of  Edinburgh. 

45.  The  Revd.  Archibald  Alison,  Author  of  the 

'  Essays  on  Taste,'  &c.  &c. 

46.  Francis  Jeffrey,  Esq.,  Dean  of  Faculty. 

47.  Henry    Mackenzie,    Esq.,    Author    of    '  The 

Man  of  Feeling,'  &c.  &c. 

48.  His  Excellency  Lord  Bloomfield. 

49.  Flounders,  Esq.  - 

50.  The  late  Robert  Ramsay,  Esq. 

51.  The     late     Dr.    Campbell,     of     Aberdeen — 

executed  for  the  College. 

52.  Miss  Janet  Rennie. 

53.  The  late  Mrs.  Vidal. 

54.  A    Sketch    of    Monsieur    Alexandre,    in    the 

assumed  Character  of  the  French  Doctor. 

55.  His  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  Sussex. 

56.  Lady  Ellinor  Campbell. 

57.  William  Trotter,  Esq.,  of  Ballendean,  N.B. 

58.  Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.,  M.P.,  President  of  the 
Royal  Society. 

59.  Dr.  M'Lagan,  of  Edinburgh. 

60.  Perkins,  Esq.,  Civil  Engineer. 

61.  The  Right  Hon.  the  Chief  Commissioner  of 

Scotland,  Sir  Wm.  Adam. 

62.  Dr.  M'Culloch. 

63.  Robert  Buchan,  Esq. 

64.  Lady  White. 

65.  Mrs.  Thomas  Kinnear. 

66.  John  Prideaux  Selby,  Esq.,  of  Twizel  House, 

Northumberland  ;    Author    of    *  History    of 
Birds',  &c.  &c. 

67.  Richard   Ellison,   Esq.,   of  Sudbrook  Holme, 

near  Lincoln. 

68.  Sketch  for  a  Monument  to  the  Memory  of  the 

late  Earl  of  Hopetoun. 

69.  Sketch  for  a  Monument  to  the  Memory  of  the 

late  Right  Hon.  Wm.  Pitt. 

70.  Part  of  a    Design    for  a  Monument    to   the 

Memory  of   His  late  Royal   Highness  the 
Duke  of  York. 

71.  Sketch  for  a  Monument  to  the  Memory  of 

the  late  Profes.  Dugald  Stewart. 

The  following  are  on  a  new  page  : — 


1.  Bust  of  His  Most  Gracious  Majesty  George 

the  Fourth. 

2.  Ditto,    the    late     President    of     the     Royal 

Academy,  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence. 

3.  Ditto,  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Bart. 

4.  Ditto,  the  late  Professor  Dugald  Stewart. 

5.  Ditto,  John  Flaxman,  Esq.,  R.A. 

6.  Ditto,  Henry  Mackenzie,  Esq. 

7.  Ditto,  David  Wilkie,  Esq.,  R.A. 

8.  Ditto,  Thomas  Stothard,  Esq.,  R.A. 

9.  Ditto,  Professor  Leslie. 
10.  Ditto,  John  Liston,  Esq. 

George  Boyle,  Printer,  284,  Regent  Street. 

Castle  Hill,  Guildford. 



Inf.?  xvii.  21  : — 

E  come  la  tra  li  Tedeschi  lurchi. 
It  is  doubtful  whether  this  hostile  line  merits 
the  emphasis  of  comment.  Many  treat  it 
with  the  rebuke  of  silence.  Lombard! 
contents  himself  with  referring  to  Tacit  us' s 
'  De  Mor.  Germ.,?  and  observing  : — 

"  E  da  riflettersi,  che  i  nostri  Jpadri  da  van 
questo  epiteto  sempre  in  disprezzo." 

And  so  Dante  meant  it,  whether  we  render 
lurchi  as  *'  greedy  German  boor "  (Gary), 
"  guzzling  Germans  "  (Tomlinson),  "  full- 
fed  Germans"  (Plumptre),  or  "gobbling 
Germans "  (Ford).  But  why  and  whence- 
this  venomous  expression  ?  Is  it  open  to 
explanation  or  attenuation  ?  The  possi- 
bility of  either  alternative  is  my  only  warrant 
for  dealing  with  it  here.  Dean  Plumptre's 
view  is  : — 

"  The  poet's  ideal  imperialism  was  obviously 
compatible  with  a  strong  dislike  to  the  Teuton 
as  such.  For  the  character  given  to  Germans- 
comp.  Shakesp;,  '  Merch.  of  Ven.,'  I.  ii." 

The  reference  (1.  82)  runs  thus  : — 

Ner.  How  like  you  the  young  German,  the 
Duke  of  Saxony's  nephew  ? 

For.  Very  vilely  in  the  morning,  when  he  is 
sober,  and  most  vilely  in  the  afternoon,  when  he 
is  drunk. 

The  comparison  is  not  to  the  credit  of 
either  poet,  though  probably  both  expres- 
sions merely  reflect  biased  Italian  opinion 
in  their  respective  periods  (1300,  1595).  But 
neither  charge  deserved  such  brutal  im- 
mortality. Reduced  to  their  elemental 
dimensions,  the  antipathy  of  the  untravelled 
Shakespeare  and  that  of  the  more  experienced 
Dante  evidently  alike  originated  in  a  fallacious 
ab  uno  disce  omnes  argument.  Of  the  latter 
Scartazzini  says,  commenting  on  this 
line  : — 

"  Dante  non  conosceva  per  avventura  che 
quei  Tedeschi  mandati  da  Manfredi  in  soccorso- 
dei  fuorusciti  Fiorentini  e  che  si  lasciarono- 
ubbriacare  da  Farinata  degli  Uberti." 

Possibly  also  the  poet  beheld  instances  of 
inebriety  amongst  the  dwellers  by  the 
Rhine  and  Danube  ;  more  probably  still  our 
own  poet's  solitary  instance  was  gleaned 
from  hearsay.  But  whencever  their  sources 
of  information,  neither  "ideal  imperialism," 
nor  national  disgust,  nor  personal  experi- 
ence, still  less  mere  hearsay,  justified  either 
of  them  in  branding  to  posterity  an  entire- 
nation  with  the  shortcomings  of  a  few  of  its 
representatives.  It  is  open  to  debate  whether 
the  England  and  Italy  of  their  epochs  could 
not  be  similarly  stigmatized. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


But  as  a  reference  to  the  MS.  variants  of 
this  offensive  phrase  will  possess  more 
interest  for  some  students  than  an  inquiry 
into  its  raison  d' et re,  I  append  the  following, 
culled  (except  the  last)  from  Dr.  Moore's 
'  Textual  Criticism  of  the  "  D.  C."  J  :  "  Tran 
Ii"  is  found  in  MS.  A.  (De  Batines,  491). 
This  MS.  is  in  the  Bodleian,  "  a  fine  MS.  on 
vellum,  in  large  folio Its  date  is  pro- 
bably that  of  the  early  part  of  the  15th 
century."  C.  has  "  elurchi  "  (De  Bat.,  492), 
"another  beautifully  written  MS.  in  the 
Bodleian  on  vellum.  .  .  .not  later  than  1380," 
while  a  has  "  ilurchi  "  (De  Bat.,  537).  "  This 
very  beautiful  MS.  in  the  British  Museum,  the 
gem  of  the  whole  collection,  dates  from 
about  the  middle  of  the  14th  century." 
A  and  H  (De  Bat.,  486),  both  also  in  the 
Bodleian,  have  "  tedeschi  Ii  urchi  "  ;  and 
E.  (De  Bat.,  489),  likewise  in  the  Bodleian, 
a  MS.  on  paper,  in  large  folio,  of  which 
the  date  is  given  in  the  colophon  (Finito  adi 
15  Febrar,  14^},  has  "  todeschi  burchi." 

Of  perhaps  wider  insular  interest  is  the 
variant  in  the  Landi  Codex  (on  paper)  in 
the  John  Rylands  Library  in  this  city,  which 
has  "  E  come  la  tralli  tedeschi  eliurchi," 
a  somewhat  unusual  phrasing,  for  which 
I  am  indebted  to  the  Librarian,  Mr.  H. 
Guppy,  who  observes  in  supplying  it  : — 

"  A  correction  has  been  made  in  what  must  be 
a  slightly  later  hand  by  stroking  through  the  e 
and  the  i  of  '  eliurchi,'  and  a  marginal  reading 
given  as  '  latralli  tedeschi  lurchi.'  " 

The  intended  emendation,  at  least  in  the 
corrector's  careless  union  of  three  words  in 
"latralli,"  is  less  acceptable  than  the  text, 
the  II  of  which  allies  it  with  the  curious 
orthography  of  MSS.  II  and  <£  as  instanced 
by  Dr.  Moore. 

This  valuable  MS.,  of  date  1416,  possesses 
additional  interest  on  account  of  its  com- 
posite character,  containing,  besides  the 
text  of  the  *  D.  C.'  (with  Latin  and  Italian 
marginal  glosses),  a  Latin  poem  by  Ben- 
venuto  da  Imola,  two  Latin  ethical  treatises, 
a  '  Cangone  di  Dante  Aleghieri,J  a  Latin 
prayer  of  St.  Augustine,  an  Italian  transla- 
tion of  Cicero's  '  De  Senectute,'  &c.  I 
inspected  it  in  June,  1905,  and  quoted  from 
it  at  10  S.  iii.  483  and  xii.  449.  It  is  as 
yet  little  known  to  Dantologists,  but,  in 
addition  to  my  references  in  '  N  &  Q.,1  it 
has  .been  admirably  introduced  to  them  by 
Dr.  Aluigi  Cossio  in  the  June  issue  of  The 
Antiquary.  The  transcriber  is  unknown 
beyond  his  name  (Bartholomew  Landi  de 
Landis),  occupation  (notary),  birthplace 
(Prato),  and  later  residence  at  Volterra, 
where  he  concluded  his  translation  of 

Cicero's  work,  23  Dec.,  1426  ;  but  no  future 
Dante  bibliography  will  be  complete  without 
reference  to  his  important  legacy. 

II.  Ibid.,  68-9  :— 

Sappi  che  il  mio  vicin  Vitaliano 
Sedera  qui  dal  mio  sinistro  fianco. 
This  passage  is  mainly  remarkable  for  a  fact 
thus  stated  by  Dean  Plumptre  : — 

"  For  the  first  time  we  have,  as  it  were,  a 
prophetic  condemnation  of  one  who  was  living- 
at  the  date  assumed  for  the  vision,  but  dead 
when  he  wrote  this  canto." 

But  the  identity  of  this  Vitaliano  is  less 
easy  to  determine.  Some  commentators,, 
with  more  assurance  than  accuracy,  boldly 
proclaim  him  to  be  Vitaliano  del  Dente. 
Says  Scartazzini  :— 

"  Gli  antichi  comm.  [he  might  have  added  some 
moderns  also,  e.g.,  Gary,  Bianchi,  Venturi,  Lom- 
bardi]  dicono  pressoche  unanimi  che  costui  fosse 
Vitaliano  del  Dente,  eletto  podesta  nel  1307. 
II  Morpurgo  si  avvisa  invece  che  Dante  parli  dE 
certo  Vitaliano  di  Jacopo  Vitaliani,  usuraio 
marcio  :  '  Dante  e  Padova,'  p.  213  e  seg." 

The  great  commentator  adds  a  humorous 
tag  to  his  note:  "Che  tutti  gli  antichi 
abbiano  preso  un  granchio  ?  "  Is  this 
expression  ("caught  a  crab")  equivalent 
to  our  "  finding  a  mare's  nest  "  ? 

Dean  Plumptre  confidently  sides  with 
Morpurgo  : — 

"  He  is  identified  with  a  Vitaliano  dei  Vitaliani 
of  Padua,  whose  usury  was  notorious,  and  of 
whom  a  local  chronicle  of  1323  speaks  as  con- 
demned to  Hell  by  the  Doctor  Vulgaris,  sc.  Dante,. 
as  the  great  scholastic  poet  who  had  written  in 

The  Rev.  H.  F.  Tozer  ('English  Com- 
mentary on  the  "  D.  C."  ')  is  more  wary, 
and  wisely  observes  : — 

"  Vitaliano  :  he  was  still  alive,  but  as  to  who 
he  was  there  are  conflicting  views." 

His  interpretation,  however,  of  "sinistro,'2 
"  as  being  the  worse  of  the  two,"  seems  to 
me  to  be  less  wise,  although  he  has  Scartaz- 
zini's  support  for  it — "  perch  e  piu  colpevole 
di  me."  Surely  "  sinistro  fianco  "  has 
neither  an  heraldic  nor  an  ethical  significa- 
tion, and  can  only  mean  what  the  words 
naturally  and  grammatically  imply — "  left  " 
side  or  hand,  which,  qualified  by  "mio,?? 
would  obviously  attach  the  greater  culpa- 
bility to  the  speaker  (conjecturally,  from 
the  device — a  sow  azure  on  field  argent — 
of  his  family,  Reginald  Scrovigni,  "  usuraio 
famigerato,"  says  Scartazzini).  And  this 
is  further  confirmed  if,  as  has  apparently 
been  done,  "  sinistro  "  is  taken  as  an  equi- 
valent to  our  "sinister,"  which  signifies 
bad,  unlucky,  unjust,  unfair,  perverse,  as 
well  as  "  left," 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [11  s.  n.  JULY  ao,  1910. 

For   some    curious   MS.    variants    of    the 
•couplet    under    review     ("  Vitiliano,'*    D. 
"Italiano,"  K.  ;    "Dal  tuo  sin.,'?  G.,   &c. 
the   student   is   referred   to   Dr.   Moore   (ut 
•supra}.  J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C.-on-M.,  Manchester. 


THERE  are  comparatively  few  biographies  oi 
booksellers,  and  there  is  certainly  no 
adequate  history  of  the  English  book-trade. 
It  may  therefore  not  be  without  interest 
-to  set  down  some  notes  about  a  worthy 
bookseller  of  the  eighteenth  century.  He  is 
not  mentioned  by  Timperley.  His  funeral 
sermon  was  preached  by  a  man  of  distinction, 
Dr.  George  Stanhope,  Dean  of  Canterbury. 
It  is  from  this  sermon  that  the  following 
particulars  are  ta"ken.  The  Dean's  text  was 
taken  from  Psalm  cvii.  30-31.  After  speak- 
ing of  his  more  than  thirty  years'  acquaint- 
ance with  Sare,  he  continued  : — 

"  His  Descent  was  from  the  Clergy  ;  to  which 
Order  his  whole  Character  and  Conduct  was  not 
•only  suitable,  but  an  Ornament  and  a  Blessing. 
For  he  both  believed,  and  lived,  as  became  one 
so  born  and  bred  ;  and  was  a  true  son  of  the 
Christian  in  General,  and  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land in  particular.  And  This,  not  from  Fashion, 
or  Education,  or  Interest  only  ;  but  upon  Principle, 
and  Judgment,  and  such  well  weighed  Convic- 
tion, as  enabled  him  with  great  Readiness,  to 
give  an  answer,  as  St.  Peter  exhorts,  to  every  one 
that  should  ask  him  a  Reason  of  the  Hope  that 
was  in  him. 

"  His  Knowledge  of  Books  and  Men,  the 
Candour  and  Ingenuity  of  his  Temper,  the  oblig- 
ing Manner  of  his  Behaviour,  and  the  gratefull 
Acknowledgments  of  any  Favours  and  Benefits 
received,  did  indeed  long  time  since,  effectually 
recommend  him,  not  only  to  the  Countenance  and 
•Conversation,  but  also  to  the  Friendship  and 
special  Regards  of  many  Persons,  eminent  both 
•in  Post  and  Learning. 

"  Nor  ought  I  to  omit,  that  I  scarce  ever  heard 
his  Name,  come  out  of  the  mouth  of  our  present 
most  Reverend  Primate,  without  being  honour'd 
by  some  Epithet,  which  spoke  Affection,  and 
Esteem  for  him. 

"  His  Fortune,  like  most  of  Theirs  who  are  Sons 
of  Our  Order,  was  originally  very  moderate  ;  But 
given  him  by  his  Father,  with  this  comfortable 
Declaration  ;  that  he  might  depend  upon  that 
little  wearing  like  Iron,  since  there  was  not  one 
dishonest  Penny  in  it.  So  carefully  had  that 
Maxim  of  the  Psalmist,  been  instill'd  into  this  Son ; 
a  small  Thing  that  the  Righteous  hath,  is  better 
than  great  Riches  of  the  ungodly.  As  that  Saying 
of  the  good  old  Man  made  great  Impression,  so, 
he  told  me,  the  Experience  which  Verify'd  it, 
made  continually  greater ;  and  confirmed  him 
more  and  more  in  his  good  Purposes,  of  taking  the 
same  honest  Course  to  insure  a  blessing,  upon 
whatsoever  Addition  to  those  slender  Beginnings, 
tthe  kind  Providence  of  God  should  enable  him 
to  make. 

"  How  constant  he  was  to  this  Resolution, 
They,  who  dealt  with  him  in  the  Way  of  Trade, 
best  can,  and  will,  I  doubt  not,  bear  him  Testi- 

"  One  Instance  of  it  he  hath  often  told  me,  which 
ought  not  to  be  passed  over  in  Silence,  because 
much  to  his  Honour.  It  is,  that  he  would  never 
suffer  himself,  by  any  Temptation  of  Profit,  to  be 
concern'd  in  publishing  any  Book,  obnoxious  to 
the  Censure  of  our  Governours,  either  in  Church 
or  State,  or  any  way  prejudicial  to  Religion  oh 
good  Manners.  A  Reader  therefore  may,  with 
great  Security,  after  his  Name  seen  in  the  Title- 

Sage,  go  on,  and  depend  upon  finding  the  whole 
lat  follows,  innocent  at  least  always  ;  and  for 
the  most  Part  usefull  and  greatly  edifying.  I 
hope,  of  this  commendable  Conduct  we  have  many 
more  Examples  ;  and  happy  sure  it  were,  if  All  of 
the  same  Profession,  would  walk  by  the  same 

The  sermon  is  entitled  : — 
"  Death  just  Matter  of  Joy  to  good  Men.  A  Ser- 
mon preach'd  at  the  Parish  Church  of  St.  Pancras, 
on  Tuesday  the  llth  of  February,  1723.  At  the 
funeral  of  Mr.  Richard  Sare,  of  London,  Book- 
seller. By  George  Stanhope,  D.D.,  Dean  of 
Canterbury  and  Chaplain  in  Ordinary  to  his 
Majesty.  London  Printed  by  W.  Bowyer  for 
Richard  Williamson,  near  Grays  -  Inn  Gate  in 
Holborn,  1724."  4to,  pp.  24. 

These  biographical  data,   although  some 
of  them  are  rather  vague,  should  be  placed 
on  record  where  they  can  easily  be   found 
when  needed.          WILLIAM  E.  A.  AXON. 
191,  Plymouth  Grove,  Manchester. 

HAKLUYT  AND  BBISTOL. — A  tablet  has 
just  been  placed  at  the  east  end  of  the  north 
choir  aisle  of  Bristol  Cathedral  with  this 
inscription  : — 

"  To  the  glory  of  God  and  the  pious  memory 
of  Richard  Hakluyt,  A.M.,  Queen's  Scholar  of 
Westminster  School,  student  of  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  sometime  Archdeacon  of  Westminster, 
and  for  30  years  Prebendary  of  this  Cathedral 
hurch  (MDLXXXVI. — MDCXVI.),  who  by  his 
listorical  collections  earned  the  gratitude  both 
of  his  country  and  of  this  ancient  port.  His 
studious  imagination  discovered  new  paths  for 
geographical  science,  and  his  patriotic  labours 
•escued  from  oblivion  not  a  few  of  those  who 
went  down  to  the  sea  in  ships,  to  be  harbingers 
of  Empire,  descrying  new  lands  and  finding  larger 
room  for  their  race.  A.S.,  MDCCCCX.  '  The  ardent 
ove  of  my  country  devoured  all  difficulties.' 
From  Hakluyt's  dedication  prefixed  to  the  second 
edition  of  the  Voyages.)" 

Canon  Talbot  raised  the  fund,  the  Royal 
geographical  Society  being  donors  of  more 
)han  half  the  total.  Mr.  Sidney  Irwin  of 
Clifton  College  wrote  the  inscription. 



'  THE  STAR-SPANGLED  BANNER.' — The  fol- 
owing  note,  derived  from  the  President  of  the 
Burrows  Brothers  Company  of  Cleveland, 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUEKIES. 


seems  of  interest.  In  a  work  on  '  The 
American  Flag,'  edited  by  Mr.  Harlan  H. 
Homer,  which  the  Department  of  Education 
of  New  York  State  is  publishing,  the  state- 
ment is  made  that  the  original  publication 
in  a  newspaper  of  '  The  Star-Spangled 
Banner  '  was  on  September  21st,  1814,  in 
The  Baltimore  American,  and  this  is  the 
accepted  view. 

But  it  is  now  shown  that  the  poem 
appeared  in  The  Baltimore  Patriot  and  Even- 
ing Advertiser  on  Tuesday  evening,  Septem- 
ber 20th,  a  day  earlier.  This  paper  was  dis- 
covered by  Mr.  J.  C.  Fitzpatrick  of  the 
Library  of  Congress.  The  new  date  will 
appear  in  the  eighth  volume  of  Mr.  Avery's 
'  History  of  the  United  States,'  published 
by  the  Burrows  Brothers  Company. 

N.  M. 

At  10  S.  ix.  283  MR.  JOHN  T.  PAGE  men- 
tioned the  "  Statue  of  William  Pitt,  Hanover 
Square. — Erected  in  1831  at  a  cost  of  7,OOOZ., 
subscribed  by  admirers  of  the  great  states- 

The  following  letter  on  the  subject,  which 
appeared  in  The  Morning  Post  of  18  July,  is 
of  special  interest  in  this  connexion  : — 

SIB, — TheHanover  Square  Enclosure  Committee 
have  been  recently  considering  the  condition  of 
the  statue  of  Pitt  in  that  square.  They  feel  that 
its  appearance  is  more  or  less  of  a  disgrace  to 
one  of  the  principal  squares  in  London.  The  first 
difficulty  which  confronts  them  in  their  endeavour 
for  a  better  state  of  things  is  the  question  of 
ownership.  Will  you  grant  them  the  hospitality 
of  your  columns  to  ask  the  question  publicly  : 
To  whom  does  the  statue  of  Pitt  in  Hanover 
Square  belong  ?  Is  there  any  representative  of 
the  family  who  would  undertake  the  cost  of 
cleansing  the  statue  ?  Yours,  &c., 

Secretary,  Enclosure  Committee. 



We  are  told  in  the  '  D.N.B.'  that  he  died  of  a 
flux  at  Surat  in  December,  1617.  On  the 
other  hand,  G.  Gerrard,  writing  to  Carleton 
on  9  January,  1619,  states  that  a  vessel  from 
Surat  brings  news  from  Sir  Thomas  Roe  in 
Persia,  and  that  Coryat  has  died  in  those 
parts,  and  has  left  enough  written  to  fill 
the  world  with  new  relations.  Again, 
Archbishop  Abbot  wrote  to  Sir  Thomas 
Roe  on  19  February,  1619,  that  the  king 
blamed  some  of  Thomas  Coryat's  tales  from 
the  East  (Domestic  State  Papers  under 
dates).  This  refers  probably  to  his  last 
letter  from  Agra,  31  October,  1616,  which 
\va.s  printed  in  1618.  L.  L.  K. 

ALDGATE.  —  In  the  London  volume  of  the 
Victoria  County  Histories,  p.  471,  there  is 
an  error  which  (by  implication)  impugns  my 
own  accuracy,  and  which  is  a  striking  illus- 
tration of  the  importance  to  young  authors 
(and  indeed  to  "  old  hands  "  also)  of  the 
advice  "  always  verify  your  references." 

In  my  'Aldermen  of  London,'  p.  418,  I 
have  stated  that  Percy  was  Prior  of  Holy 
Trinity  (in  succession  to  Newton,  who  had 
been  elected  on  the  death  of  Charnock  in 
1505)  from  October,  1506,  till  (his  death  in> 
1512,  being  succeeded  by  Bradwell.  That 
statement  is  accurate,  and  can  be  verified 
by  reference  to  the  patents  at  the  Record 

Miss  Reddan,  who  contributes  to  this 
volume  of  the  County  History  the  article  on 
the  religious  houses,  in  which  Holy  Trinity 
is  included,  says  that  "  Percy  was  not  Prior 
in  1506  nor  in  1509,  though  he  may  have 
been  reinstated  before  his  death  in  1512,'* 
referring  in  foot-notes  to  (1)  Letters  and 
Papers  Henry  VIII.  xvi.  503  (15),  and  (2), 
Ancient  Deeds,  Public  Record  Office,  A 
1773,  as  authorities  for  her  statement. 

The  first  reference  is  to  a  lease  granted 
by  Prior  Newton  in  February,  1506  (i.e.* 
1505/6),  which  proves  that  Percy  was  not 
Prior  on  a  particular  day  in  that  month  of 
1506,  but  does  not  prove  that  he  was  "not 
Prior  in  1506.n  Miss  Reddan's  second 
reference  is  to  the  printed  '  Calendar  of 
Ancient  Deeds,'  and  not,  as  one  would 
naturally  infer,  to  the  deed  itself.  The 
Calendar  gives  "  4  May,  1  Hen.  VIII.,"  i.e., 
1509,  as  the  date  of  a  deed  in  which  Bradwell 
is  named  as  Prior.  If,  instead  of  being  con- 
tent with  the  Calendar,  Miss  Reddan  had 
referred  to  the  deed  itself,  she  would  have 
seen  that  the  deed  is  actually  dated  4  May 
"  anno  octavo  Henrici  octavi  "  (i.e.  8  Henry 
VIII.,  1516).  I  may  add  that  the  writing 
of  the  deed  is  perfectly  clear,  and  that,  to 
"  make  assurance  double  sure,"  I  asked  my 
criend  Dr.  W.  A.  Shaw,  who  is  an  expert  in 
such  things,  to  look  at  the  manuscript  with 
me.  This  is  not  the  only  case  in  which 
[  have  found  the  *  Calendar  of  Ancient 
Deeds '  misleading.  The  true  date  of  the 
deed  (1516)  is  quite  consistent  with  the 
dates  I  have  quoted  above  from  my  '  Alder- 
men of  London,'  and  obviously  does  not 
support  Miss  Reddan's  inference  from  the 
date  given  in  the  Calendar. 

As  I  am  criticizing  Miss  Reddan  for  an 
error  into  which  any  one  but  such  a  con- 
firmed sceptic  as  myself  with  regard 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [n  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 

to  accepted  historical  authorities  might 
naturally  fall,  I  feel  it  due  to  her  to  say 
that,  so  far  as  I  am  competent  to  judge,  her 
work  seems  to  be  admirably  and  carefully 
done,  and  I  should  be  sorry  to  appear  to 
detract  from  its  merits. 


JOHN  BANKING. — I  have  just  seen  by 
•chance  an  inquiry  by  MB.  E.  I.  CARLYLE  at 
8  S.  ix.  47  for  particulars  of  the  life  of  Mr. 
John  Ranking.  If  MR.  CARLYLE  is  still  in 
need  of  this  information,  I  shall  be  happy 
to  give  him  all  the  particulars  of  which  I  am 
in  possession,  if  he  will  write  to  me. 

GEORGE  RANKING,  Lieut.-Col. 

Beech  Lawn,  Park  Town,  Oxford. 

CAL CULTURE. — The  visit  of  a  team  of 
Bohemian  athletes  to  this  country  will 
have  drawn  attention  to  the  word  sokol. 
The  movement  was  begun  in  1862  by  Dr. 
Miroslav  Tyr,  a  profound  Greek  scholar  and 
enthusiast  for  physical  culture.  Through 
his  exertions,  assisted  by  those  of  Mr.  Jind 
rich  Fiigner,  a  brotherhood  was  formed 
at  Prague  for  the  objects  of  mental  and 
physical  development,  and  before  the  deaths 
of  these  leaders  branches  were  established 
all  over  Bohemia.  The  members  adopted  a 
picturesque  dress,  with  the  sokol  (falcon) 
as  their  device.  Their  small  copper  badge 
shows  the  artistic  figure  of  a  fencer  to  his 
waist,  with  the  words  no,  straz  (on  guard). 
At  present  there  are  thousands  of  centres, 
and  vast  numbers  assemble  for  the  periodical 
displays  on  the  Letna  plain,  near  Prague. 
The  movement  has  spread  to  other  Slav 
countries,  including  Russia,  where  centres 
exist  in  several  large  towns. 

Streatham  Common. 

SWEEPSTAKE  AS  A  SURNAME.  —  The  first 
occurrence  of  this  word,  probably,  is,  as  a 
surname,  in  the  Poll  Tax  for  Yorkshire, 
2  Richard  II.,  1378-9,  under  the  heading 
of  "  Berwyk,'2  in  Elmet,  near  Leeds  (Yorks 
Archceol.  Journal,  vi.  315)  :  "  Robertus 
Swepstak  et  ux  iiijd.n  It  was  not  "  Swep- 
rstaker,n  because  there  is  no  abbreviating 
mark.  A.  S.  ELLIS. 

PHRASE. — The  late  MR.  H.  CHICHESTER 
HART  quoted  at  9  S.  xi.  466  some  instances 
of  the  use  of  this  phrase  in  1708,  and  the 
•*  N.E.D.'-  shows  that  it  was  used  by  Van- 
fcurgh  and  Defoe  ;  but  the  Earl  of  Derby 

made  it  famous  in  1867.  The  first  use  of  it, 
however,  in  a  Parliamentary  manner  seems 
to  be  American  ;  for  on  28  February,  1848, 
Mr.  Sawyer  of  Ohio  said  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  at  Washington  that  his 
colleague  Mr.  Schenck  complained  that  in 
passing  the  Appropriation  Bill  then  ' '  they 
were  taking  a  leap  in  the  dark  "  (see  The 
Congressional  Globe,  Thirtieth  Congress, 
p.  393).  I  do  not  find  the  phrase  in  Mr. 
Schenck's  speech  as  reported. 


WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  name's  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

"  STORM  IN  A  TEACUP." — Our  earliest 
example  at  present  of  this  familiar  expression 
is  of  1872.  It  was,  of  course,  in  use  long 
before  ;  but  I  do  not  know  who  originated 
it.  I  am  told  that  there  is  a  variant  with 
"  teapot  "  in  place  of  "  teacup. "  And  I  have 
seen  an  American  strengthened  equivalent, 
"  tempest  in  a  teapot.'1  I  should  be  glad  of. 
examples  of  the  first-mentioned  form  before 
1872,  and  of  the  variants  of  any  date. 

The  American  version  is  given  in  the 
supplemental  volume  to  '  The  Century 
Dictionary  l  published  last  year.  I  remem- 
ber its  occurrence  some  twenty  years  ago  in 
some  amusing  verses,  which  appeared  in  the 
American  newspapers,  on  the  seven  or  eight 
current  pronunciations  of  "  depot,'1  ending, 
if  I  remember  aright, 

So  all  this  wrangling  about  "  depot  " 
Was  but  a  tempest  in  a  teapot. 

I  had  a  copy  of  this,  which  I  have  mislaid.  If 
any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.,?  on  either  side  of  the 
Atlantic,  happens  to  have  preserved  it, 
or  knows  where  it  occurs,  I  should  be  glad 
to  see  it  again.  JAMES  A.  H.  MURRAY. 

[MR.  A.  F.  BOBBINS  quoted  at  10  S.  xi.  388  the 
phrase  "storm  in  a  cream  bowl"  from  a  letter  of 
the  first  Duke  of  Ormond  written  in  1678.  Some 
classical  parallels  are  to  be  found  at  p.  456  of  the 
same  volume.] 

REV.  M.  W.  PETERS. — I  am  compiling  a 
monograph  on  the  life  and  work  of  the  artist, 
the  Rev.  M.  William  Peters.  I  should  be 
much  obliged  if  any  one  possessing  informa- 
tion about  him,  or  pictures  by  him,  would 
communicate  with  me. 


14,  Chantrey  House,  Eccleston  Street,  S.W. 

u  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


LIEUT. -CoL.  JOHN  B.  GLEGG. — I  should  be 
much  obliged,  for  purposes  historical,  to 
find  the  representatives  of  Lieut. -Col.  John 
B.  Glegg,  Assistant-Adjutant-General.  Ho 
was  on  Sir  Isaac  Brock's  staff  in  Canada.  ] 
•do  not  know  if  he  ascended  further  in  the 
service.  DAVID  Ross  McCoRD,  K.C. 

Temple  Grove,  Montreal. 

readers  add  to  my  knowledge  of  Edward 
Bull  the  publisher,  concerning  whom  I  have 
the  following  facts  ?  He  was  the  son  of 
Simeon  Bull  of  10,  Hollis  Street,  Cavendish 
Square,  and  Arundel  House,  Fulham  (b. 
1750,  d.  1818).  Edward  was  born  in  1798, 
and  died  on  19  October,  1843,  being  buried 
at  Highgate.  He  carried  on  his  publishing 
business  at  19  and  26,  Hollis  Street,  formerly 
the  banking  house  of  Sir  Claude  Scott,  Bt., 
<fe  Co.  He  published  among  other  books  in 
1827  '  Boyle  Farm,'  a  poem  by  his  friend 
Lord  Francis  Egerton,  which  ran  through 
at  least  three  editions  (see  '  D.N.B.,'  Eger- 
ton). In  1839  he  published  *  Indian  Hours  ; 
or,  Passion  and  Poetry  in  the  Tropics,'  by 
R.  N.  Dunbar  (see  'D.N.B.,'  Dunbar). 
Edward  Bull  was,  I  think,  educated  at  Gor- 
don House  Academy,  Highgate,  under  Dr. 
Mersal,  whose  daughter  Frances  married 
Edward  Bull's  elder  brother,  Simeon  Thomas 
Bull  the  architect.  His  library  was  rather 
famous  in  its  day,  and  the  resort  of  literary 
London.  He  married  a  lady  who  subse- 
quently married  a  Mr.  Buxton. 



of  the  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  the  history 

f  a  piece  of  stone  resembling  the  base  of  a 

pillar  ?     It  is  on  a  level  with  the  pavement 

between  the  shop  of  Mr.  Fletcher,  luncheon 

S'ovider,  280,  Pentonville  Road,  and  that  of 
essrs.  Hepworth  &  Son,  clothiers,  next  door, 
78,  at  the  corner  of  Caledonian  Road.     It 
sembles,    in   miniature,    the    base    of   the 
tewly  purchased  and  restored  south-western 
>way  of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great,  close 
by  here,  after  the  exposure  by  excavation, 
ine  stone  is  about  a  foot  high,  and  about  the 
•same  in  breadth. 


41  and  28,  Charterhouse  Square. 

was  Querard's  first  name  ?  His  books  bear 
only  the  initials  "  J.  M."  The  British 

useum  Catalogue  calls  him  Joseph  Marie 
and  so  does  Mr.  Ralph  Thomas  ('  A  Martyr 
to  Bibliography').  But  Lorenz's  'Cata- 

logue general  de  la  Librairie  franchise  '  gives 
Jean  Marie,  and  in  this  is  followed  by  Dr. 
Hagberg  Wright's  recent  '  Catalogue  of  the 
London  Library. s 

Querard  used  the  pseudonym  "Mar. 
Jozon  d'Erquard."  The  last  word  is  an 
obvious  anagram,  but  what  do  ' '  Mar. 
Jozon  "  represent  ?  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 

University  of  Aberdeen. 

WRITERS  ON  Music. — Being  engaged  in 
collecting  materials  for  an  '  International 
Bibliographical  Dictionary  of  Writers  on 
Music,4  I  shall  be  obliged  if  readers  of 
'  N.  &  Q.?  will  supply  me  with  lists  of  their 
works  in  volume  form  (published  or  about 
to  be  published)  relating  to  the  history  and 
criticism  of  music,  for  insertion  in  my  book. 

25,  Speenham  Koad,  Brixton,  S.W. 

SIR  SAUDER  DUNCOMBE. — In  Strafford's 
'  Letters,'  vol.  i.  p.  336,  Sir  Sauder  Dun- 
combe  is  described  as  a  traveller,  a  pensioner, 
and  as  having  acquired  a  patent  for  carrying 
people  in  the  street.  There  are  two  refer- 
ences in  Evelyn's  Diary  to  Sir  Sanders  Dun- 
combe,  obviously  the  same  person,  in  one  of 
which  his  "  famous  powder,"-  and,  in  the 
other,  his  sedan  chairs,  are  referred  to. 
Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  further 
particulars  about  him  ?  Y. 

— Can  any  reader  inform  me  where  an  article 
by  Dickens  is  to  be  found  in  which  he  refers 
to  some  experiments  on  dogs,  and  I  believe 
denounces  the  Royal  Humane  Society  for 
bheir  connexion  with  them  ?  I  have  been 
:old  he  called  it  "  the  Royal  Inhumane 
Society."  ESTHER  DOREEN. 

[No  such  heading  appears  in  the  Index  to 
Dickens's  '  Miscellaneous  Papers,'  vol.  xxxviii. 
of  the  "  National  Edition."] 

ARCHBISHOP  MONTAIGNE. — Many  years  ago 
[  asked,  and  received  replies  to,  a  question 
about  this  prelate  (see  7  S.  xi.  487  ;  xii. 
38,  78).  Last  autumn  his  monument  in 

awood  Church  —  which  originally  was 
situated  in  the  chancel,  but,  during  the 
restoration  of  the  church  some  thirty  years 
since,  was  moved  to  the  west  end  of  the 
south  aisle — was  restored  under  Mr.  Oldrid 
Scott,  and  reset  at  the  west  end  of  the  nave. 
It  had  been  shamefully  knocked  about  at 

he  first  removal,  but  the  fragments  were 
carefully  preserved  in  a  large  chest,  and  under 
skilful  treatment  this  beautiful  monument 
las  now  resumed  the  appearance  which  it 
>vore  at  the  time  of  its  erection. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  IL  JULY  so,  1910. 

A  local  paper,  describing  its  unveiling  and 
rededication,  stated  that  the  Latin  epitaph 
signed  "  Hugo  Hollandus  flevit  '*  was  com- 
posed by  Hugo  Grotius,  said  to  be  a  great 
personal  friend  of  the  Archbishop.  I 
should  very  much  like  to  know  the  authority 
for  this  statement.  I  asked  the  editor 
for  it,  but  received  no  reply.  I  had  always 
supposed  it  to  be  the  work  of  Hugh  Holland, 
a  poet  of  that  period,  to  whom,  indeed,  it  is 
attributed  in  Racket's  '  Life  of  Archbishop 
Williams,'  quoted  in  '  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.' 
Grotius  was  in  England  in  1613,  but  must 
have  left  before  1619,  as  in  the  latter  year 
he  was  imprisoned  in  his  own  country. 
Montaigne  died  in  1628. 

One  of  your  correspondents  gives  the  con- 
clusion of  the  epitaph  thus  :  "  Vixit  annos 
59.  m.  b — d.  2.u  Flrom  personal  inspection 
I  am  able  to  say  that  these  numbers  do  not 
exist,  a  blank  being  left  in  each  case. 

E.  L.  H.  TEW. 

Upham  Rectory,  Southampton. 

any  correspondent  tell  me  where  the  follow- 
ing passage  is  to  be  found,  and  who  is  the 
author  ? 

"  He  did  not  know,  poor  fool,  why  love  should 
not  be  true  to  death." 

L.  S.  M. 

Who  wrote  the  poem  '  Art  in  the  Market- 
place '  ?  The  first  verse  runs  : — 

Hear  ye  the  sellers  of  lavender  ?     Sweetly   they 

cry  it. 

Soft  on  the  ear  the  tones  of  their  voices  fall. 
See   how  your   children   and  maidens   are    eager 

to  buy  it. 
Sweet  as  the  lavender's  self  is  the  singer's  call. 


name,  spelt  as  above,  occurs  twice  in  the 
Rolls  Calendars  of  the  time  of  Edward  III. 
"  Amaneuus  de  Chesthunt  chivaler  •'*  is  pro- 
ceeded against  for  (after  having  received  pay) 
not  carrying  out  his  engagement  to  serve  in 
the  war  in  Brittany,  1350-51.  Is  there  any 
other  form  of  this  name  ?  R.  B. 


THE  SLEEPLESS  ARCH. — Will  some  one 
explain  the  allusion  in  the  following  extract  ? 

"In  the  ^Egean  area,  except,  oddly  enough, 
in  the  out-of-the-way  district  of  Acarnania,  it 
[the  arch]  was  avoided  until  Roman  times,  on  the 
Hindoo  principle,  perhaps,  that  '  an  arch  never 
sleeps.'  " — Burrows,  '  The  Discoveries  in  Crete.' 

Stromness,  Orkney. 

HENBY  VIII. — Are  any  biographical  details- 
known  of  this  officer  ?  He  is  said  to  have 
been  of  Norton,  North  Derbyshire,  and 
seems  to  have  helped  into  office  the  Fan- 
shawes  from  the  same  district.  H.  A. 

"  POBTYGNE." — John  Agmondesham  of 
Barnes,  Surrey,  by  his  will,  dated  1571,  and 
proved  1572/3  (7  Peter),  bequeaths  to 
"  Elizabeth  my  daughter,  the  wife  of  my 
son  John,  a  portygne  with  a  hole  through  it, 
and  a  ring  of  gold  with  a  blue  stone."  What 
is  a  '  portygne  "  ?  A.  RHODES. 

— I  should  be  glad  to  ascertain  particulars  of 
the  parentage  and  first  marriage  of  this 
Bishop  of  Kilmore  and  Ardagh.  The  '  Diet, 
of  Nat.  Biog.'  (Ix.  382)  is  silent  on  these 
points.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

SIB  JOHN  WILSON  (1780-1856).— I  should 
be  glad  to  ascertain  the  particulars  of  his 
parentage,  and  the  full  date  of  his  birth. 
The  'Diet,  of  Nat.  Biog.'  (Ixii.  112)  gives 
neither.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

JOHN  WOBTHEN  was  elected  from  West- 
minster to  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  in 
1681.  Particulars  of  his  parentage  and 
career,  as  well  as  the  date  of  his  death,  are 
desired.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

ALLEYN  :  CHABLES  ALLEYN. — -Sir  John  Alleyn 
or  Alen,  Mercer,  knighted  1529,  Alderman 
of  London  for  the  Vintry  and  Lime  Street 
Wards,  Lord  Mayor  in  1525  and  1535,  Privy 
Councillor,  and  founder  of  the  Mercers8 
Chapel  in  Cheapside  destroyed  in  the  Great 
Fire,  is  said  to  have  married  Margaret,  d.  of 
John  Legh  of  Essex  (see  Archceologia 
Cantiana,  xxiv.  197) ;  but  it  is  possible  this 
statement  is  due  to  a  confusion  of  him  with 
his  brother,  also  named  John,  of  Hatfield 
Peverel,  Essex,  who  married  Margaret, 
elder  d.  and  coheir  of  Giles  Leigh  of  Walton- 
on-Thames  (see  Harl.  Soc.  Publ.,  xiii.  333). 
By  his  will,  dated  3  Aug.,  1545,  and  proved 
15  Jan.,  1545/6,  he  left  his  son  Christopher 
various  manors  and  lands  in  Nottingham- 
shire and  Yorkshire  (see  Surtees  Society, 
vol.  cxvi.  for  1908,  p.  289). 

Christopher  also  succeeded  to  Ightham 
Mote  House,  Kent.  He  was  knighted 
2  Oct.,  1553,  was  M.P.  for  New  Romney 
1562,  and  died  towards  the  end  of  1585. 
He  had  married  Etheldreda,  one  of  the 
daughters  of  the  first  Lord  Paget  of  Beau- 
desert  (Banks'  'Extinct  Peerage,'  ii.  410). 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  wio.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


She  was  a  recusant  in  1587  (Strype,  '  Annals, 
III.  ii.  597).  When  and  where  did  she  die  ' 
In  a  list  of  Catholics  who  had  died  in  York 
shire  prisons  apparently  before  1590,  drawn 
up  by  Father  Richard  Holtby,  S.J.,  anc 
printed  in  vol.  v.  of  the  Catholic  Recorc 
Society  (London,  1908),  occurs  at  p.  193 
the  entry  "  uxor  cujusdam  Allani  ordinis 
equestris  atque  civis  Eboracensis."  I  shoulc 
like  to  know  whether  this  is  the  widow  of 
Sir  Christopher  Alleyn. 

Their  son  Charles  sold  Ightham  Mote 
House  to  Sir  William  Selby,  and  died  before 
1607.  Had  he  issue  ? 


should  be  glad  to  have  some  particulars  as 
to  the  author  of  '  London  :  being  an  Accurate 
History  and  Description  of  the  British 
Metropolis  and  its  Neighbourhood  to  Thirty 
Miles  Extent,  From  An  Actual  Perambula- 
tion.' It  was  published  in  six  volumes,  at 
dates  ranging  from  1805  to  1809,  by  J. 
Stratford  of  112,  Holborn  Hill.  The  title- 
page  gives  the  author  as  David  Hughson, 
LL.D.,  but  the  British  Museum  Catalogue 
prints  this  as  a  pseudonym,  having  in 
brackets  after  the  name  "i.e.  Edward 
Pugh."  There  is  no  reference  under  either 
name  in  the  4  Dictionary  of  National  Bio- 
graphy '  or  in  the  Supplement. 


CORIO  ARMS. — I  should  be  much  obliged 
if  any  of  your  readers  could  give  me  in- 
formation as  to  the  arms  of  the  noble  Italian 
family  of  Corio.  E.  ATKINSON. 

In  a  '  Book  of  Humorous  Poetry, '  published 
by  Nimmo,  n.d.,  a  piece  called  '  The  Case 
Altered  l  ("  Hodge  held  a  farm,  and  smiled 
content  ")  is  included  as  anonymous. 

I  see  it  occurs  in  The  Mirror,  13  March, 
1824,  as  by  K.  S.  Who  was  K.  S.  ? 


Under  the  title  'Wapentake'  in  '  Les 
Termes  de  la  Ley,1  1667,  two  instances  are 
given  from  the  county  of  York—  "Stainctife," 
a  misprint  for  Staincliffe,  and  "  Friendless 
Wapentake  in  Craven."  I  should  be  glad 
to  hear  more  of  the  latter.  Craven  itself  is  in 
Staincliffe.  The  book  professes  to  cite  the 
statutes  3  Hen.  V.  cap.  2,  9  Hen.  VI.  cap.  10, 
and  15  Hen.  VI.  cap.  7,  and  refers  to  Roger 
Hoveden,  part,  poster.  AnnaL,  fol,  346. 

W.  C.  B. 

I  should  be  extremely  obliged  if  any  of  your 
correspondents  could  give  me  a  copy  of, 
or  tell  me  where  I  might  find,  the  Danish 
poem  '  Erlkonigs  Tochter,'  which  is  generally 
supposed  to  have  suggested  to  Goethe  his 
'  Erlkonig.1  Lewes  in  his  '  Life  of  Goethe  * 
gives  some  details  of  the  poem,  but  I  want 
to  compare  Goethe  with  the  original.  I 
shall  be  grateful  for  the  information  sought. 

H.  B. 

PEARSON  FAMILY.  —  Can  any  of  your 
readers  give  me  information  concerning  the 
father,  grandfather,  or  ancestors  of  Nicholas 
Pearson,  who  died  in  1706  at  Laugh ton-en- 
le-Moor,  near  Rotherham,  Yorkshire  ?  He 
had  three  sons — John  Pearson,  b.  1678 ; 
Nathaniel  Pearson,  b.  1679,  d.  1767,  Vicar 
of  Stainton,  Notts  (where  he  was  buried), 
who  married  Mary  Wagstaffe  of  Haworth, 
b.  1692,  d.  1786 ;  and  William  Pearson, 
b.  1683.  H.  G.  P. 


(11  S.  ii.  29.) 

THERE  is  a  considerable  amount  of  informa- 
tion extant  in  reference  to  the  waterworks 
in  York  House  Garden,  generally  known  as 
the  York  Buildings  Waterworks ;  and 
engravings  showing  the  tower  are  frequently 
met  with.  In  the  Guildhall  Library  there 
s  a  collection  relating  to  this  undertaking. 
The  works  stood  near  the  foot  of  Villiers 
Street,  Strand. 

In  1676  Ralph  Bucknall  and  Ralph  Waine, 
gentlemen,  obtained  a  licence  under  the 
Ireat  Seal  to  erect  a  waterwork  near  the 
Thames,  on  and  upon  part  of  the  ground  of 
York  House  or  York  House  Garden,  being 
heir  own  ground,  for  the  term  of  99  years. 
The  property  was  soon  after  divided  into 
twelve  shares,  which  were  increased  in  1688 
;o  forty-eight.  By  an  Act  of  2  and  3  William 
and  Mary  the  company  was  incorporated 
under  the  style  of  the  Governor  and  Company 
f  Undertakers  for  raising  Thames  Water 
n  York  Buildings.  In  1719  the  property 
was  sold  to  a  new  company,  who  afterwards 
enlarged  their  capital  for  the  purpose  of 
Durchasing  forfeited  and  other  estates  in 
"Scotland  and  the  North  of  England. 

It  was  at  York  Buildings  that  the  steam 
ump  was  first  used  for  public  water  supply. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [11  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 

Originally  the  pumps  were  worked  by  a 
horse-mill,  as  was  the  case  at  Buhner's 
works  at  Broken  Wharf,  and  Ford's  at 
Somerset  House  ;  but  in  1712,  or  soon  after, 
Savery,  who  had  already  set  up  one  of  his 
pumps  at  Camden  House,  Kensington, 
erected  a  larger  and  more  complicated 
apparatus  at  York  Buildings.  This  does 
not  seem  to  have  been  a  success,  and  about 
1726  a  Newcomen  engine  was  installed. 
This  is  in  all  probability  the  dragon  re- 
ferred to  in 

"  The  York  Buildings  Dragon  |  or  a  Full  and 
true  account  of  a  most  Horrid  and  Barbarous 
Murder  |  Intended  to  be  committed  |  on  Monday 
the  14th  of  Febr.  next  (being  Valentines -day)  | 
on  the  Bodies,  Goods,  and  name  of  the  greatest 
Part  of  his  Majesty's  Liege  Subjects,  dwelling 
and  inhabiting  between  Temple-Bar  in  the  East, 
and  St.  James  s  in  the  West ;  and  between  Hunger- 
ford-market  in  the  South,  and  St.  Mary  la  Bonne, 
in  the  North,  by  a  Sett  of  Evil-minded  Persons, 
who  (by  the  Instigation  of  Plutus,  and  not  having 
the  fear  of  several  Lords,  Knights,  and  Gentlemen 
before  their  eyes)  do  assemble  twice  a-week,  to 
carry  on  their  wicked  purposes,  in  a  private  room 
over  a  stable,  by  the  Thames  side,  in  a  remote 
corner  of  the  Town.  The  Second  Edition,  Aug- 
mented by  almost  half.  London,  1726."  16  pp. 

In  Wright's  *  Caricature  History  of  the 
Georges  *  will  be  found  extracts  relating  to 
the  York  Buildings  engine  from  '  The 
Foreigner's  Guide  to  London,'  1729  ;  Read's 
Journal,  1731  ;  and  All  Alive  and  M erry  ;  or, 
The  London  Daily  Post,  1741.  There  is  some 
reason  for  thinking  that  it  was  eventually 
acquired  by  Sir  James  Lowther,  and  re- 
erected  at  a  colliery  at  Whitehaven. 

The  later  history  of  the  York  Buildings 
undertaking  is  related  briefly  in  Matthews's 
*  Hydraulia.*  In  1818  it  was  acquired 
by  the  New  River  Company,  at  any  rate 
as  far  as  the  street  works  were  concerned. 
In  1829  an  Act  of  Parliament  authorized  the 
dissolution  of  the  York  Buildings  Company 
and  the  sale  of  every  kind  of  property 
belonging  to  it.  RHYS  JENKINS. 

The  following  quotation  is  from  William 
Matthews's  '  Hydraulia  *  (1835) : — 

"  In  the  year  1691,  waterworks  were  constructed 
for  supplying  a  part  of  Westminster;  and  the 
persons  who  engaged  in  this  undertaking  obtained 
an  Act  of  Parliament  for  incorporating  them  by 
the  designation  of  *  The  Governor  and  Company 
of  Undertakers  for  raising  Thames'  water  in  York 
Buildings.  The  establishment  was  situate  on 
the  bank  of  the  river,  contiguous  to  the  Strand, 
at  the  bottom  of  Villiers-street,  under  which 
their  principal  cistern  or  reservoir  extended. 
These  works  conveyed  water  as  far  as  Piccadilly, 
Whitehall,  and  Covent  Garden,  with  the  inter- 
vening streets  ;  but  the  greatest  number  of  houses 

that   at   any  time   received   a  supply  from   this 
concern  was  about  2,700." — P.  33. 

Matthews  is  by  no  means  accurate  histori- 
cally, but  I  have  a  note  from  the  *  Statutes 
at  Large  2  that  the  Act  of  Incorporation  is 
2  William  and  Mary,  sess.  2,  cap.  24,  so  that 
at  the  time  of  the  lease  quoted  by  C.  L.  S. 
(1679)  the  company  must  have  been  a 
private  company,  and  the  waterworks  must 
have  been  constructed  at  least  twelve  years 
earlier  than  Matthews  states. 


Winchmore  Hill,  Amersham. 

In  The  Builder  of  6  June,  1906,  will  be 
found  an  illustration  of  this  water  tower, 
and  possibly  some  descriptive  letterpress. 
It  stood  on  the  site  of  old  York  House,  and 
was  established  in  the  27th  of  Charles  II.  to 
supply  the  inhabitants  of  St.  James's 
with  water.  The  patent  granted  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  II.  in  connexion  with  it  is  as 
follows  : — 

"  Water  house  to  supply  St.  James's. — R.  vij 
die  May  con  Ralph  Bucknall  and  Ralph  Waine  to 
sett  upp  a  Water  house  upon  the  River  of  Thames 
upon  parte  of  the  Ground  belonging  to  Yorke 
House  to  serve  the  Inhabitants  of  St.  James's 
with  water  for  99  years." 

The  works  are  described  in  '  The 
Foreigner's  Guide  to  London,*  1720 ;  but 
the  company  took  to  purchasing  estates, 
granting  annuities,  and  assuring  lives,  and 
proved  to  be  one  of  the  bubbles  of  that  year 
of  wild  speculation.  The  fire  engine  ceased 
to  be  worked  in  1731  ;  but  it  was  afterwards 
shown  for  several  years  as  a  curiosity. 

*'  Its  working  by  sea-coal  was  attended  with 
so  much  smoke,  that  it  not  only  must  pollute  the 
air  thereabouts,  but  spoil  the  furniture." — London 
Daily  Post,  1741. 

The  confused  affairs  of  the  company,  and 
the  consequent  disputes  and  lawsuits  with 
its  creditors  and  debtors,  gave  rise  to  a  host 
of  pamphlets,  and  even  a  political  novel. 
An  interesting  engraving  by  Boydell  of  a 
view  of  London  from  the  Thames,  near  York 
Buildings,  where  the  tower-spire  of  these 
waterworks  is  a  conspicuous  object,  is 
exhibited  (No.  53  in  the  catalogue)  in  St. 
Martin's  Library. 

4,  Hurlingham  Court,  S.W. 

G.  A.  Walpoole's  '  New  and  Complete 
British  Traveller  ?  (1780)  refers  (p.  254)  to 
this  water  tower  as  "  a  high  wooden  tower 
called  York  Buildings  Water -Works,"  at  the 
east  corner  of  the  terrace-walk  planted  with 
trees  in  the  centre  of  which  was,  and  is,  York, 
or  Buckingham,  Water-Gate  ;  and  a  full- 

ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


page  engraving  is  given  which  shows  the 
tower  at  what  seems  to  be  the  west  corner 
or  end  of  the  walk  referred  to.  It  looks 
from  the  illustration  as  if  the  tower  stood 
either  at  the  lower  end  of  Villiers  Street  or 
on  the  site  of  Charing  Cross  Station.  See 
also  Thornbury  and  Walford's  *  Old  and 
New  London,2  iii.  108  and  103,  where  a 
reduced  reproduction  of  Walpoole's  engrav- 
ing of  the  tower  is  given. 


C.  L.  S.  will  find  an  account  of  the  York 
waterworks  in  the  third  volume  of  Mr. 
Wheatley's  *  London  Past  and  Present/ 
under  *  York  Buildings.*  G.  F.  R.  B. 

For  full  particulars  of  this  company,  the 
water  house,  &c.,  see  *  The  York  Buildings 
Company  :  a  Chapter  in  Scotch  History/  by 
David  Murray  (Glasgow,  James  MacLehose 
&  Sons,  1883).  T.  F.  D. 

[W.  S.  S.  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

NELSON'S  BIRTHPLACE  (11  S.  i.  483  ;  ii.  36). 
— I  believe  Y.  T.  is  mistaken  in  ascribing 
Horatio  Nelson's  birthplace  to  Barsham 
in  Suffolk.  Nelson's  father,  the  Rector  of 
Burnham  Thorpe,  Norfolk,  in  1781,  penned 
with  his  own  hand,  a  "  Family  Historical 
Register,"  in  which  he  noted  the  births, 
birth-places,  and  sponsors  of  all  his  children. 
In  this  MS.,  which  is  still  extant,  he  wrote 
of  his  children  : — 

"  William,  born  att  Burnham  Thorpe  Aprill 
20th  1757." 

"  Horatio,  born  att  ditto  Sept.  29th  1758." 

In  the  Burnham  Thorpe  parish  registers 
for  1758  is  the  baptismal  entry  thus  : — 

"  Horatio,  son  of  Edmund  and  Catherine 
Nelson,  born  September  29th  Baptised  October  9th 
priv  :  pub  :  November  15th  1758." 

In  the  margin  of  this  register  is  written  the 
following  : — 

"  Invested  with  the  ensigns  of  the  most  honor- 
able order  of  the  Bath  at  St.  James,  September 
27^  1797.  Made  Admiral  of  the  Blue  1797. 
Created  Lord  Nelson  of  the  Nile  and  of 
Burnham  Thorpe,  October  6,  1798.  Cataetera 
[At  caetera?]  narret  fama." 

In  the  aforesaid  Family  Historical  Register 
the  Rev.  E.  Nelson  tells  the  life  story  of  his 
wife  and  himself  thus  : — 

"  Myself,  educated  att  a  school  in  the  country, 
admitted  to  Caius  Coll.,  Cambridge,  1743,  Dr. 
Gooch  then  Master ;  my  tutor  Dr.  Eglington. 
I  took  a  bachelor's  degree  at  the  usual  time,  was 
ordained  soon  after,  and  att  Michaelmass,  1745, 
went  as  curate  to  the  Bev.  Thomas  Page,  Rector 
of  Beccles  in  Suffolk  ;  there  remained  till  October, 
1717.  My  father  died — succeeded  him  in  both 

lis  livings :  Hilborough  on  my  mother's  pre- 
sentation, and  Sporle  the  Provost  and  Fellows 
of  Eton.  I  resided  with  my  mother  att  Hil- 
borough, and  in  May,  1749,  married  Catherine, 
daughter  of  Maurice  Suckling,  late  Prebendary 
of  Westminster  and  Rector  of  Barsham  and 
Woodton,  and  Anne  his  wife,  daughter  of  Sir 
Charles  Turner,  Bart.,  of  Warham,  Noff  [?].  Att 
Michaelmass  went  to  housekeeping  at  Swaffham, 
and  at  Michaelmas,  1753,  removed  into  a  hired 
aouse  at  Sporle.  In  November,  1755,  on  the 
death  of  Thomas  Smithson  (clerk),  was  pre- 
ferred to  the  Rectory  of  Burnham  Thorpe  on  the 
presentation  of  the  Honble  Horace  Walpole,  after 
Lord  Walpole  of  Wollerton.  Maurice  Suckling, 
D.D.,  died  in  the  year  1729,  buried  att  Barsham 
within  the  communion  railing,  aged  54.  Anne, 
bjs  widow,  died  at  Burnham  Thorpe  January  5th, 
1768,  aged  77,  buried  att  Barsham  near  her 
husband.  Catherine  (Nelson),  their  daughter, 
died  December  26th,  1767,  aged  42,  lies  buried 
in  the  chancel  of  Burnham  Thorpe." 

By  this  it  will  be  seen  that  Catherine 
Suckling's  father  died  in  1729-30  ;  and,  as 
a  matter  of  fact,  his  widow  immediately 
removed  to  Beccles  with  her  young  family, 
and  was  there  residing  when  Mr.  Nelson 
was  appointed  curate  and  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  her  daughter  Catherine.  Lord 
Walpole  of  Wollerton  was  Mrs.  Suckling's 
maternal  uncle,  and  so  gave  the  living  of 
Burnham  Thorpe  to  the  husband  of  his  great- 
niece.  After  the  Nelsons*  removal  from 
Sporle  to  the  old  Rectory  of  Burnham 
Thorpe,  Mrs.  Suckling  took  up  her  residence 
in  a  house  belonging  to  her  uncle  in  that 
village,  and  there  died  on  7  January,  1768. 

It  is  possible  that  Y.  T.'s  informant  has 
confused  the  family  tradition  that  Horatio 
Nelson  was  born  in  his  grandmother's  house, 
there  having  been  a  slight  fire  at  the  Rectory 
of  Burnham  Thorpe  in  1758,  on  which 
occasion  Mrs.  Nelson  removed  to  her 
mother's  house  in  the  village,  where  her 
baby  was  born  on  the  29th  of  September. 
The  house,  now  used  by  Lord  Orford  as  a 
shooting  cottage,  is  always  believed  by  the 
Walpole  family  to  have  been  the  scene 
of  the  birth  of  the  hero  of  Trafalgar.  At 
all  events,  Nelson's  grandmother,  Mrs. 
Suckling,  dated  her  will  in  December,  1767, 
from  her  house  in  the  village  of  Burnham 
Thorpe,  having  long  before  severed  her 
connexion  with  Barsham.  Indeed,  its 
rectory  house  at  the  time  of  the  hero's 
birth  was  in  the  occupation  of  the  Rev. 
Edward  Holden  (1774-97),  while  Robert 
Suckling  of  Woodton  (1740-1802)  was  lord 
of  the  manor. 

I  think  this  is  conclusive  that  Admiral 
Lord  Nelson  was  not  born  at  Barsham. 
F.   H.    SUCKLING. 

Highwood,  Romsey. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [ii  s.  11.  JULY  so,  1910. 

BARABBAS  A  PUBLISHER  (11  S.  ii.  29). — 
False  traditions  die  bard,  but  I  supposed 
that  this  one  had  received  its  quietus  long 
ago,  as  it  has  been  refuted  some  scores  of 

There  is  no  reference  in  Byron's  poems  to 
Barabbas  and  a  publisher.  The  story  ran 
that  Byron  gave  my  grandfather  a  Bible, 
and  that  my  grandfather  was  much  touched 
by  this  evidence  of  the  poet's  religious 
fervour  until,  on  turning  over  the  leaves, 
he  found  in  the  40th  verse  of  St.  John's 
Gospel,  chap,  xviii.,  the  word  "  robber " 
changed  into  "  publisher.'1 

The  joke  was  perpetrated  by  Thomas 
Campbell  on  another  publisher :  neither 
Byron  nor  my  grandfather  had  any  part  in 
it.  I  have  in  my  library  Byron's  Bible,  and 
there  is  no  mark  or  notch  in  it  of  any  kind. 

Byron,  however,  did  drink  the  health  of 
Napoleon  because  he  shot  a  bookseller. 


50,  Albemarle  Street,  W. 

[MR.  W.  H.  PEET  thanked  for  reply  to  the  same 

i.  227). — In  The  Portfolio,  July,  1894,  p. 
6,  William  Sharp  is  named  as  author  of  the 
following  : — 

"  In  the  beginning,  said  a  Persian  poet» 
Allah  took  a  rose,  a  lily,  a  dove,  a  serpent,  a 
little  honey,  a  Dead  Sea  apple,  and  a  handful 
of  clay.  When  he  looked  at  the  amalgam — it 
was  woman." 

T.  F.  DWIGHT. 

La  Tour  de  Peilz,  Vaud,  Suisse. 

"MERLUCHE"  (11  S.  i.  329)  is  a  word 
of  uncertain  and  equivocal  use.  For  in- 
stance, I  take  Alfreid  Elwall's  Dictionary, 
which  I  used  in  my  schooldays,  and  in  the 
French -English  part  I  find  "  Merluche,  salt- 
cod,'1  but  in  the  English -French  part 
"  Hake,  merluche."  Turning  to  the  '  Dic- 
tionnaire -General  de  la  Langue  Frangaise, 
by  Hatzf eld,  A.  Darmesteter,  and  A.  Thomas, 
I  see  that  the  name  is  given  to  several  fishes 
of  the  species  Gadus  when  dried  in  the  sun, 
and  especially  to  dried  codfish. 

But  the  lexicological  problem  is  solved 
in  the  late  Eugene  Holland's  excellent 
'  Faune  Populaire,*  vol.  xi.  (April,  1910). 
This  volume  treats  of  the  reptiles  and  fishes. 
The  article  *  Merlu,'  p.  213,  tells  us  that  the 
merlu  or  merluche  is  the  Gadus  merlucius  of 
Linnaeus,  and  in  certain  countries  takes  the 
place  of  the  codfish  and  is  prepared  in  the 
same  way.  Our  morue  (ibid.,  p.  221)  is  the 
English  codfish,  and  Cuvier's  Morrhua 

Holland   adds   that   the   merluche  is   less 
steemed    than    the    codfish    when    salted ; 
but  evidently  both,  hake  and  codfish,  when 
dried  or  salted,  became  confused  in  common 
use.     Fishmongers,  grocers,    and   their   cus- 
tomers   are    neither    naturalists    nor    lexi- 
cographers. H.  GAIDOZ. 
22,  Rue  Servandoni,  Paris  (VIe). 

Cotgrave,  1650,  has  :  "  Merlus  ou  Merluz* 
A  Melwell  or  Kneeling  :  a  kind  of  small  Cod 
whereof  Stockfish  is  made." 

Miege,  1688,  has:  "Merlus.  Poisson  de 
haute  mer,  dont  on  fait  le  Stocfiche,  a  Mel- 
well,  or  Kneeling,  a  kind  of  small  Cod 
whereof  Stock-fish  is  made." 

Menage,  1694,  derives  the  word  from 
Maris  lucius,  and  states  that  Scaliger  calls 
it  merlucius,  and  that  Pont  us  de  Thyard, 
referring  to  the  fish  called  asellus  by  the 
Latins,  says  that  this  is  the  merluz.  Menage 
also  states  that  from  Maris  lucia  came 
molue,  to-day  called  morue  ;  that  in  Lan- 
guedoc  merluce  signifies  morue,  and  that 
merlus  is  the  equivalent  of  merlan. 

All  of  which  seems  to  show  that  merluche 
is  the  codfish  from  which  "  stockfish  "  was 
made.  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

Lemery  ('  Traite  Universelle  des  Drogues,2 
Paris,  1723),  under  morhua,  has  the  following : 
"  On  fait  secher  des  morues  apres  les  avoir 
salees,  &  c'est  ce  qu'on  appelle  merluche  ou 
mourue  [sic]  salee  "  ;  and  under  salpa  : 
' '  Salpa,  en  Fran$ois,  Vergadelle,  Stoch- 
fisch,  Merlu,  Merluche."  The  former  fish 
is,  of  course,  the  cod  ;  the  latter,  from  the 
description  he  gives,  I  should  suppose  to  be 
the  haddock,  but  in  CasseU's  'Eng.-Fr. 
Dictionary2  "Merlus,  m.,  and  merluche,  f.,n 
is  the  definition  given  of  the  hake.  Under 
merlucius  Lemery  has  "  sive  Callarias, 
Jonst.  en  Fran§ois,  Petite  Morue,**  which 
is  still  one  of  the  French  names  of  the 
haddock.  The  scientific  name  of  the  hake 
is,  however,  Merluccius  vulgaris.  Of  the 
name  merlucius  Lemery  says  :  '*  Merlucius 
d  mare  &  luce,  comme  qui  diroit,  lumiere 
de  la  mer,  a  cause  que  ce  poisson  a  de  grand 
yeux  "  (I  give  this  as  he  prints  it). 

The  conclusion  appears  to  be  that  merluche 
is  a  name  given  to  various  kinds  of  drie 
or  salt  fish.  C.  C.QB. 

Though  merluche  is  a  comprehensi1 
term  for  stockfish,  such  as  cod,  Kng,  hake, 
haddock,  and  torsk,  it  usually  implies 
haddock  on  menu  cards,  while  melus  on  the 
same  is  utilized  more  especially  for  hake. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Strictly,  I  suppose,  merluche  is  salted  cod 
—  "stockfish"  according  to  some  of  the 
dictionaries  ;  but  as  a  matter  of  practice 
and  habit  at  restaurants  throughout  Europe, 
if  you  order  merluche  you  will  get  haddock. 
I  have  no  idea  whether  this  is  a  correct  inter- 
pretation or  not,  but  I  do  know  that  in 
"kitchen-French,'*  which  is  a  mongrel 
tongue,  merluche  means  haddock,  whatever 
the  dictionaries  may  say. 


ST.  SWITHIN  seems  to  halt  in  the  definition 
of  merluche  as  a  word  used  indifferently  for 
hake,  cod,  or  other  stockfish.  Presuming 
as  I  do  that  it  signifies  in  French  any  kind 
of  dried  fish,  I  also  take  it  to  be  plainly 
borrowed  from  the  Italian  merluzzo,  which 
he  may  ask  for  at  any  restaurant,  and  be 
supplied  with  "  whiting  "  on  his  order. 


[Several  other  correspondents  thanked  for 

COL.  SKELTON  or  ST.  HELENA  (11  S.  ii. 
48).  —  The  references  to  this  officer  in  the 
standard  authorities  on  St.  Helena  are  of 
an  incidental  and  not  particularly  informa- 
tive character.  T.  H.  Brooke  ('  History  of 
St.  Helena,4  p.  377)  records  his  arrival, 
on  22  June,  1813,  to  take  up  the  office  of 
Lieutenant  -Governor.  He  appears  to  have 
been  the  last  holder  of  that  office,  which  was 
abolished  on  16  January,  1816.  His  resi- 
dence, Longwood,  was  assigned  to  Napoleon. 
The  illustrious  exile  proceeded  there  on  the 
morning  after  his  arrival,  and  breakfasted 
with  Col.  and  Mrs.  Skelton,  but  did  not 
enter  into  permanent  occupation  until  two 
months  later.  Beyond  this  brief  association 
with  the  exiled  Empejor  there  does  not  seem 
to  be  any  outstanding  episode  in  Skelton's 
career.  J.  F.  HOGAN. 

Royal  Colonial  Institute, 

Northumberland  Avenue. 

In  1889  1  happened  to  be  at  Potchefstroom 
in  the  Transvaal.  I  was  there  presented 
to  an  old  lady  of  ninety  years,  a  Mrs. 
Alexander,  widow  of  a  General  Alexander. 
She  was  born  (so  I  was  told)  at  St.  Helena, 
the  daughter  of  an  officer  named  Skelton 
[I  do  not  remember  his  rank).  She  told  me 
that  she  remembered  Napoleon,  and  that 
when  she  was  a  girl  he  had  often  talked  to 
her  in  a  mixture  of  French  and  English.  Mrs. 
Alexander  died  several  years  ago,  but  her 
grandchildren  are  still,  I  believe,  to  be  heard 
of  at  Langlaagte,  and  other  villages  outside 
Johannesburg.  FRANK  SCHLOESSER. 

Kew  Green. 

"  TILLEUL  32  (11  S.  ii.  47).— The  colour'of 
the  fleurs  de  tilleul  is  a  yellow-green — the 
combination  is  two  parts  yellow  and  one 
part  blue.  This  hue  is  not  uncommon, 
and  therefore  it  may  bear  a  particular  name 
at  any  season,  according  to  the  humour  of 
fashion.  The  tilleul  colour  probably  owes 
its  origin  to  some  Parisian  textile  merchant 
with  an  eye  for  novelty,  who  gave  to  this  hue 
the  name  of  the  tree.  But  such  colours 
get  out  of  date,  and  the  name  loses  its 
special  significance. 

With  regard  to  tilleul  tea,  the  feuilles  de 
tilleul  are  employed  in  medicine,  either 
dried  or  in  infusion,  as  an  anti -spasmodic. 
These  leaves  may  have  replaced  the  ordinary 
tea,  as  they  make  a  very  good  drink. 


"  QUILT"  (11  S.  i.  448),  meaning  to 
thrash,  is  well  known,  but  the  sense  of 
"  traversing  swiftly "  does  not  occur,  to 
my  knowledge,  in  any  dictionary.  Is 
DR.  SMYTHE  PALMER,  by  any  possibility, 
thinking  of  the  Scottish  verb  "  to  kilt 3? — a 
word  not  altogether  dissimilar  to  "  quilt  " 
in  sound  ?  At  all  events,  "  to  kilt,?1  in  the 
Scottish  vernacular,  signifies  "  to  lift  up  the 
dress  so  as  to  run  more  swiftly  over  the 
ground.'1  It  denotes,  however,  preparation 
for  running  rather  than  the  act  of  running 
itself.  W.  S.  S. 

SNUFF-BOX  INSCRIPTION  (11  S.  ii.  48). — 
Surely  the  mysterious  inscription  WITHE 
TEREP  is  of  the  "  Bill  Stumps  His  Mark  " 
order,  and  is  the  very  thinly  disguised 
name  of  a  former  owner,  Peter  White. 
Perhaps  MAJOR  WILLCOCK'S  maternal  grand- 
father bore  that  name,  or  was  a  friend  of 
Peter.  Perhaps  even  he  borrowed  the  box 
from  Peter,  and  forgot  to  return  it.  Who 
knows  ?  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

The  inscription  seems  clearly  to  be 
intended  for  "  Peter  Hewit.'*  W.  G.  B. 

[One  other  correspondent  suggests  Peter 
Hewit,  but  the  majority  favour  Peter  White.] 

SIR  W.  B.  RUSH  (11  S.  ii.  49).— Sir  Wm. 
Beaumaris  Rush  was  a  knight,  not  baronet. 
The  mistake  in  the  '  D.N.B.*  appears  also 
in  the  obituary  notice  of  Dr.  Clarke  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  1822,  pt.  i.  p.  274. 

The  Gentleman's  Magazine,  1806  (i.  281), 
states  that  Angelica  was  second  daughter 
of  Sir  Wm.  Rush,  not  fifth. 

It  may  interest  M.  A.  to  know  that  in  a 
diary  of  Capt.  Matthew  Holworthy  of 
Elsworth,  co.  Camb.,  there  are  several 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 

references  to  Dr.  Clarke  and  Sir  Wm. 
Bush,  with  both  of  whom  he  appears  to  have 
been  on  intimate  terms.  I  should  be  pleased 
to  send  M.  A.  the  references,  should  he  care 
to  have  them.  F.  M.  R.  HOLWOBTHY. 

Elsworth,  Tweedy  Road,  Bromley,  Kent. 

William  Beaumaris  Rush  was  not  a 
baronet  :  he  was  knighted  19  June,  1800, 
and  died  8  July,  1833,  aged  82. 



Probably  Sir  William  Beaumaris  Rush, 
of  Wimbledon,  Knight.  Another  daughter 
married  her  cousin  George  Rush,  High 
Sheriff  of  Northamptonshire  in  1813.  See 
Burke's  '  Landed  Gentry,'  4th  ed.,  *  Rush 
of  Farthinghoe  Lodge,  Northampton.' 


[G.  F.  B.  B.,  DIEGO,  and  A.  B.  E.  also  thanked 
for  replies.] 

AUCTION  (11  S.  i.  448,  477  ;  ii.  16).— Will  MB. 
W.  SCOTT  kindly  give  some  particulars  of 
the  list,  of  auction-sale  catalogues,  ranging 
from  1637  to  1841,  to  which  he  refers  ? 
Where  can  such  list  and  catalogues  be  seen  ? 
I  have  been  always  under  the  impression  that 
the  sale  of  Dr.  Seaman's  library  on  31 
October,  1676,  was  the  earliest  known 
auction  sale  of  books  in  this  country.  See 
10  S.  v.  43.  EDWABD  B.  HABBIS. 

5,  Sussex  Place,  Begent's  Park,  N.W. 

PABIS  FAMILY  (11  S.  i.  508  ;  ii.  53).— 
If  E.  H.  will  write  to  me,  I  will  put  him  into 
communication  with  members  of  the  family 
of  Mr.  Thomas  Clifton  Paris,  son  of  John 
Ayrton  Paris.  He  died  recently,  aged  95. 

J.  E.  FOSTEB. 

10,  Trinity  Street,  Cambridge. 

(11  S.  ii.  24,  73).— The  date  of  knighthood  of 
this  early  civic  worthy  has  been  long  a 
difficulty,  owing  to  the  seemingly  sub- 
stantial authority  for  both  the  K.B.  of  1465 
and  the  Knight  Bachelor  of  1471.  It  has 
been  suggested  that  Philip  was  twice  dubbed, 
but  I  know  of  no  case  in  which  the  same  man 
received  the  accolade  twice,  unless  possibly 
upon  the  promotion  of  a  Knight  Bachelor 
to  the  higher  dignity  of  a  Knight  Banneret, 
and  even  of  this  the  evidence  is  by  no  means 
clear.  Anyhow,  this  would  not  apply  to 
Philip.  Neither  would  the  fact  of  the 
alleged  earlier  knighthood  being  that  of  a 
K.B.  account  for  a  possible  second  dubbing. 
Whether  or  not  in  the  fifteenth  century 
Knighthood  of  the  Bath  was  of  a  distinct 

order  from  that  of  the  military  Knight  is, 
I  believe,  problematical,  but  it  certainly 
appears  to  have  been  looked  upon  as  of  a 
higher  status.  To  suppose,  therefore,  that  a 
man  made  a  K.B.  in  1465  should  six  years 
later  be  dubbed  again  to  a  simple  knight- 
hood would  be  unreasonable. 

Which  of  the  two  dates  is  the  correct  one 
is  a  matter  of  credence  and  evidence,  the 
balancing  of  one  authority  with  another. 
And  here  I  think  the  evidence  in  favour  of 
1471  is  conclusive.  To  the  proofs  quoted  in 
his  note  by  my  friend  MB.  BEAVEN  from 
Gregory's  '  Chronicle  *  and  the  London  City 
records  may  be  added  the  monumental 
inscription  to  Philip's  wife  in  Herne  Church, 
Kent,  given  by  Weever  ('Fun.  Mon:')  as 
follows  :  ' '  Hie  jacet  Christiane  dudum 
uxoris  Mathei  Philipi  Aurifabri  ac  Maioris 
Londinensis  que  obijt. . . .  1470  pro  cuius 
anime  salute  velitis  Deum  orare."  It  is 
clear,  therefore,  that  the  ex -Mayor  was  not  a 
Knight  when  his  wife  died  in  1470. 

My  impression  is  that  the  origin  of  the 
error  is  in  the  statement  of  Fabyan,  a  writer, 
as  said  by  the  late  John  Bruce,  who  is  "  a 
most  valuable  authority  upon  all  matters  con- 
nected with  transactions  that  took  place  with- 
in the  City  of  London  ;  but  often  inaccurate 
on  minor  points  respecting  events  which 
passed  elsewhere  "  ('  Restoration  of  Edward 
IV.,'  Camden  Soc.  vol.  ).  I  suggest  that  this 
is  one  of  Fabyan's  minor  inaccuracies  and 
the  source  of  the  whole  difficulty. 

W.  D.  PINK. 

Lowton,  Newton-le-Willows. 

(US.  ii.  48). — CANON  ELLACOMBE  has  not, 
I  think,  hit  off  quite  accurately  the  Coster 
song.  Unless  my  mejmory  is  at  fault,  it 
should  run : — 

If  I  had  a  donkey  wot  wouldn't  go, 
D'yer  think  I  'd  wallop  him  ?     Blow  me,  no  1 
I  'd  give  him  some  grass,  and  cry  "  Gee-wo, 
Gee  up,  Neddy." 


Junior  Athenseum  Club. 

CANON    ELLACOMBE    will    find    what    he 
requires  on  p.  85  of  Punch  for  17  February, 
1844,  under  title  of  '  A  Polished  Poem  '  : — 
Had  I  an  ass  averse  to  speed, 
Deem'st  thou  I  'd  strike  him  ?     No,  indeed! 


TENNYSON'S  '  MABGABET  s  (11  S.  i.  507).— 
To  a  mind  delighting  in  literal  accuracy  the 
idea  embodied  in  Tennyson's  two  lines  will 
no  doubt  sound  like  nonsense.  A  poet, 
however,  or  a  person  endowed  with  imagina- 


ii  s.  ii.  JULY  30, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


tion,  will  see  in  the  lines  little  more  than  a 
variation  of  the  common  saying  "  After  a 
storm  comes  a  calm.'5  By  the  poet's  vision, 
the  elemental  forces  of  nature  are  beheld 
engaged  in  Titanic  conflict,  which  continues 
until  through  sheer  weariness  the  waves 
sink  into  the  calm  of  exhaustion.  Tenny- 
son's imagery  is  perhaps  slightly  different. 
It  represents  nature  as  assailed  by  malig- 
nant human  agencies,  until  in  the  end  it 
lapses  into  a  condition  of  insensibility. 


In  Capt.  Marryat's  '  Newton  Foster  ?  an 
action  is  described  as  taking  place  between 
an  Indiaman  and  a  French  privateer  com- 
manded by  Surcouf.  The  cannonade  makes 
the  wind  lull  so  that  the  ships  have  to  cease 
firing  till  the  smoke  clears  away  of  itself. 
Marryat  has  seen  a  great  dealpf  hard  service 
under  Lord  Cochrane,  and  his  descriptions 
of  sea-fights  and  shipwrecks  are  clear  and 
accurate.  Perhaps  a  cannonade  would  have 
little  effect  on  a  strong  breeze,  and  the  lull 
•caused  by  it  not  be  long.  M.  N.  G. 

(11  S.i.389  ;  ii.  35). — I  have  in  my  possession 
a  pencil  sketch  of  a  lady's  head  in  profile  by 
Jonathan  Richardson — whether  the  elder 
or  the  younger  I  am  unable  to  say.  The 
following  inscription  is  written  in  the  margin  : 
;'Mrs.  Cath  :  Knapp,  August  25,  1731."  I 
have  hitherto  been  unable  to  identify  the 
•original  of  the  portrait.  Perhaps  MB.  O.  G. 
KNAPP  of  Maidenhead,  who  has  informed 
•€OL.  FYNMORE  that  he  is  engaged  on  a  Knapp 
family  history,  may  be  able  to  help  me. 


JULIET  '  (11  S.  ii.  47). — I  have  a  copy  of  the 
above  work  in  an  odd  volume  of  old  plays, 
the  others  being  'The  Perjur'd  Husband,'  by 
Mrs.  Centlivre,  and  *  Constantine  the  Great ' 
and  '  Theodosius,'  by  Nat.  Lee.  The  title- 
page  to  Garrick's  play  reads  : — 

"  Borneo  and  Juliet  by  Shakespear,  with 
Alterations  and  an  additional  Scene :  by  D. 
•Garrick.  As  it  is  Performed  at  the  Theatre- 
Royal  in  Drury  Lane.  London  :  Printed  for  J.  & 
B.  Jonson  and  S.  Draper  MDCCLVI." 

There  is  an  interesting,  if  acid,  personal 
paragraph  concluding  the  '  Advertisement  ' 
on  the  next  page  : — 

"  The  persons  who  from  their  great  Good- 
nature and  Love  of  Justice  have  endeavour'd 
to  take  away  from  the  present  Editor  the  little 
Merit  of  this  Scene  by  ascribing  it  to  Otway,  have 
unwittingly,  from  the  Nature  of  the  Accusation 
paid  mm  a  Compliment  which  he  believes  thev 
never  intended  him."  * 

James  Erskine  Baker,  writing  about  1760 
in  the  'Companion  to  the  Play  House,' 
speaks  very  highly  of  this,  the  third  alteration 
of  Shakespere's  play.  He  says  :  "He 
has  rendered  the  whole  more  uniform,  and 
worked  up  the  catastrophe  to  a  greater 
degree  of  distress  than  it  held  in  the  original." 

My  little  volume  is  quite  at  the  service  of 
MR.  CUTTER  if  he  would  care  to  borrow  it. 


6,  St.  James'  Place,  Plumstead. 

i.  469). — The  finding  of  Moses  by  Pharaoh's 
daughter  has  been  a  favourite  subject  with 
artists  both  in  ancient  and  modern  times. 
Mrs.  Jameson  in  her  *  History  of  our  Lord,' 
vol.  i.  pp.  172-3,  mentions  Perugino, 
Raphael,  Poussin,  and  Bonifazio  as  having 
been,  among  others,  attracted  by  the  theme. 
In  public  and  private  galleries  in  this  country 
there  are  at  least  half-a-dozen  paintings 
by  different  masters  bearing  the  same  title. 
Among  them  a  '  Finding  of  Moses z  by 
Titian  was  formerly  in  the  collection  at 
Burleigh  House,  the  seat  of  the  Marquis 
of  Exeter.  See  Hazlitt's  '  Picture  Galleries 
of  England.'-  W.  S.  S. 

(11  S.  ii.  49). — As  bearing  on  the  custom 
of  pigeon-houses,  there  is  in  the  archives  of 
the  Dover  Corporation  a  charter,  dated 
7  March,  1467,  by  which  "  a  berne,  a  gardein 
with  a  douffhous ....  within  the  liberty  of  the 
Town  and  Port  of  Dover,"  was  let  for  80 
years.  Twice  in  the  charter  the  structure 
is  called  "  a  douffhous,"  and  three  times  it  is 
referred  to  as  a  culverhouse.  That  the  struc- 
ture was  a  permanent  one  of  some  importance 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  special  provisions 
are  made  for  its  being  kept  in  repair  during 
the  80  years'  lease.  As  to  the  connexion 
of  pigeon-houses  with  rectories,  it  may  be 
mentioned  that  this  "berne  gardein  with 
douffhous "  was  near  to  St.  James's 
Rectory,  Dover,  and  there  was  an  ancient 
barn  standing  there  about  a  century  ago. 

As  to  the  right  to  erect  pigeon-houses, 
a  lord  of  the  manor,  according  to  cases  cited 
by  Burn,  may  build  a  dovecot  on  his 
own  manor,  but  a  tenant  of  a  manor  cannot 
without  his  lord's  licence  ;  but  any  free- 
holder may  build  a  dovecot  on  his  own  land. 
Pigeons  kept  in  such  dovecots  were,  at  a  very 
early  period,  protected  by  the  game  laws. 
It  would  seem  that  the  right  to  have  a 
pigeon-house  at  a  rectory  would  arise  from 
the  tenure  being  in  the  nature  of  a  freehold  ; 
and  by  a  similar  rule  the  Dover  Corporation 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 

had  their  right  to  grant  a  charter  including 
the  privilege  of  keeping  a  culverhouse 
because  they  were  lords  of  the  fee,  holding 
all  lands  in  their  liberty  for  services  rendered 
to  the  Crown  in  connexion  with  the  Cinque 
Ports  navy.  JOHN  BAVINGTON  JONES. 


The  following  from  Giles  Jacob's  '  Law 
Dictionary,'  1756,  may  help  to  put  F.  H.  S. 
on  the  right  track  : — 

"  Pigeon-house,  Is  a  Place  for  the  safe  Keeping 
of  Pigeons.  A  Lord  of  a  Manor  may  build  a 
Pigeon-house  or  Dovecote  upon  his  Land,  Parcel 
of  the  Manor  ;  but  a  Tenant  of  a  Manor  cannot 
do  it,  without  the  Lord's  Licence.  3  Salk.  248. 
Formerly  none  but  the  Lord  of  the  Manor, 
or  the  Parson,  might  erect  a  Pigeon-house  ;  though 
it  has  been  since  held,  that  any  Freeholder  may 
build  a  Pigeon-house  on  his  own  Ground,  5  Rep.  104. 
Cro.  Eliz.  548.  Cro.  Jac.  440,  382.  A  Person 
may  have  a  Pigeon-house,  or  Dove-cote,  by  Pre- 
scription. Game  Law,  2  Pa.  133." 

See  also  '  Jus  Feudale  Thomse  Cragii  de 
Riccartoun,'  Lipsise,  1716,  pp.  348-9,  Feu- 
dorum  Lib.  II.  Tit.  VIII.  §  XL,  where  some 
interesting  facts  are  given,  "  apud  nos  eis 
tantum  permittuntur  [i.e.  columbaria],  qui 
sex  acras  terrse  habent."  Cragie  also  says 
that  the  "  columbariorum  jus  "  came  from 
the  Normans  to  England,  and  thence  to 

J.  A.  S.  Collin  de  Plancy  in  his  c  Diction- 
naire  Feodal,'  Paris,  1820,  2nd  Ed.,  says, 
vol.  i.  p.  164  :— 

"  Les  seigneurs  hauts-justiciers  et  f^odaux 
avaient  seuls  le  droit  d'avoir  un  colombier.  Les 
serfs  ne  pouvaient  elever  des  pigeons." 


As  a  general  rule,  the  privilege  of  setting 
up  columbaria  in  mediaeval  times  was  con- 
fined to  lords  of  manors,  monasteries,  anc 
parish  priests.  The  parson  in  some  places 
had  his  cote  in  a  stage  of  the  church  tower 
Thousands  of  hungry  birds  flew  hither  anc 
thither  to  nourish  themselves  on  other  grain 
than  that  provided  by  their  owners,  anc 
thus  imposed  a  heavy  tax  on  farmers ;  this 
was  one  of  the  grievances  which  led  to  the 
great  French  Revolution.  F.  H.  S.  woulc 
read  with  interest  a  useful  paper  by  Mrs 
Berkeley  on  *  The  Dovecotes  of  Worcester 
shire, l  which  was  published  in  the  Transac 
tions  of  the  Worcester  Diocesan  Architectura 
and  Archaeological  Society  in  1905.  It  i 
admirably  illustrated.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

'  TESS  OF  THE  D'URBERVILLES  '  (11  S.  i 
328). — The  legend  referred  to  in  Thoma 
Hardy's  novel  is  the  well-known  one  o 
Pygmalion,  King  of  Cyprus,  who  fell  in  lov 

vith  the  ivory  image  of  a  maiden  which  he 
limself  had  made  (Ov.,  '  Met.,'  x.  243).  See 
iir  William  Smith's  '  Classical  Dictionary,* 
ub  Pygmalion. 

In  Book  I.  chap.  iv.  of  '  The  Last  Days  of 
'ompeii  '  Lord  Lytton  also  refers  to  this 
tory  in  the  following  passage  :  "I  have 
Liscovered  the  long-sought  idol  of  my 
[reams  ;  and  like  the  Cyprian  sculptor, 
have  breathed  life  into  my  own  imaginings.'* 

J.  F.  BENSE. 

Arnhem,  the  Netherlands. 

EDW.  HATTON  (US.  ii.  9,  54). — Edward 
Hatton,  born  in  1664,  would  appear  to  have 
Deen  a  teacher.  Three  engraved  portraits 
f  him  are  known  to  be  in  existence  :  one 
y  Vertue  after  a  painting  by  Phipps  ; 
another  by  Whyte  in  1696,  when  Hatton 
was  32  years  of  age  ;  and  the  third  by  Sher- 
win,  as  mentioned  in  the  query.  Of  these 
Sherwin's  engraving  is  said  to  be  by  far  the 
Dest.  Hatton  wrote  a  number  of  books, 
such  as  '  The  Merchant's  Magazine,'  '  Comes 
ommercii  ;  or,  The  Trader's  Companion,' 
'  Arithmetick  Theoretical  and  Practical,'  and 
several  others,  between  1699  and  1728,  the 
titles  of  which  are  given  in  Watt's  '  Biblio- 
theca  Britannica.*  W.  S.  S.  ' 

9). — Is  it  not  fairly  well  established  that  folk 
meetings — Shire  Motes,  Hundred  Motesr 
Tithing  Motes — were  often  held  around 
great  stones  ?  See  c  Primitive  Folk -Moots,* 
by  G.  L.  Gomme,  1880,  where  is  collected  a 
mass  of  evidence  on  this  subject — title 
'  stone  '  in  index. 

As  to  Standon,  Walton-at-Stone,  Stone- 
bury,  Stanstead,  and  Stanborough,  do  they 
not  all  suggest  Teutonic  settlements  (-tons, 
-burys,  -steads,  -boroughs)  hard  by  ruins  of 
Roman  buildings,  stations,  or  villas  ? 


May  croft,  Fy  field  Road,  Walthamstow. 

(11  S.  ii.  8). — This  fictitious  work  was 
written  by  Miss  Jane  Porter,  the  daughter 
of  an  Irish  officer,  and  sister  of  Sir  Robert 
Ker  Porter  and  of  Miss  Anna  Maria  Porter 
the  novelist.  It  was  first  published  in  1831, 
Miss  Jane  Porter's  name  being  given  merely 
as  the  editress.  When  pressed  to  disclose 
the  author,  Miss  Porter  used  to  say  :  "Sir 
Walter  Scott  [who,  by  the  way,  was  a  great 
friend  of  her  family]  had  his  great  secret  ; 
may  be  allowed  to  keep  my  little  one." 

'  Sir  Edward  Seaward's  Narrative  -  has 
remarkable  truthfulness   of   style  and  inc 

n  s.  ii.  JULY  30,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


dent,    and   has   been   compared   to   Defoe's 
writing.     A  leading  review  wrote  an  article  j 
on  it,   treating  it  as  a  narrative   of  facts. 
Miss  Porter  died  at  Bristol  in  1850,  aged  74. 

Swallowfield  Park,  Reading. 

This  '  Narrative ?  is  discussed  by  Mr. 
William  Bates  in  '  The  Maclise  Portrait 
Gallery,'  pp.  310-11.  He  is  of  opinion  that 
the  author  was  Dr.  W.  Ogilvie  Porter,  the 
elder  brother  of  Miss  Jane  Porter.  In  the 
course  of  the  discussion,  Mr.  Bates  calls 
attention  to  references  in  *  N.  &  Q.'  (1  S.  v. 
10,  185,  352),  and  also  to  The  Quarterly 
Review,  vol.  xlviii.  p.  480.  W.  S.  S. 

GABIBALDI  AND  HIS  FLAG  (US.  ii.  7). — 
The  flag  mentioned  by  Hamerton  can 
hardly  be  called  Garibaldi's  "  personal " 
flag.  Garibaldi  and  HolyoaRe  were  great 
friends,  and  to  show  his  friendship  Gari- 
baldi, at  the  close  of  the  war  for  the  freedom 
of  Italy,  gave  Holyoake  his  portrait,  with  a 
letter  thanking  him  for  all  he  had  "  gener- 
ously done  for  the  Italian  cause,"  and  at  the 
same  time  presented  him  with  the  flag 
carried  throughout  the  campaign  by  the 
triumphant  Garibaldians.  This  Holyoake 
hung  up  in  his  library,  and  at  his  funeral  it 
was  placed  on  his  coffin. 

Holyoake' s  youngest  daughter,  Mrs.  Holy- 
oake Marsh,  informs  me  that  it  is  composed 
of  three  stripes  about  12  inches  wide,  of 
red,  white,  and  green,  and,  to  quote  her 
father's  words,  "  was  merely  a  tricolour  of 
three  pieces  of  cotton  nailed  to  a  stafiV* 
Mrs.  Marsh  adds :  "  It  was  not  cotton, 
however,  but  a  woollen  material."  She  has 
generously  presented  this  interesting  memo- 
rial to  Italy,  and  it  now  hangs  in  the  Museum 

COWES  FAMILY  (11  S.  i.  508;  ii.  58).— 
May  I  express  my  gratitude  to  B.U.  L.  L.  and 
W.  S.  S.  for  their  valuable  information, 
and  my  regret  that  such  comprehensive 
notes  give  no  confirmation  of  the  theory  that 
a  family  gave  its  name  to  Cowes  ? 

A  search  amongst  naval  papers  that  refer 
to  the  place  has  also  been  fruitless  of  results, 
save  that  it  shows  that  West  Cowe  was  an 
«3arly  way  of  writing  of  the  Castle. 

A  fresh  question  arises  from  the  efforts  to 
trace  the  name,  and  I  should  gratefully  wel- 
come information  upon  it.  There  seems 
ground  for  doubting  the  received  belief  that 
King  Henry  VIII.  built  a  second  castle, 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Medina.  In  the 
•days  of  his  daughter  Elizabeth,  when  very 

thorough  repairs  to  all  the  Island  forts  are 
fully  recorded,  there  is  no  mention  of  East 
Cowes  Castle.  It  is  not  named  on  Speed's 
map,  and  though  Old  Castle  Point  exists, 
there  is  absolutely  no  record  of  any  building 
there.  Can  any  of  your  readers  help  to 
settle  this  point  ?  Y.  T. 

Perhaps  the  following  notes  may  be 
interesting  on  account  of  their  connexion 
with  Hampshire. 

Thomas  Cowse,  among  others,  bond  to  the 
king  for  5001.  8  Sept.,  2  Hen.  VII.  Ten 
seals  to  this  document. 

Grant  to  John  la  Caus,  lands  in  manor  of 
Hordhulle.  No  date.  Cat.  Anc.  Deeds  at 

Anthony  Cowce-  and  Agnes  his  wife, 
defendants  in  a  suit  respecting  Charletts 
at  Elstone  in  parish  of  Alverstoke,  co. 
Southampton.  Chancery  Suits  temp.  Eliz. 

I  once  knew  an  Isle  of  Wight  family 
named  Caws. 

There  was  a  Jacob  Cowes^  described  as  a 
Dutchman,  an  alien  in  London  in  1567. 

LEO  C. 

THE  CIRCLE  OF  LODA  (11  S.  ii.  8). — Perhaps 
DR.  YOUNG  may  find  the  information  he 
desires  by  consulting  the  poems  of  Ossian, 
especially  those  entitled  '  Carric-Thura,' 
'  Cath-Loda,'  and  '  Eina-Morul.'  Loda  is 
believed  to  have  been  synonymous  with 
Odin,  the  Scandinavian  deity.  The  circle  of 
Loda,  mentioned  in  '  Carric-Thura, l  is 
supposed  to  be  a  place  of  worship  among  the 
Norsemen.  Apparently  it  was  situated  on 
one  of  the  islands  of  the  Orcadian  group,  but 
it  may  be  understood  as  applicable  to  any 
locality  where  the  worshippers  of  Odin 
assembled.  The  hall  of  Loda  perhaps  stands 
for  the  Norse  Valhalla,  but  is  evidently 
located  on  some  island  off  the  Scandinavian 
or  Norwegian  coast.  Brewer's  '  Reader's 
Handbook '  draws  an  interesting  parallel 
between  the  encounter  of  Fingal  and  Loda 
as  related  by  Ossian,  and  the  wounding  of  the 
war -god  Mars  by  Diomed  in  the  '  Iliad.' 


MARKET  DAY  (11  S.  ii.  48).— Was  not  the 
main  consideration  in  fixing  a  day  for  a 
market  the  desire  to  avoid  conflicting  with  a 
more  important  market  in  the  neighbour- 
hood ?  Markets  were  not  principally  (in 
their  origin)  intended  for  farmers  who 
wished  to  sell  the  week's  store  of  provisions 
(manna)  to  townsfolk,  but,  like  the  fairs, 
were  for  farmers  to  buy  and  to  sell — or  to 
exchange — their  stock  and  their  provender 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  mo. 

The  most  important  markets,  therefore, 
were  not  those  in  big  towns,  but  those  in 
convenient  positions  to  serve  a  big  district, 
and  especially  a  district  with  very  varied 
soils  and  culture-possibilities.  In  many 
cases — probably  most — the  fairs  preceded  the 
markets.  Fairs  were  regulated  by  season 
and  by  saints'  days.  Thus,  on  a  border 
between  high  land  that  affords  ample  sheep  - 
pasture  through  the  summer,  and  lower  land 
where  sheep  may  be  root -fed  and  folded 
through  the  winter,  there  would  be  fairs  at 
the  most  convenient  time  for  changing  the 
sheep.  When  a  market  was  demanded  by 
changed  conditions,  it  would  probably 
be  on  the  same  day  of  the  week  as  the 
principal  fair -day,  unless  that  day  was 
already  in  use  for  some  neighbouring  market. 
Many  farmers  attend  two  or  more  markets, 
in  different  places,  regularly. 


In  a  given  district  it  is  plainly  to  the 
advantage  of  farmers  and  their  customers  to 
meet  more  frequently  than  once  a  week,  and 
country  carriers  will  be  found  going  to  two 
or  three  markets  a  week  within  their  radius. 
The  later-established  markets  would  choose 
a  different  day  from  that  fixed  by  their  senior 
neighbour.  H.  P.  L. 

[MR.  TOM  JONES  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

GOLDSMITH  AND  HACKNEY  (11  S.  ii.  10). — 
Goldsmith  lodged  in  Canonbury  in  1767 
as  well  as  in  1762.  The  events  attending  his 
residence  there  have  been  carefully  examined 
by  Forster  in  his  '  Life  of  Goldsmith,'  and  by 
Mr.  Austin  Dobson  in  '  Oliver  Goldsmith  ' 
in  the  "  Great  Writers M  series.  It  is 
extremely  probable  that  he  visited  Hack- 
ney while  residing  at  Canonbury,  but  no 
evidence  has  yet  been  forthcoming  to  show 
that  he  did.  When  two  such  accomplished 
gleaners  have  thoroughly  explored  the  field 
of  inquiry,  it  is  scarcely  likely  that  many 
grains  have  been  left  ungathered  to  reward 
the  efforts  of  future  investigators. 

w.  s.  s. 

GEORGE  I.  STATUES  (US.  ii.  7,  50).— There 
is  another  version  of  the  first  epigram 
quoted  by  MR.  MAYCOCK  (ante,  p.  51),  viz.  :— 
When  Harry  the  Eighth  left  the  Pope  in  the  lurch, 
The  people  of  England  made  him  head  of  the 

church  ; 

But  much  wiser  still,  the  good- Bloomsbury  people, 
'Stead  of  head  of  the  church,  made  him  head  of 
the  steeple. 

See  *  A  Topographical  Dictionary  of  London 
and  its  Environs,'  by  James  Elmes,  1831, 
p.  204,  s.v.  '  St.  George,  Bloomsbury.' 

The  following  is  from  a  manuscript  com- 
monplace book  dated  on  the  back  1832  : — 
On  the  late  king's  statue  on  the  top  of  Blooms- 
bury  spire. 

The  King  of  Great  Britain  was  reckon' d  before 
The  Head  of  the  Church  by  all  Christian  People 
His  Subjects  of  Bloomsbury  have  added  one  more 
To  his  Titles  and  made  him  the  Head  of  the 


The  words  "  late  king  "  would  presumably 
place  the  date  of  this  epigram  in  the  time 
of  George  II.  This  commonplace  book 
(which  I  bought  some  years  ago)  appears  to 
have  been  compiled  by  one  E.  W.  Gwatkin. 

As  to  the  statue,  &c.,  Charles  Knight's 
'  London, l  vol.  v.  (1843),  p.  198,  has  the 
following  : — 

"  Above  this  stage  commences  a  series  of  steps* 
gradually  narrowing,  so  as  to  assume  a  pyramidal 
appearance,  the  lowest  of  which  are  ornamented 
at  the  corners  by  lions  and  unicorns  guarding  the 
royal  arms  (the  former  with  his  tail  and  heels 
frisking  in  the  air),  and  which  support  at  the  apex,, 
on  a  short  column,  a  statue,  in  Roman  costume, 
of  George  I." 

A  picture  of  the  church,  including  the 
statue  and  one  of  the  (presumably)  two  pairs 
of  supporters,  is  in  William  Maitland's  '  His- 
tory and  Survey  of  London,'-  1756,  vol.  ii., 
facing  p.  1360.  The  supporters  appear  to 
be  guarding  a  crown,  not  the  royal  arms. 
The  crown  exists  now,  but  the  supporters  ai 
gone.  It  is  possible  that  the  royal  arms 
were  on  the  opposite  side. 

According  to  the  '  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography,'  s.v.  Nicholas  Hawksmoor,  the 
"lion  and  unicorn"  (in  the  singular)  were 
removed  in  1871  by  G.  E.  Street,  R.A.  If 
everything  of  grotesque  appearance  in 
London  were  removed,  London  w'ould  be 
much  less  interesting  than  it  is. 

For  prints  besides  that  in  Maitland  the 
'  Dictionary '  refers  to  Clarke,  '  Archit. 
Eccles.,'  plate  xlv.,  and  Malton,  '  London  and 
Westminster,'  pi.  Ixxvi. 


Nicholas  Hawksmoor  was  not  a  sculptor. 
He  was  an  architect,  a  pupil  of  Sir  Chris- 
topher  Wren's.  Amongst  other  churches, 
he  designed  St.  George's,  Bloomsbury,  built 
at  a  cost  of  9,793/.,  and  consecrated  in  1731. 
But  what  authority  has  W.  A.  H.  for  assert- 
ing that  he  was  the  actual  carver  of  the 
statue  of  King  George  I.  crowning  the  spire 
of  that  edifice  ?  Birch  in  his  '  London 
Churches'  (1896)  describes  the  monarch  as 
standing  there  "in  solitary  state,  a  lightning 
conductor  decorating  the  top  of  his  head."' 


Fair  Park,  Exeter. 

ii  s.  ii.  JULY  so,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


MB.  PIERPOINT  (ante,  p.  50),  referring  to 
statues  in  the  Royal  Exchange  destroyed  by 
the  fire  in  1838,  says  :  "  Apparently  the  only 
statue  which  escaped  was  that  of  Sir  Thomas 
Gresham.  It  had  also  escaped  in  the  Great 

The  statue  of  Charles  II.  that  stood  in  the 
centre  of  the  open  area  of  the  old  Exchange 
was  saved,  and  stands  in  the  south-east 
angle  of  the  ambulatory  of  the  present  build- 
ing. It  is  said  to  be  the  only  stone  portrait 
figure  carving  of  Grinling  Gibbons.  It 
represents  the  merry  monarch  in  Roman 
costume.  It  has  recently  been  cleansed  by 
the  Gresham  committee. 


Circa  1870,  a  relative  of  mine  who  was 
shown  the  statue  at  Hackwood  was  asked 
to  point  out  any  defect  or  imperfection  in  it. 
One  of  the  stirrups  was  then  seen  to  be 
missing,  and  it  was  stated  that  when  the 
artist  discovered  this  (his)  omission,  he  com- 
mitted suicide.  But  the  fact  that  the  statue 
is  of  lead  seems  to  make  this  a  most  im- 
probable "  yarn."  V.  D.  P. 

QUEEN  KATHEBINE  PABB  (11  S.  i.  508). — 
The  following  inscription  and  a  print  are 
found  in  vol.  ix.  p.  1  of  the  Archceologia  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  illustrate 
Dr.  Tread  way  Nash's  '  Observations  on  the 
Time  of  the  Death  and  Place  of  Burial  of 
Queen  Katherine  Parr  l  : — 

He.e   Lyethe   quene 

Katheryne  Wife  to  Kyng 
Henvy  the  VIII  and 
the  wife  of  Thomas 
Lord  of  Sudely  high 
Admy ....  of  Englond 
And  ynkle  to  kyng 

Edward  the  VI 
..I...y..M     CCCCC 
XL     VIII 

Dr.  Nash  remarks  : — 

"  A  MS.  in  the  Heralds'  College,  intitled  '  A 
Book  of  Buryalls  of  trewe  noble  Persons,'  N.  15, 
pp.  98,  99,  contains  a  Breviate  of  the  Interment 
of  the  Lady  Katheryn  Parr,  Quene  Dowager,  &c., 
and  goes  on  :  '  Item  on  Wedysdaye  the  5  Sep- 
tembre,  between  2  and  3  of  the  clocke  in  the 
morning,  died  the  aforesaid  Ladye,  late  Queene 
Dowager,  at  the  Castle  of  Sudley  in  Gloucester- 
shire, 1548,  and  lyeth  buried  in  the  chappell  of  the 
said  Castle.  Item  she  was  ceared  and  chested 
in  lead  accordingly,  and  so  remained,'  &c. 

"  This  account,  being  published  in  Rudder's 
New  History  of  Gloucestershire,'  raised  the 
curiosity  of  some  ladies,  who  happened  to 
be  at  the  Castle  in  May,  1782,  to  examine  the 
ruined  chapel,  and  observing  a  large  block  of 
alabaster  fixed  in  the  north  wall  of  the  chapel, 
they  imagined  it  might  be  the  back  of  a  monu- 

ment formerly  placed  there.  Led  by  this  hint 
they  opened  the  ground  not  far  from  the  wall, 
and  not  much  more  than  a  foot  from  the  surface 
they  found  a  leaden  envelope,  which  they  opened 
in  two  places,  on  the  face  and  breast,  and  found  it 
to  contain  a  human  body  wrapped  in  cerecloth. 
Upon  removing  what  covered  the  face,  they 
discovered  the  features,  and  particularly  the  eyes, 
in  perfect  preservation.  Alarmed  at  this  sight 
and  with  the  smell,  which  came  principally  from 
the  cerecloth,  they  ordered  the  ground  to  be 
thrown  in  immediately,  without  judiciously 
closing  up  the  cerecloth  and  lead  which  covered 
the  face  :  only  observing  enough  of  the  inscription 
to  convince  them  that  it  was  the  body  of  Queen 

"  In  May,  1784,  some  persons,  having  curiosity 
again  to  open  the  grave,  found  that  the  air,  rain, 
and  dirt  having  come  to  the  face,  it  was  entirely 
destroyed,  and  nothing  left  but  the  bones.  It 
was  then  immediately  covered  up,  and  no 
further  search  made. 

"  Oct.  14,  1786,  I  went  to  Sudeley  in  company 
with  the  Hon.  John  Summers  Cocks,  and  Mr. 
John  Stripp  of  Ledbury,  having  previously 
obtained  leave  of  Lord  Rivers,  the  owner  of  the 
Castle,  to  examine  the  chapel.  Upon  opening 
the  ground  and  heaving  up  the  lead,  we  found 
the  face  totally  decayed,  the  bones  only  remain- 
ing ;  the  teeth,  which  were  sound,  had  fallen 
out  of  their  sockets.  The  body,  I  believe,  is 
perfect,  as  it  has  never  been  opened  ;  we  thought 
it  indecent  to  uncover  it ;  but  observing  the 
left  hand  to  lie  at  a  small  distance  from  the  body, 
we  took  off  the  cerecloth,  and  found  the  hand 
and  nails  perfect,  but  of  a  brownish  colour  :  the 
cerecloth  consisted  of  many  folds  of  coarse  linen, 
dipped  in  wax,  tar,  and  perhaps  some  gum,  &c.  : 
over  this  was  wrapt  a  sheet  of  lead,  fitted  exactly 
close  to  the  body." 

On  the  part  of  the  lead  that  covered  the 
breast  was  the  inscription.  W.  C. 

Perhaps  the  most  detailed  account  of 
the  close  of  Queen  Katherine  Parr's  life  will 
be  found  in  the  Rev.  James  Anderson's 
'  Ladies  of  the  Reformation,'  vol.  i.  The 
book  was  published  about  fifty-five  years  ago, 
and  enjoyed  for  a  time  considerable  popu- 
larity. As  an  author  Queen  Katherine 
Parr  acquired  no  small  reputation  in  her 
day  ;  a  full  list  of  her  writings  is  given  in 
Walpole's  '  Royal  and  Noble  Authors,'  vol.  i. 

The  fate  of  her  daughter  by  Lord  Seymour 
of  Sudeley  is  involved  in  some  obscurity. 
Trustworthy  historians  agree  in  representing 
her  as  dying  in  infancy,  or,  at  least,  while 
still  of  tender  years,  thus  following  the 
authority  of  Strype  rather  than  that  of  Miss 
Strickland.  W.  SCOTT. 

DUCHESS  OF  PALATA  (US.  ii.  29).— The 
title  Duke  of  Palata  was  conferred  in  1793 
on  the  noble  Spanish  family  bearing  the  name 
Azlor,  together  with  the  signories  of  Tavenna 
and  Santa  Giusta.  LEO  C. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  JULY  so,  1910. 


Shakespeare's  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  1602. 
Edited  by  W.  W.  Greg,  Litt.D.  (Oxford, 
Clarendon  Press.) 

THIS  is  a  recent  edition  to  that  "  Tudor  and 
Stuart  Library  "  which  is  one  of  the  most  attract- 
ive, both  in  contents  and  appearance,  of  the  many 
series  with  which  the  Oxford  Press  tempts  the 

Dr.  Greg  is  responsible  for  a  Bibliographical 
and  Critical  Introduction,  Appendixes,  and 
notes.  These  are  concerned,  not  with  aesthetic 
considerations  (such  as  the  comparison  of  Falstaff's 
character  here  and  elsewhere),  but  with  the  per- 
plexing texts  of  the  play.  We  have  two  main 
authorities  —  the  Quarto  of  1602,  and  the  Folio 
of  1623.  Here  Dr.  Greg  reprints  the  Quarto,  and 
compares  both  generally  and  in  detail  the  readings 
given  by  each.  He  discusses  the  views  of  the 
late  H.  C.  Hart  and  Mr.  P.  A.  Daniel,  and  puts 
forward  his  own  with  great  ability.  He  considers 
that  we  have  to  bear  in  mind  (1)  garbling  by  a 
reporter  of  the  play  as  performed  on  the  stage  ; 
(2)  cutting,  and  possibly  rewriting,  for  acting 
purposes,  by  a  stage  adapter  ;  (3)  working  over 
by  an  authorized  reviser  of  the  original  text 
'(underlying  the  Quarto),  and  the  production  of  a 
new  version  (substantially  that  of  the  Folio  text). 

As  for  the  reporter,  Dr.  Greg  shows  that  his 
task  was  not  so  difficult  as  might  be  imagined 
by  his  own  experience  of  reporting  and  writing  a 
tolerable  text  of  a  play  of  Mr.  Shaw's.  This 
reporter  who  was  responsible  for  the  Quarto 
text  was,  Dr.  Greg  suggests,  the  actor  who  played 
the  part  of  Mine  Host,  for  the  speeches  of  that 
part  are  reported  with  very  unusual  accuracy. 
The  notes  after  the  text  show  a  laudable  reluc- 
tance to  consent  to  conjectures,  however  specious, 
where  the  Quarto  and  Folio  readings  agree. 

When  Slender  says  (1.  110  of  the  Quarto)  of 
*'a  Fencer"  that  "he  hot  my  shin,"  he  is  using 
a  past  tense  of  "  hit  "  which  we  have  often  heard 
in  Shakespeare's  country. 

There  are  notes  on  two  well-known  difficulties, 
"  gongarian  "  and  "garmombles,"  neither  of 
which,  we  note,  appears  in  the  '  N.E.D.'  As  for 
the  former,  until  Steevens's  quotation  from  "  one 
of  the  old  bombast  plays  "  which  he  "  forgot  to 
note  "  has  been  discovered,  comment,  as  Dr. 
Greg  sensibly  remarks,  is  useless.  As  for  the  other 
odd  word,  Dr.  Greg  regards  the  passage  in  which 
it  occurs  as  unoriginal,  and  a  substitution  for  a 
more  elaborate  scene  which  had  to  be  cut  out. 
So  if  "  garmombles  "  is  not  a  wild  blunder, 
it  does  not  belong  to  the  original  text,  but  is  "  a 
sly  allusion  to  the  censored  episode  introduced 
by  the  actor  (an  Elizabethan  Pelissier)  for  the 
benefit  of  an  audience  familiar  with  current 
dramatic  scandal."  This  must  certainly  be  the 
first  appearance  of  the  leader  of  "  The  Follies  " 
in  serious  criticism. 

Neither  the  Folio  nor  the  Quarto  gives  such 
an  ending  to  the  play  in  the  last  act  as  we  might 
expect  from  Shakespeare.  That  is  the  view  of 
Dr.  Greg,  and  of  other  critics  ;  or,  if  the  work  is 
Shakespeare's,  it  ''  has  almost  disappeared  under 
a  twofold  revision  by  a  greatly  inferior  play- 

Dr.  Greg's  recension  of  the  play  is  so  thorough 
and  searching  that  it  cannot  be  disregarded  by  any 
future  editor.  We  congratulate  him  on  a  piece 
of  work  which  must  have  cost  him  a  large  amount 
of  time  and  labour.  The  modern  and  expert 
bibliographer  "  de  minimis  curat  "  with  the  best 

The  Little  Guides. — Staffordshire.  By  Charles 
Masefield.  With  32  Illustrations,  2  Plans,  and 
2  Maps. — The  Channel  Islands.  By  E.  E.  Bick- 
nell.  With  32  Illustrations  and  5  Maps. 
(Methuen  &  Co.) 

WISE  reviewers  always  keep  their  copies  of  "  The 
Little  Guides,"  if  they  can,  for  this  series  is  at 
once  thorough,  sound  in  information,  and  prac- 
tical. The  alphabetical  arrangement  gives  a 
ready  means  of  access  to  the  detail  desired,  when 
the  facts  will  be  found  set  out  •  distinctly,  and 
without  the  parade  of  verbiage  which  disfigures 
most  guide-books. 

The  present  reviewer  has  used  many  volumes  of 
the  series  with  advantage,  and  always  asks  for 
them  when  he  does  not  possess  them.  Details 
which  concern  the  historian  or  archaeologist 
as  opposed  to  the  ordinary  tourist  are  not  lacking, 
and  there  are  signs  everywhere  of  that  personal 
knowledge  which  is  essential  for  real  help  to  the 
traveller.  The  maps  are  thoroughly  useful.  A 
few  trifles  in  names  need  amending. 

Both  writers  very  sensibly  ask  for  corrections, 
and  in  the  case  of  the  Channel  Islands  it  would 
not  be  a  bad  scheme,  we  think,  to  put  the  little 
book  on  the  boats  which  ply  backwards  and  for- 
wards from  England,  and  ask  for  criticism  from 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements  and    Business    Letters    to    "The    Put 
lishers  "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chaucer 
Lane,  E.C. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  cor 
spondents  must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  .volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

CAPT.  BEAUMONT  ("  Queen  Henrietta  Maria's 
Second  Marriage").— The  'D.N.B.,'  at  the  end  of 
the  account  of  Henry  Jermyn,  Earl  of  St.  Albans 
says  :  "  The  scandal-mongers  of  his  own  day  affirm* 
that  he  was  secretly  married  to  Henrietta  M 
during  the  exile,  but  no  proof  of  the  story  has  yet 
come  to  light."  References  are  given  to  Pepys, 
Keresby,  and  Burnet. 

ii  s.  IL  AUG.  6,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 




NOTES :  —  Gulston  Addison's  Death  at  Madras,  101  — 
Tottel's  •  Miscellany '  and  Puttenham,  103  —  Eugene 
Aram,  105—"  Average  "—Toe  Names— Slovene  Hymn,  106". 

QUERIES:— Queen  Elizabeth  and  Astrology  —  Anatole 
France's  '  Thai's  '—Morganatic  Marriages— Father  Peters 
and  Queen  Mary — John  Houseman — Charles  II.  and  his 
Fubbs  Yacht,  107— 'The  English  Freeholder,'  1791— Sudan 
Archaeology — The  Old  Pretender — The  King's  Butler — 
Meredith  and  Moser— Lord  Mayors  and  their  Counties  of 
Origin — Dean  Alford's  Poems— Manor  :  Sac  :  Soke — Mr. 
W.  Graham  and  Jane  Clermont,  108 -Bernard  Wilson— 
Gervase  Warmestry — Red  Lion  Square  Obelisk — Inscrip- 
tion in  Hyeres  Cathedral— Spider's  Web  and  Fever— Arms 
of  Women— MS.  Work  on  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem,  109 
—Irishman  and  Thunderstorm,  110. 

REPLIES  :-Westminster  Cathedral :  Alphabet  .Ceremony, 
110— "  Denizen  ".-^John  Brooke,  Fifteenth-Century  Bar- 
rister-' Reverberations'  :  W.  Davies,  111— T.  L.  Peacock's 
Plays — St.  Leodegarius  and  the  St.  Leger — St.  Agatha  at 
Wimborne— Provincial  Booksellers— Mock  Coats  of  Arms, 
112 — "  Handyman  "=Sailor — Folly — Thundering  Dawn — 
Bibliography  of  London,  113— Windsdr  Stationmaster— 
Egertxm  Leigh  —  Thomson,  R.A. — John  Wilkes,  114 — 
Door-Knocker  Etiquette— Licence  to  Eat  Flesh—'  Shaving 
Them ' — Elephant  and  Castle  in  Heraldry,  115 — "  The 
Holy  Crows,"  Lisbon— 'Jane  Shore'— Royal  Tombs  at 
St.  Denis,  116— Royal  Manners  temp.  William  IV.— 
D'Eresby— Printers  of  the  Statutes  :  South  Tawton— 
Sir  Henry  Dudley,  117— Melmont  Berries— Prince  Bishop 
of  Basle,  118— Anglo-Spanish  Author- Commonwealth 
Grants  of  Arms— Bible  Statistics— Canopy-of-Heaven 
Blue— Kemys— Dr.  John  Hough,  119. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :  —  ' Scottish  Historical  Clubs'  — 
Reviews  and  Magazines. 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


THE  fact  that  there  have  been  recently  in 
*  N.  &  Q.'  several  notes  upon  Addison's 
maternal  ancestry  may  seem  to  give  some 
appropriateness  to  the  insertion  of  the 
following  letter,  a  copy  of  which  was  kindly 
given  me  some  time  ago  by  Sir  Robert 
White -Thomson,  who  treasures  the  original 
among  his  family  papers.  The  writer, 
Brudenell  Baker,  was  a  brother  of  Catharine 
Baker,  who  married  Thomas  Remington  in 
1714,  and  had  a  son,  the  Rev.  Daniel  William 
Remington,  who  was  Sir  Robert's  great- 
grandfather (see  10  S.  ix.  302). 

The  principal  interest  of  the  letter  lies 
in  the  account  it  gives  of  the  last  days  of 
Gulston  Addison,  and  of  his  death.  The 
elder  .  of  the  famous  essayist's  younger 
brothers,  Gulston  Addison  had  his  mother's 
maiden  name  bestowed  upon  him  in  baptism. 
Born  in  1673  ('D.N.B.'  under  Lancelot 
Addison),  he  was  for  many  years  in  the 
'service  of  the  East  India  Company  at 
Port  St.  George,  and  in  1709,  shortly  before 

his  death,   was  appointed  Governor  of  the 

Elace  in  succession  to  Thomas  Pitt,  cele- 
rated  through  his  descendants. 
Brudenell  Baker,  baptized  at  Lichfield 
Cathedral  on  2  September,  1675,  was  the 
eldest  son  of  the  Rev.  William  Baker  (a  .Pre- 
bendary of  the  Cathedral,  and  for  51  years 
Vicar  of  St.  Mary's  Church)  by  his  wife 
Dorothy,  daughter  of  Thomas  Brudenell 
(see  Harwood's  '  Lichfield,'  p.  97).  Nothing 
is  known  of  his  early  life,  but  the  letter  which 
follows  shows  that  he  had  been  at  least 
extravagant  and  had  incurred  his  father's 
severest  displeasure  : — 

India — Fort  Se  George  14  Octr  1709. 
Hond  Sr 

Tho  you  were  pleas'd  to  command  me  not  to 
write  to  you  in  England  I  hope  you  will  permit 
me  to  pay  my  Duty  to  you  from  this  other  part 
of  ye  World.  I  am  very  sensible  y*  you  ever  had 
the  hardest  opinion  of  me,  but  could  have  wished 
y*  at  my  setting  out  upon  so  desperate  a  Voyage, 
never  to  see  you  more,  You  would  have  at  least 
conceal'd  your  resentmts  &  sent  me  your  blessing. 
But  no  more  of  this — I  could  not  forbear  just 
mentioning  it,  because  my  heart  was  full  of  it, 
&  it  has  been  a  great  trouble  to  me.  But  am 
resolved  hereafter  (if  you  will  give  me  leave) 
to  send  you  all  ye  Comfort  I  am  able  in  your  old 
age  and  never  to  omit  one  opportunity  of  shewing 
my  Obedience  to  you. 

God  knows  how  this  Country  may  agree  with 
my  Constitution.  If  I  live  my  Fortune  is  cer- 
tainly made  in  a  few  Years.  But  I  ought  to  begin 
&  state  Occurrences  in  Order.  We  set  sail  on 
Saturday  ye  9th  of  April  from  Plymouth,  &  after 
a  voyage  attended  with  some  Hardships  &  great 
danger  (especially  in  a  prodigious  Storm  ye 
beginning  of  July  wch  lasted  two  nights  &  one  day 
a  perfect  Hurricane)  we  came  to  an  Anchour 
ye  i7th  Of  September,  just  23  Weeks  in  Our 
passage.  Our  ships  arrived  ye  first  of  ye  Fleet, 
and  consequently  brought  ye  news  of  Mr  Addi- 
son's being  made  Govr  of  this  Place.  His  Knee 
is  swell'd  extremely,  &  Physicians  here  say  'tis  ye 
Gout.  I  wish  it  is  so,  but  'tis  what  he  never  had 
before  &  I  am  sure  wrong  methods  have  been 
applyed  such  as  Bathing  &  Poultices,  Plaisters  &c. 
He  continues  just  in  ye  same  condition  as  when 
first  I  saw  Him,  wch  is  now  near  a  Month.  He 
has  not  much  pain,  but  wants  Spirits,  wch  makes 
Him  not  relish  his  great  Preferment,  and  is  indeed 
far  from  being  elated  wth  it.  And  here  it  will  not 
be  amiss  to  acquaint  you  wth  my  Reception. 
But  will  first  let  you  know  what  must  be  kept  to 
Your  Self  viz.  :  His  Relations  in  England  recom- 
mended me  very  heartily  to  the  Governour 
but  at  ye  same  time  sent  Him  a  particular  relation 
of  all  my  foolish  mistakes,  such  as  being  a  little 
too  exact  in  dressing,  and  advised  Him  to  keep 
me  at  a  decent  distance  for  fear  I  might  grow 
too  free  wth  Him  &c.  ;  so  tender  a  regard  they  had 
to  ye  Honour  of  their  Br:  y'  they  left  no  Stone  un- 
turned to  secure  it.  Well,  He  at  first  observed 
y«ir  directions  &  has  tryed  me  to  ye  Utmost. 
But  I  have  had  ye  good  fortune  to  gain  His  good 
Opinion,  &  to  such  a  degree  y«  He  has  entrusted 
me  with  all  his  private  Affairs,  &  has  me  with 
Him  continually.  He  shew'd  me  those  Hints 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  B.  n.  AUG.  e,  1910. 

wch  had  been  sent  Him,  said  'twas  all  needless, 
for  He  could  not  see  any  reason  for  those  un- 
necessary cautions.  In  short  He  plainly  tells  me 
He'l  provide  for  me  and  raise  me  in  ye  World.  I 
have  a  large  handsome  Apartment  assigned  to  me  in 
y"  Fort  near  Himself,  have  3  Black  slaves  to 
attend  me  :  one  to  carry  an  Umbrella  over  me  in 
ye  Sun,  another  to  do  all  Servile  Offices,  and  a 
third,  a  genteel  Serv*  to  wait  upon  me  in  my 
Chamber.  Y"  Governour  lives  in  mighty  State, 
never  stirs  abroad  but  with  Guards  drawn  out, 
Drums  beating,  &  Colours  flying,  &  He  has 
placed  me  so  near  His  Person  y1  I  am  courted  by 
ye  best  in  ye  Place.  He  tells  me  I  must  be  civil 
to  All,  but  familiar  wth  None  but  Himself.  All 
this  is  very  great  &  Sure  I  can  never  do  enough 
to  deserve  ye  Honour  He  has  done  me.  I  pray 
God  preserve  His  Life,  and  then  I  need  not  fear 
getting  an  Estate  in  a  Short  time.  I  have  been 
here  as  particular  as  I  can,  but  have  not  time  to 
enlarge  on  this  Subject  any  further.  I  am  con- 
stantly employ'd  by  ye  Govr  and  we  are  in  a  very 
great  Hurry  to  send  off  this  Ship  wch  carries  over 
his  Predecessour.  He  has  order'd  me  to  write 
to  his  Brother  &  Sister.  The  latter  wrought  [sic] 
to  Him  for  a  Chest  of  things,  but  He  has  not  time 
now  to  send  'em,  &  will  do  it  ye  next  Shipping 
w°h  will  be  in  2  or  3  Months,  so  that  I  shall  have 
a  good  opportunity  to  put  up  a  small  quantity 
of  Tea  for  you  wch  I  'le  not  fail  then  to  send.  I 
will  steal  a  little  time  to  write  a  short  Letter  to 
my  two  Dear  Sisters.  My  Bro"  must  excuse 
me  'till  ye  next  Ship  goes  off.  They  must  not 
take  it  ill,  for  what  I  say  to  my  Sisters  I  say  to 
them.  I  cannot  omit  writing  to  good  Dr.  Smal- 
dridge,*  nor  to  kind  cozen  Lowndes,  but  all  these 
will  be  very  short,  for  I  am  straitend  in  time,  but 
was  resolved  to  neglect  no  occasion  wch  offered  to 
shew  myself  Your  most  obedient  son 


20th  Octr 

O  Sr  The  Governour  is  dead,  &  in  Him  I  've 
lost  all  ye  World.  It  has  almost  distracted  me. 
His  Gout  ended  in  a-  fever  of  wch  He  dyed  ye 
17th  Instant,  &  was  buried  yesterday.  He  has 
left  me  a  Legacy  y*  will  clear  all  my  Debts,  & 
be  a  beginning  for  me  in  ye  World.  'Tis  no  less 
than  500Z.  If  my  Debts  could  be  compounded 
before  this  is  known,  I  should  raise  myself  by 
purchasing  a  good  Employm1  Do  for  me  what 
you  can.  You  shall  not  find  me  undutifull  now 
I  can  live  without  You.  I  cannot  tell  how  long 
ye  Trustees  will  defer  paying  y8  Legacy.  I  must 
shift  as  well  as  I  can.  There  has  been  nothing 
but  Confusion  since  His  Death.  I  shall  take 
ye  best  advice  I  can,  and  doubt  not  but  to  give  you 
satisfactory  reasons  for  what  I  shall  resolve  upon. 
The  Ship  is  just  going  off.  I  have  not  time  to 
write  to  any  Body.  I  send  this  enclosed  to  Cozen 
Lowndes,  open  too,  for  I  think  He  is  to  be  trusted 
wth  it,  and  I  have  not  time  to  write  to. any  Relation 
I  have,  and  must  once  again  subscribe  my  self 
in  ye  greatest  haste. 

Your  dutiful  Son 


My  Kindest  Love  &  Service  attends  Bros  & 

*  George    Smalridge    (1663-1719),    afterwards 
Bishop  of  Bristol. 

The  sympathy  which  we  feel  for  Brudenell 
Baker  when  reading  the  first  part  of  his 
letter,  where  he  pleads  with  his  father 
for  recognition  in  sentences  simple  and 
apparently  heartfelt,  is  quite  alienated  by  the 
extraordinary  proposal  which  mars  the  post- 
script. The  stern  old  cleric  must  indeed 
have  been  astonished  at  such  a  request  being 
made  to  him,  and  we  may  well  doubt  if  the 
letter  effected  a  reconciliation  between  father 
and  son.  All  we  can  plead  for  Brudeneli 
Baker  is  that  he  was  the  victim  of  a  heavy 
and  tragic  disappointment,  and  that  the 
postscript  was  penned  just  before  the  depar- 
ture of  the  ship,  leaving  no  time  for  his 
better  feelings  to  assert  themselves.  Yet, 
however  we  may  deplore  this  lapse  in  his 
moral  sense,  it  is  clear  that  he  was  a  young 
man  of  some  parts,  who  very  quickly  won  the 
confidence  and  affection  of  an  able  man, 
in  spite  of  his  qualified  recommendations. 
It  would  be  interesting  to  know  if  it  was 
Joseph  Addison  who  sent  his  brother  "a 
particular  relation  of  all n  the  young 
prodigal's  "  foolish  mistakes."  We  probably 
should  not  err  in  attributing  to  him  another 
inimitable  essay  upon  youthful  folly. 

We  learn  no  more  of  Brudeneli  Baker,  and 
the  time  and  the  place  of  his  death  are  alike 
unknown  to  us.  Even  the  REV.  FRANK 
PENNY,  whose  acquaintance  with  the  history 
of  Fort  St.  George  is  so  intimate,  cannot 
disinter  his  name  from  the  records  ;  so  that 
it  is  probable  he  did  not  remain  there,  and 
certain  he  attained  no  distinction.  He  i& 
not  mentioned  in  the  will  of  his  father, 
who  died  at  Lichfield  in  August,  1732  ;  but 
this  shows  nothing,  for  the  aged  prebendary 
makes  no  allusion  to  any  son  at  all,  although 
it  seems  clear  that  one  at  least,  Thomas 
Baker  (baptized  7  December,  1689),  sur- 
vived him.  This  Thomas  graduated  from 
Christ  Church,  Oxford,  in  1708  ;  and  there- 
is  evidence  to  identify  him  with  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Baker,  a  Minor  Canon  of  St.  Paul's 
and  of  Westminster,  and  priest  of  the  Chapel 
Royal,  who  died  10  May,  1745  (see  R.  F. 
Scott's  *  Admissions  to  St.  John's  College,. 
Cambridge,'  Part  III.  p.  456). 

I  have  obtained  an  abstract  of  Gulston 
Addison's  will,  which  is  dated  16  October,. 
1709,  the  day  before  his  death.  He  is 
described  therein  as  "  Gulstone  "  Addison,. 
Esquire,  Governor  of  Fort  St.  George  in  the 
East  Indies.  To  his  wife  Mary  Addison 
he  bequeaths  14,000  pagodas  ;  to  his  sister 
Dorothy  Addison  1,0001.  sterling ;  to  his 
"  good  friend  n  Mr.  Brudeneli  Baker  of  Fort 
St.  George,  1,000  pagodas  ;  to  his  friend  Mr. 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  6,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


George  Lewis  of  Fort  St.  George,  500  pago- 
das ;  to  his  servants,  Oliver,  Inggapa,  and 
Xarran,  100,  50,  and  60  pagodas  respectively  ; 
and  to  his  friend  Mrs.  Ann  Brabourne, 
100  pagodas.  The  residue  of  his  estate  he 
bequeaths  to  his  loving  brother  Joseph 
Addison,  Esq.  ;  and  he  appoints  his 
friends  Mr.  Edmund  Mountague,  Mr.  Robert 
Raworth,  Mr.  Edward  Fleetwood,  and  Mr. 
Bernard  Benyon  to  be  trustees,  giving  them 
100  pagodas  apiece  for  mourning,  and 
directing  that  his  burial  shall  be  at  their 
discretion.  All  his  debts  and  legacies  in 
India  are  to  be  paid,  and  afterwards  his 
estate,  as  it  shall  come  to  the  trustees'  hands, 
invested  in  diamonds,  which  are  to  be 
remitted  to  his  brother  Joseph  in  England, 
on  such  ship  as  they  shall  think  fit.  The 
bequest  to  his  sister  Dorothy  shall  be 
remitted  to  Joseph  in  like  manner.  Sunca 
Rama,  if  living  and  upon  the  place,  shall  have 
the  buying  of  the  diamonds.  To  his  wife's 
brother  Mr.  Henry  Jolly  he  leaves  1,000 
pagodas  ;  and  he  appoints  his  wife  and 
brother  Joseph  executors.  His  signature, 
"  Guls.  Addison,"  is  witnessed  by  Edward 
Bulkley,  Henry  Davenport,  William  Warre, 
and  Alexander  Orme.  By  a  codicil  of  the 
same  date,  signed  "  Gulston  Addison,'2  and 
witnessed  by  Edward  Bulkley,  Alexander 
Orme,  and  Antho.  Suply,  he  bequeaths 
500  pagodas  to  Mr.  Randall  Fowke  of  Fort 
St.  George.  Three  years  after  the  testator's 
death,  on  20  October,  1712,  the  will  was 
proved  by  Joseph  Addison,  Esq.,  the  sur- 
viving executor  (P.C.C.,  Barnes,  179). 

In  Leslie  Stephen's  account  of  Joseph 
Addison  in  the  '  D.N.B.1  it  is  stated  that 
Gulston  Addison  died  10  October,  1709 — 
a  slight  error — leaving  Joseph  an  executor 
and  residuary  legatee. 

"  The  difficulty,  however,  of  realising  an 
estate  left  in  great  confusion  a,nd  in  so  distant  a 
country,  was  very  great.  The  trustees  were 
neglectful,  and  Addison  declares  that  one  of  them 
deserved  the  pillory,  and  that  he  longs  to  tell 
him  so  'by  word  of  mouth.'  It  was  not  till 
1716  that  a  final  liquidation  was  reached  ;  and 
the  sum  due  to  Addison,  afer  deducting  bad  debts 
and  legacies,  was  less  than  a  tenth  part  of  the 
whole  estate,  originally  valued  at  35,000  pagodas, 
or  14,OOOZ." 

In  a  letter  dated  21  July,  1711,  Addison 
alludes  to  the  loss  within  the  last  twelve 
months  of  an  estate  in  the  Indies  of  14,OOOZ. 
If  the  value  of  a  "  pagoda  "  was  only  about 
seven  shillings  (11  S.  i.  328),  Brudenell 
Baker  considerably  overstated  the  amount 
of  his  legacy. 

The  'D.N.B.'  (under  Lancelot  Addison) 
says  that  the  Dean's  third  son,  Lancelot 

Addison,  a  Fellow  of  Magdalen,  visited  Fort 
St.  George  about  the  time  of  his  brother 
Gulston's  death,  and  died  there  in  1711. 
It  seems  clear  from  Brudenell  Baker's  letter 
that  Lancelot  must  have  gone  out  after 
Gulston's  death  ;  and  MB.  PENNY  tells  me 
that  Lancelot  fell  a  victim  to  the  climate  in 
August,  1710.  It  is  strange  that  Gulston 
did  not  remember  him  in  his  will.  Perhaps 
Lancelot  was  sent  out  by  Joseph  Addison 
to  protect  his  interests.  Administration 
of  the  estate  of  Lancelot  Addison  of  Fort 
St.  George,  bachelor,  was  granted  to 
Joseph,  the  brother,  on  9  January,  1711/12, 
in  P.C.C. 

Gulston  Addison  was  married  to  Mary 
Brook  on  6  July,  1701  (Genealogist,  N.S.r 
vol.  xix.  p.  288),  at  Fort  St.  George  ;  and 
MB.  PENNY  tells  me  that  she  died  there  in 
February,  1709/10.  As  Gulston's  will  alludes 
to  her  brother  Mr.  Henry  Jolly,  it  is  possible 
that  she  may  have  been  previously  married. 

Park  Corner,  Blundellsands,  nr.  Liverpool. 


(See  ante,  p.   1.) 

THEBE  is  something  strange  about  Putten- 
ham's  manner  of  introducing  quotations 
from  Turbervile  that  requires  explanation, 
and  it  is  well  worthy  of  note. 

As  I  have  said,  Turbervile  is  only  once 
named  in  '  The  Arte  of  English  Poesie,5" 
and  then  he  comes  in  for  praise  with  others- 
"who  have  written  excellently  well."'  But 
when  Puttenham  quotes  Turbervile  the 
critic  seems  to  wish  to  convey  to  his  readers 
the  impression  that  he  is  dealing  with  pas- 
sages not  from  the  work  of  one  man,  but 
from  the  work  of  several  men.  He  not  only 
hides  names,  but  also  goes  out  of  his  way 
to  blind  us  as  to  the  sources  from  which  he 
obtained  his  material. 

There  are  four  passages  from  Turbervile 
cited  in  pp.  262-3,  and  the  uninitiated  reader 
is  compelled  to  assume  that  the  critic  is 
lashing  at  four  distinct  writers.  Two  quota- 
tions are  introduced  with  the  remark  4 '  as 
he  that  said  "  ;  the  third  one  follows  with 
the  introduction,  "another  that  praysing  his 
mistresse  for  her  bewtifull  haire,  said "  ; 
and  the  last  passage  comes  in  with  "as  one 
that  said,"  but  separated  from  the  other 
three  by  a  quotation  from  Puttenham's 
own  *  Partheniades,1  which  the  author,  with 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [11  s.  n.  AUG.  e,  1910. 

paternal  pride,  contrasts  with  Turbervile 
to  illustrate  in  a  most  striking  manner  the 
difference  between  good  and  bad  verse. 

Readers  of  his  own  day  could  hardly 
escape  knowing  the  poet  whom  Puttenham 
aimed  at,  and  they  would  have  the  help  of 
Turbervile's  special  admirers  and  friends  to 
help  them  if  they  were  at  fault.  But  men 
of  a  later  generation  would  not  be  so  for- 
tunate, and  therefore  it  is  no  wonder  that 
Puttenham's  ambiguous  style  of  reference 
has  served  the  purpose,  up  to  now,  of 
hiding  his  concentrated  onslaught  on  Turber- 
vile. And  it  is  an  ingenious  mode  of  attack, 
too,  because,  to  any  charge  of  personal 
malice  that  might  be  brought  against  him, 
Puttenham  could  answer  that  he  did  not 
name  the  poet,  that  he  pretended  to  be 
dealing  with  more  persons  than  one,  and  he 
could  triumphantly  refer  objectors  to  the 
passage  in  his  book  in  which  he  commends 
Turbervile  by  name. 

I  will  deal  with  these  four  passages  now. 

In  two  places  (pp.  181  and  262)  Puttenham 
treats  of  Histeron  proteron,  or  the  Pre- 
posterous, a  manner  of  disordered  speech 
when  one  misplaces  words  or  clauses,  and 
sets  that  before  which  should  come  behind, 
that  is,  setting  the  cart  before  the  horse. 
He  says  : — 

"  This  vice  is  sometime  tollerable  inough,  but 
if  the  word  carry  away  notable  sence,  it  is  a  vice 
not  tollerable,  as  he  that  said  praising  a  woman  for 
her  red  lippes,  thus  : 

A   corrall   lip   of   hew. 

Which  is  no  good  speech,  because  either  he 
should  have  sayd  no  more  but  a  corrall  lip,  which 
had  bene  inough  to  declare  the  rednesse,  or  els 
he  should  have  said,  a  lip  of  corrall  hew,  and  not  a 
corrall  lip  of  hew.  Now  if  this  disorder  be  in  a 
whole  clause  which  carieth  more  sentence  then 
a  word,  it  is  then  worst  of  all." 

Thus  in  Turbervile's  '  Songs  and  Sonnets,' 
&c.  : — 

A  little  mouth  with  decent  chin, 

a  corrall  lip  of  hue, 
With  teeth  as  white  as  whale  his  bone, 
eche  one  in  order  due. 

'  Praise  of  his  Love,'  p.  231. 
Again : — 

"  Ye  have  another  vicious  speech  which  the 
Greekes  callAcyron,  we  call  it  the  uncouthe,  and  is 
when  we  use  an  obscure  and  darke  word,  and 
utterly  repugnant  to  that  we  would  expresse,  if 
it  be  not  by  vertue  of  the  figures  metaphore, 
allegoric,  abusion,  or  such  other  laudable  figure 
before  remembred,  as  he  that  said  by  way  of 

"  A  dongeon  deepe,  a  dampe  as  darke  as  hell. 
Where  it  is  evident  that  a  dampe  being  but  a 
breath  or  vapour,  and  not  to  be  discerned  by  the 

eye,  ought  not  to  have  this  epithete  (darke,)  no 
more  then  another  that  praysing  his  mistresse  for  her 
bewtifull  haire,  said  very  improperly  and  with  an 
uncouth  terme. 

Her  haire  surmounts  Apollos  pride, 

In  it  such  bewty  raignes. 

Whereas  this  word  raigne  is  ill  applied  to  the 
bewtie  of  a  womans  haire,  and  might  better 
have  bene  spoken  of  her  whole  person,  in  which 
bewtie,  favour  and  good  grace,  may  perhaps  in 
some  sort  be  said  to  raigne  as  our  selves  wrate, 
in  a  Partheniade  praising  her  Majesties  coun- 
tenance, thus : — 

A  cheare  where  love  and  Majestie  do  raigne, 

Both  milde  and  sterne,  &c. 

Because  this  word  Majestie  is  a  word  expressing 
a  certaine  Soveraigne  dignitie,  as  well  as  a 
quallitie  of  countenance,  and  therefore  may 
properly  be  said  to  raigne,  and  requires  no 
meaner  word  to  set  him  foorth  by.  So  it  is  not 
of  the  bewtie  that  remaines  in  a  womans  haire, 
or  in  her  hand  or  in  any  other  member  :  therefore 
when  ye  see  all  these  improper  or  harde  Epithets 
used,  ye  may  put  them  in  the  number  of  [uncouths] 
as  one  that  said,  the  flouds  of  graces  :  I  have  heard 
of  the  flouds  of  teares,  and  the  flouds  of  eloquence, 
or  of  any  thing  that  may  resemble  the  nature  of  a 
water-course,  and  in  that  respect  we  say  also,  the 
sU-eames  of  teares,  and  the  streames  of  utterance, 
but  not  the  streames  of  graces,  or  of  beautie." 

Now  all  this  while  the  critic  has  been 
thrashing  one  man — not  several,  as  his 
references  would  imply— and  he  has,  appa- 
rently, laboured  to  throw  us  off  the  scent. 

The  other  three  passages  dealt  with 
by  Puttenham  appear  in  Turbervile  as 
follows  : — 

A  laberinth,  a  loathsome  lodge  to  dwell, 
A  dungeon  deepe,  a  dampe  as  darke  as  hell. 
'  The  Lover  whose  Lady  dwelt  fast  by  a  Prison,' 
Collier,  p.  215. 

Hir  haire  surmounts  Apollos  pride, 

in  it  such  beautie  raines  ; 
Hir  glistring  eies  the  cristall  farre 

and  finest  saphire  staines. 

'  Praise  of  his  Love,'  p.  231. 

As  soone  with  might  thou  mayst  remove 
the  rock  from  whence  it  growes, 

As  frame  hir  featurde  forme  in  whome 
such  flouds  of  graces  flowes. 

'  Praise  of  his  Love,'  231. 

Elsewhere  in  Turbervile  we  find  him 
using  "dampe"  as  in  the  passage  selected 
for  censure  : — 

To  shadie  Acheron  sometime  he  flings  the  same, 
And  deepest  damp  of  hollow  hell  those  impes  to 
tame.  '  Of  Ladie  Venus,'  &c.,  p.  188. 

And  one  may  take  it  for  granted  that  he  did 
not  coin  the  word,  which  is  very  suggestive, 
and    not    deserving    of    condemnation.     It  j 
reminds  one  of  Shakespeare  ('  2  Henry  VI.,' 
I.  iv.  19)  :— 

Deep  night,  dark  night,  the  silent  of  the  night ; 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  6, 1910.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


just  as  Puttenham's  censure  recalls  the 
defence  of  Spenser  in  E.  K.'s  preface  to 
'  The  Shepheards  Calender  J  :— 

"  Other  some  not  so  well  scene  in  the  English 
tongue,  as  perhaps  in  other  languages,  if  they 
happen  to  heare  an'olde  word,  albeit  very  naturall 
and  significant,  cry  out  straightway,  that  we 
speake  no  English,  but  gibberish,"  &c. 

We  may,  without  research,  conclude  that 
Turbervile  snapped  up  his  word  from  one 
of  the  poets  whose  work  he  imitates  and 
copies  so  slavishly,  just  as  he  snapped  up 
"  surmounts  Apollos  pride  ??  from  Sir  Thomas 
Wyatt  :— 
The  crisped  golde,  that  doth  surmount  Apollos 

pride.          Tottel's  '  Miscellany,'  Arber,  p.  75. 

(To  be  continued.) 


THE  sale  by  Messrs.  Sotheby,  Wilkinson  & 
Hodge,  on  the  6th  of  July,  of  documents 
relating  to  this  remarkable  trial — made 
generally  famous  first  by  Hood's  poem,  which 
appeared  in  *  The  Gem  *  for  1829,  followed  by 
Bulwer's  novel,  published  December  22nd, 
1831 — will  probably  lead  to  fresh  investiga- 
tions as  to  the  innocence  or  guilt  of  this 
man  of  studious  habits  and  gentle  manners. 
The  documents  sold  were  thus  described 
in  the  catalogue,  and  the  price  they  fetched 
was  thirty-one  pounds  : — 

"  120  Aram  (Eugene)  A  remarkable  Collection 
of  eleven  original  Documents  relating  to  this 
extraordinary  and  historic  case,  including  the 
Coroner's  Inquisition  upon  the  finding  of  a 
skeleton  on  Thistle  Hill,  Knaresborough,in  August, 
1758,  supposed  to  be  that  of  Daniel  Clark,  who 
had  disappeared  14  years  previously,  the  exam- 
ination of  various  witnesses,  including  Eugene 
Aram's  wife,  as  to  the  circumstances  connected 
with  Clark's  disappearance,  and  the  Coroner's 
Inquisition  upon  the  finding  of  a  second  skeleton 
in  St.  Robert's  Cave,  in  consequence  of  the  con- 
fession of  Richard  Houseman,  which  led  to  the 
celebrated  trial  and  execution  of  Eugene  Aram 
as  his  accomplice.  (11) 

'  %*  These  Documents  have  come  down  to 
the  present  owner  from  his  ancestor,  John 
Theakston,  the  Coroner  who  held  the  Inquisi- 
tions and  examined  the  witnesses." 

In  1840  Bulwer  in  his  preface  to  a  new 
edition  of  his  novel  wrote  : — 

"  During  Aram's  residence  at  Lynn,  his  reputa- 
tion for  learning  had  attracted  the  notice  of  my 

grandfather Aram  frequently  visited  at 

Heydon,  my  grandfather's  house,  and  gave 
lessons,  probably  in  no  very  elevated  branches 
of  erudition,  to  the  younger  members  of  the 
family.  This  I  chanced  to  hear  when  I  was  on 
;i  visit  in  Norfolk,  some  two  years  before  this 
novel  was  published,  and  it  tended  to  increase 

the  interest  with  which  I  had  previously  specu- 
lated on  the  phenomena  of  a  trial  which,  take 
it  altogether,  is  perhaps  the  most  remarkable  in 
the  register  of  English  crime." 

All  the  information  collected  by  the  novelist 
showed  Aram  to  be  "a  man  of  the  mildest 
character  and  the  most  unexceptionable 
morals  n  : — 

"  An  invariable  gentleness  and  patience  in  his 
mode  of  tuition — qualities  then  very  uncommon  at 
schools — had  made  him  so  beloved  by  his  pupils  at 
Lynn,  that  in  after  life  there  was  scarcely  one  of 
them  who  did  not  persist  in  the  belief  in  his 

He  had 

"  a  singular  eloquence  in  conversation — an  active 
tenderness  and  charity  to  the  poor,  with  whom 
he  was  always  ready  to  share  his  own  scanty 
means — an  apparent  disregard  to  money,  except 
when  employed  in  the  purchase  of  books." 

Bulwer's  investigations  had  at  this  time 
led  him  to  the  conclusion  that  the  legal 
evidence  was  extremely  deficient,  and  in  the 
edition  published  by  Messrs.  Chapman  & 
Hall  in  1849  he  states  that  he  had  con- 
vinced himself  *'  that,  though  an  accom- 
plice in  the  robbery  of  Clarke,  he  [Aram] 
was  free  both  from  the  premeditated  design 
and  the  actual  deed  of  murder.^  Bulwer 
altered  his  novel  accordingly. 

In  the  Sixth  Series  of  *  N.  &  Q.2  are  several 
important  references  to  Eugene  Aram.  On 
the  1st  of  January,  1881,  MB.  F.  W.  JOY 
supplies  an  unpublished  letter  of  Eugene 
Aram's,  dated  from  London,  July  19th, 
1 754.  In  this  Aram  mentions  that  his  situa- 
tions had  been  various,  and  that  he  was 

*'  Tutor  3  years  to  the  sons  of  a  ffamily  of 
distinction  in  Berks  &  in  other  Imployments  of 
that  kind  4  years.  With  the  money  arising  thence 
I  went  over  into  ffrance  a  Tour  partly  of  curiosity 
&  partly  of  profit  in  which  having  visited  Roan 
Paris  &c.  &  even  Blois  &  Orleans  I  acquired  the 
Language  which  is  now  at  once  an  extraordinary 
recom'endation  &  benefit  to  me." 

MB.  JOY  remarks  that  "in  the  narrative 
of  his  life,  which  he  wrote  after  his  con- 
demnation, he  omitted  all  mention  of  his 
visit  to  France.'* 

On  the  17th  of  November,  1883,  G. 
WINTEB  is  informed  that  accounts  of  Eugene 
Aram  may  be  found  in  the  '  Biographia 
Britannica,'  ed.  Kippis  ;  '  Genuine  Account 
of  the  Trial  of  Eugene  Aram/  London,  1759  ; 
The  Gentleman's  Magazine,  and  The  Annual 
Register  for  the  same  year,  and  various 
biographical  dictionaries. 

On  the  17th  of  January,  1885,  FBANCESCA 
asks  for  information  respecting  Eugene 
Aram.  Many  replies  appear  on  the  14th  of 
February.  MB.  BBIEBLEY  gives  an  extract 
from  The  Gentleman1 8  Magazine  of  Septem- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  6, 1910. 

ber,  1837  ;  ESTE  supplies  a  list  of  books, 
pamphlets,  and  cuttings  in  his  possession  ; 
JULIAN  MARSHALL  states  that  Caulfield's 
'  Remarkable  Persons  '  contains  a  memoir 
and  portrait  ;  and  W.  C.  B.  mentions  that 
"* '  among  the  subscribers  to  the  '  History  of 
Hull l  written  by  the  extraordinary  printer 
Thomas  Gent,  and  printed  by  him  at  York 
in  1735,"  appears  the  name  of  "  Mr.  Eugenius 
Aram."  On  the  28th  of  March  CUTHBERT 
BEDE  writes  :  "  See  also,  for  an  excellent 
digest  of  this  case,  '  Historic  Yorkshire,'  by 
William  Andrews,  F.R.H.S.  (London,  Reeves 
.&  Turner,  1883),  chap,  xxiii."  He  also 
states  that  "  Lord  Lytton  intended  to  have 
treated  the  subject  as  a  tragedy,  and  what  he 
had  thus  prepared  for  the  stage  he  published 
in  The  New  Monthly  Magazine  during  the 
period  when  he  edited  it  (August,  1833, 
vol.  xxxviii.  No.  152).n 

In  The  Leeds  Mercury  of  November  llth, 
1899,  appeared  a  defence  of  Eugene  Aram 
-by  Mr.  J.  M.  Richardson  of  Huddersfield. 
This  was  referred  to  in  our  review  of  the  life 
of  Lytton  by  Mr.  T.  H.  S.  Escott  (1 1  S.  i.  280). 
He  contends  that, 

•*'  like  Dreyfus,  he  was  the  victim  of  perjury  and 
f orgery . . . .  Dr.  Paley,  who  was  present  at  the 
"trial,  always  asserted  that  Aram  was  innocent. 
He  said,  '  Aram  hung  himself  by  his  cleverness.'  " 

"  AVERAGE.'* — It  is  generally  agreed  that 
this  word  is  composed  of  the  widely  spread 
mercantile  Mediterranean  word  avaria  + 
.suffix  -age  (see  *  N.E.D.,'  and  Skeat's  '  Etym. 
Diet.,'  ed.  1910).  In  '  N.E.D.'  we  find  that 
one  of  the  technical  senses  of  the  English 
word  "  average  "  is  "  the  expense  or  loss  to 
owners,  arising  from  damage  at  sea  to  the 
ship  or  cargo."-  I  think  it  can  be  shown  that 
the  original  notion  of  the  Mediterranean 
word  avaria,  with  which  modern  etymologists 
•connect  our  "  average,1'  was  damage  or  loss. 
This  is  certainly  the  principal  meaning  of 
avaria  in  the  Romanic  languages.  In  Portu- 
•guese  avaria  means  "  damage  to  a  vessel  or 
cargo";  cp.  Fr.  avarie,  "  dommage  arrive 
a  un  vaisseau,  ou  aux  marchandises  dont 
il  est  charge  depuis  le  depart  jusqu'au 
retour"  ('Diet,  de  1'Acad.,'  1786);  also 
It.  avaria,  "  a  sea-phrase,  viz.,  a  consumption 
or  distribution  of  the  loss  made,  when  goods 
are  cast  away  on  purpose  in  a  storm  to  save 
'the  vessel •"  (Florio). 

Now    what    is    the    etymology    of     this 

Mediterranean  word  avaria,  which  appears  to 

have    the    general    meaning    of    "  dommage 

'arrive  a  un  vaisseau,  a  des  marchandises  "  ? 

Dozy,  in  his  '  Glossaire,'  p.  217,  has  no  doubt 
whatever  about  the  derivation  of  this  word  ; 
"II  est  tres-certainement  d'origine  arabe." 
As  an  Arabic  etymology  has  been  summarily 
dismissed  by  '  N.E.D.'  and  Skeat  in  their 
accounts  of  the  word  "  average,"  I  will  copy 
out  what  Dozy  has  to  say  in  its  favour.  He 
derives  avaria  from  Arab.  lawdr,  loss,  damage, 
and  says  : — 

"II  ne  faut  pas  croire  que  'awdr,  pris  en  ce 
sens,  est  un  neologisme  ;  il  appartient  au  contraire 
a  la  langue  arabe  classique,  dans  laquelle  on  dit 
'  une  marchandise  qui  a  un  defaut  (iawdr).'>  Les 
marchands  italiens,  par  suite  des  relations  fre- 
quentes  qu'ils  avaient  avec  les  Arabes,  ont  adopts 
le  mot  'awdr,  qui  etait  fort  en  usage  dans  le 
commerce  ;  ce  qui  le  prouve,  c'est  que  les  passages 
que  Ducange  donne  sous  avaria  sont  empruntes 
a  des  documents  genois  et  pisans.  C'est  aussi 
par  1'entremise  des  Italiens  que  ce  mot  s'est 
introduit  dans  presque  toutes  les  langues  euro- 
p^ennes. — La  transcription  avaria  est  bonne  ; 
ia  est  la  terminaison  italienne.  On  trouve  cette 
forme  dans  un  document  Catalan  de  1258  (apud 
Capmany,  '  Memorias  sobre  la  marina  de  Barce- 
lona,' ii.  27)." 

I  do  not  see  any  valid  reason  for  rejecting 
the  account  of  avaria  given  by  this  eminent 
scholar.  All  the  uses  of  avaria  and 
"  average  "  may  be  easily  deduced  from  the 
primary  meaning  of  damage  or  loss.  This 
radical  meaning  was  also  common  Semitic, 
and  may  be  traced  in  the  Hebrew  root 
'dwar,  which  is  found  in  the  special  sense  of 
loss  of  eyesight,  blindness. 

It  may  be  noted  that  the  form  of  the 
English  word  ' '  average  "  with  the  suffix 
•age  is  due  to  the  analogy  of  "poundage," 
"tonnage,"  "pilotage,""  and  other  com- 
mercial terms.  A.  L.  MAYHEW. 

21,  Norham  Road,  Oxford. 

TOE  NAMES. — I  have  some  remembrance  of 
having  seen  years  ago  in  '  N.  &  Q.''  mention 
of  fanciful  names  given  by  children  (or 
nurses)  to  their  toes.  The  following  may 
therefore  interest  some  readers.  The  names 
were  taught  to  my  brother  and  myself  in  the 
sixties  by  our  nurse,  a  young  woman  from 
Braintree,  Essex  : — 

Great  toe,  Tom  Barker. 

Second  toe,  Long  Rachel. 

Third  toe,  Minnie  Wilkin. 

Fourth  toe,  Milly  Larkin. 

Fifth  toe,  Little  Dick. 


SLOVENE  HYMN. — The  words  of  the  hymi 
sung    by    the    Slovenes,    "  Naprej    zastav 
slave  "  ("  On  high  the  glorious  standard  " 
were  written  by  the  poet  S.  Jenko  in  1859. 
The  melody,   I  read  in   a  Bohemian   Sokol 
journal,  was  composed  by  Davorin  Jenko  al 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  6,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  age  of  75,  on  16  May,  1860,  and  has 
thus  completed  its  half-century.  (I 
attempted  a  verse  rendering  of  this  hymn 
in  a  musical  journal  a  few  months  ago. )  The 
opening  verses  and  tune  are  full  of  martial 
ardour,  but  the  later  are  in  a  different  vein — 
the  appeal  of  a  weeping  mother  and  the 
consolatory  words  of  a  warlike  son.  It  is 
related  that  Davorin  Jenko  long  sought  to 
compose  a  suitable  melody,  but  in  vain. 
Hearing  of  some  German  aggression  in  a 
Vienna  cafe  frequented  by  Slovene  students, 
he  walked  out,  and  during  a  stroll  in  the 
Prater  the  melody  came  into  his  mind.  He 
returned  to  the  cafe,  sat  down,  and  wrote  it 

Not  long  before  his  death  Mr.  James 
Platt  sent  me  a  published  translation  of  a 
Slovene  poem  which  he  had  made.  He 
seemed  to  take  especial  inlerest  in  this 
language,  which  is  aside  from  the  attention 
of  most  scholars. 

Streatham  Common. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

shall  be  glad  if  some  reader  will  kindly  give 
me  information  about  the  work  on  astrology, 
an  Elzevir,  now  in  the  British  Museum, 
printed  in  Antwerp  by  Hemming  Sixth.  A 
copy  of  this  book  was  retained  by  Shake  - 
spere  after  it  was  ordered  to  be  destroyed  by 
Queen  Elizabeth.  I  wish  to  know  the 
personal  history  of  the  author,  and  any- 
thing genealogical  to  be  found  in  the  book. 

Keystone  Hotel,  San  Diego,  California. 

ANATOLE  FRANCE'S  '  THAIS.'— Is  there  any 
earlier  source  of  Anatole  France's  story  of 

*  Thais  l  than  the  Latin  play  '  Paphnutius  ' 
('Die  Bekehrung  der  Buhlerin  Thais')  by 
Roswitha,    the  nun   of   Gandersheim    (950- 

'00  A.D.)  ?  Does  Anatole  France  acknow- 
ledge his  source  ?  Was  this  particular 
Thai's,  a  real  character  ?  W.  G.  S. 

•  Indianopolis. 

find  a  list  of  the  most  important  morganatic 
marriages  ?  Is  there  any  published  account 
0  x?uc kmarriages  ?  T.  W.  WINSHIP. 

New  York  City. 

In  a  volume  containing  a  collection  of  old 
tracts,  and  with  an  (apparently)  autograph 
fly-leaf  inscription,  "  D.  Wyttenbach  ex 
auctione  Senteniana,??  I  find  a  single  leaf 
(7J  in.  by  5£  in.),  having  one  side  blank 
and  the  other  with  the  following  lines  in 
print  : — 


Effrenis,  pestilentisque  Jesuitae,  allatrantis  pientis- 

simos  Manes  ; 

Dilapidantis  lapidem  sepulchralem 
Serenissimae,  Potentissimaeque 


Magnae  Britanuiae,  Franciae,  &  Hibernise 


Incomparabilis,  inimitabilisque  Religionis, 
Vindicis,  due. 

Auriaca  occubuit  Violati  Numinis  ira 

Addita  portentis,  Angelica  terra,  tuis. 
Dura  Soror,  sterilis  conjux,  nata  impia,  majus 

Ausa  nefas,  quod  riec  Tullia  dira  probet. 
Neu  sceleris  palmam  credas  cessisse  marito, 
Hie  socerum  Regnis  exuit,  ilia  patrem. 
P.  PETERS,  S.J. 
Liberorum  Censor 
Vidit,   <£•  approbavit, 
appositd   SIM   stigmatis 

Is  the  exact  date  of  this  print  known  ? 
University  Library,  Aberdeen. 

JOHN  HOUSEMAN  was  elected  a  fellow  of 
St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  in  1644, 
having  been  "passed"  by  the  Assembly  of 
Divines  along  with  six  others,  while  seven 
of  the  existing  Fellows  were  deprived  ;  vide 
'  Sedbergh  School  Register.'  Can  any  of 
your  correspondents  inform  me  as  to  the 
subsequent  career  of  this  man  ? 

5,  Linden  Road,  Bedford. 

There  is  a  tavern  called  "  Fubbs  Yacht  "  in 
Brewhouse  Lane,  Greenwich,  overlooking 
:he  Thames,  that  when  last  I  saw  it  was 
quaint  and  old-fashioned.  This  sign  owes 
ts  origin  to  the  name  of  a  yacht  built  for 
Charles  II.,  about  which  a  paragraph  has 
ately  been  going  the  rounds  of  the  news- 
Dapers.  Fubbs  is  therein  stated  to  have 
3een  a  familiar  nickname  applied  by  that 
dng  to  his  favourite  Louise  de  Keroualle, 
Duchess  of  Portsmouth. 

In  a  former  paragraph,  which  appeared 
some  years  ago,  the  yacht  was  said  to  have 
n  named  after  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland, 
who  was  supplanted  by  her  French  rival, 
and  there  is  in  Hawkins's  '  History  of 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  e,  1910. 

Music  '  a  story  of  its  having  been  almost 
wrecked  off  the  coast  of  Kent  with  the 
King  and  Duke  of  York  on  board,  who  had 
to  work  like  common  sailors.  Doubtless 
among  your  readers  there  are  some  whose 
information  about  this  vessel  and  the  use  of 
the  word  by  Charles  II.  is  fuller  and  more 
accurate  than  mine,  and  it  would,  I  am 
sure,  be  worth  while  to  have  a  permanent 
record  in  *  N.  &  Q.'  of  the  facts. 

Perhaps    something    of    interest    is    also 
known  about  "  Fubbs  Yacht,'*  the  tavern. 

Who  was  the  author  of  this  political  periodi- 
cal, published  by  John  Stockdale  of  Picca- 
dilly ?  I  have  the  first  seven  numbers, 
dated  respectively  June  1,  ^  10,  18,  25, 
29,  July  5,  1791'.  \V.  ROBERTS. 

SUDAN  ARCHAEOLOGY. — Sir  Eldon  Gorst,  in 
his  Annual  Report  on  '  Egypt  and  the 
Soudan'  for  1909  (Egypt,  No.  1,  1910, 
p.  75),  writes  : — 

"  Dr.  Maclver's  excavations  at  Behen  have  pro- 
duced a  variety  of  material  of  scientific  and  his- 
toric interest. 

"  Prof.  Sayce  has  published  an  interesting  report 
of  his  last  year's  expedition  to  Merowe,  and  Mr. 
Garstang  has  recently  commenced  experimental 
diggings  on  the  site  of  the  ancient  city  of  that 

Behen  is  the  ancient  name  of  Wadi  Haifa, 
at  the  second  cataract  of  the  Nile,  where,  as 
announced  in  The  Times  of  25  March,  1909, 
p.  10,  Mr.  Maclver  conducted  excavations 
in  the  winter  of  1908-9. 

An  account  of  Prof.  Sayce's  discoveries  was 
printed  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society 
of  Biblical  Archaeology,  vol.  xxxi.,  1909, 
p.  189  sq.  ;  also,  more  briefly,  in  The  Times 
of  25  March,  1909,  p.  10. 

Where  can  I  find  further  particulars  of 
these  and  Mr.  Gars  tang's  diggings  ? 


39,  Agate  Road,  Hammersmith,  W. 

THE  OLD  PRETENDER. — I  should  be  much 
obliged  if  any  one  would  tell  me  whether 
the  Old  Pretender  was  Knight  of  the  Orders 
of  the  Golden  Fleece  and  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  whether  he  is  ever  represented  as  wearing 
the  collars  of  those  orders.  E.  LAWS. 

Brython  Place,  Tenby. 

THE  KING'S  BUTLER. — Can  any  of  your 
readers  inform  me  whether  this  "  service  "  is 
common  amongst  lords  of  manors  originally 
granted  from  the  Crown  ?  According  to 
Camden,  the  "Manor  of  Buckenham  is 
held  upon  this  condition,  that  the  lords  of  it 

be  butlers  at  the  Coronation  of  the  Kings  of 
England."  In  former  days  doubtless  the 
duties  were  light  and  the  perquisites  large  ; 
and  if  there  were  several  King's  Butlers  n 
at  each  Coronation,  the  seeds  of  many 
quarrels  must  have  been  sown  on  such 
occasions.  L.  C.  R. 

Reform  Club. 

MEREDITH  AND  MOSER. — I  have  heard 
that  Meredith's  '  Egoist l  resembles  one  of 
the  novels  of  the  German  Mcser.  Can  any  of 
your  readers  tell  me  which  ?  J.  M. 

ORIGIN. — I  understand  that  not  long  ago 
there  appeared  some  account  of  the  Lord 
Mayors  of  London  and  the  counties  of 
England  they  hailed  from.  I  should  be  glad 
of  a  reference  to  the  article.  I  have  made 
out  a  list  of  seven  Cornish  Lord  Mayors 
(Geffreys,  Cheverton,  Lawrence,  Lawrence,. 
Truscott,  Treloar,  and  Truscott),  and  should 
be  glad  to  have  the  list  extended  if  possible. 


DEAN  ALFORD'S  POEMS. — Can  any  of  your 
readers  tell  me  who  publishes  a  complete 
edition  of  Henry  Alford's  (Dean  Alford's) 
poems  ?  That  at  the  British  Museum,, 
e.g.,  lacks  the  poem  '  Be  Just  and  Fear  Not,* 
which  I  particularly  want. 


Walden,  Ditton  Hill,  Surbiton. 

MANOR  :  SAC  :  SOKE. — In  the  Rev.  J» 
Eastwood's  '  History  of  Ecclesfield,  co. 
York,1  it  is  stated  (p.  15)  that  the  word 
"  manor  "  was  introduced  into  this  country 
by  King  Edward  the  Confessor,  who  brought 
it  from  Normandy  to  take  the  place  of  what 
was  before  called  "  sac  "  or  "  soke."  Is  this 
strictly  accurate  ?  "  Manor  "  is,  I  am  aware,. 
a  late  word  in  Anglo-Saxon,  but  I  think  I 
have  met  with  its  use  before  the  reign  of  the 
Confessor.  I  may  also  remark  that  "  sac  l* 
and  *'  soke  "  are  not  always  equivalent  to 
•'  manor."  A.  O.  V.  P. 

[The  earliest  quotation  for  "manor"  in  the 
'  N.E.D.'  is  c.  1290.] 

In  1898  appeared  a  book  entitled  '  Last 
Links  with  Byron,  Shelley,  and  Keats,* 
parts  of  which  had  previously  been  contri- 
buted to  magazines.  The  author,  Mr. 
William  Graham,  described  several  conversa- 
tions which  he  had  had  with  Miss  Jane 
Clermont  at  Florence,  part  of  which  she  made 
him  promise  not  to  divulge  till  ten  years  after 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  e,  1910.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


J  her  death,  and  part  not  till  thirty  years  after 
|  This  second  portion  could  not,  therefore 
I  have  been  published  till  1909,  but  Mr 
i' Graham  in  his  preface  says  that  the  publica 
fition  of  the  Hobhouse  memoirs  in  1901 
|j  would  release  him  from  his  promise,  and  that 
'he  should  then  "be  at  liberty  to  deal  with 
jClermont  matters  in  full.31  Has  this  in- 
tention ever  been  carried  out  ?  I  believe 
I  that  the  Hobhouse  memoirs  were  published 
'not  long  ago — certainly  later  than  1901 — 
but  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  that 
I  Mr.  Graham  has  given  any  further  par- 
ticulars to  the  world.  E.  L.  H.  TEW. 
Upham.  Rectory,  Southampton. 

[Four  volumes  of  the  Hobhouse  memoirs, 
edited  by  Lady  Dorchester,  have  been  published 
by  Mr.  Murray.] 

1772)  was  not  "  admitted  at  Westminster  in 
1704,"  as  the  '  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.'  (Ix.  84)  states, 
but  was  admitted  on  the  foundation  there 
in  that  year,  and  was  elected  thence  to  a 
scholarship  at  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
in  1709.  What  was  the  name  of  his  mother, 
|who  "was  descended  from  Sir  William 
Sutton,  Bart.  "  ?  and  when  did  he  marry 
i"  a  lady  named  Bradford  "  ?  G.  F.  R.  B. 

GERVASE  WARMESTRY  (1604-41)  was 
[elected  a  student  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
ifrom  Westminster  in  1621.  The  '  Diet. 
Nat.  Biog.J  (lix.  388),  which  ignores  the  fact 
that  he  was  a  King's  Scholar,  and  that  he 
obtained  his  studentship  from  Westminster, 
states  that  he  left  a  widow.  When  and 
whom  did  he  marry  ?  G.  F.  R.  B. 

in  his  reissue  of  Ralph's  '  Critical  Review 
of  the  Public  Buildings,  &c.,  of  London,' 
1783,  cites  an  "  anonymous  writer "-  who 
observed  of  the  enclosed  area  of  Red  Lion 

' '  that  it  is  calculated  to  inspire  funeral  ideas.  I 
am  sure  I  never  go  into  it  without  thinking  of  my 
latter  end.  The  rough  sod  that  heaves  in  many  a 
mouldering  heap,  the  dreary  length  of  the  sides 
with  the  four  watch-houses  like  so  many  family- 
vaults  at  the  corners,  and  the  naked  obelisk  that 
springs  from  amidst  the  rank  grass,  like  the  sad 
monument  of  a  widow  for  the  loss  of  her  first  hus- 
band, form  all  together  a  memento  more  powerful 
to  me  than  a  death's  head  and  cross  marrow-bones  • 
and  were  but  the  parson's  bull  to  be  seen  bellowing 
at  the  gate,  the  idea  of  a  country  church-yard  would 
be  compleat. 

What  did  the  obelisk  mark  or  record — 
the  head  of  the  City  conduit  ?  The  square 
was  not  planned  before  1690,  so  this  pre- 
sumably would  be  superfluous.  Was  it  a 

recognition  of  the  story  of  the  supposed 
interment  of  Cromwell,  Ireton,  &c.,  or  was 
it  simply  decorative  ? 


Can  any  one  oblige  me  by  translating  into 
modern  English  the  following  inscription  ? 
It  is  from  the  interior  of  Hyeres  Cathedral, 
now  used  as  the  parish  church,  I  believe  : — 

HIC  :  IACET  : 

DOMNVS  :  G  :  D  : 

:  A  :  FOSis  :  DO 

MINVS  :  ARCA  : 
RVM  :  QVI  :  OB 
IIT  :  ANNO  :  DOM 

INI  :  M  :  ci  ci  :  mi  :  o  [?  1204] 

RATA  :  PRO  :  EO. 
AN  :  DEVS  :  ME  :  AIET  :  MOXI  AGET  : 


W.  H.  S. 

SPIDER'S  WEB  AND  FEVER. — I  do  not 
know  if  this  superstition  has  been  men- 
tioned in  *  N.  &  Q.,1  but  I  recollect  that  many 
folks  used  to  hold  the  opinion  that  in  cases 
of  fever  the  illness  would  linger  if  there 
was  a  cobweb  or  spider's  nest  in  the  room. 
Is  it  a  present-day  belief  ? 



ARMS  OF  WOMEN. — When  a  man  marries 
he  may  properly  impale  his  wife's  arms  with 
his  own ;  but  when  the  wife  leaves  him  a 
widower  is  it  right  to  remove  her  arms  so 
impaled,  or  do  they  remain  ?  If  they  remain, 
and  he  -  marry  a  second  wife,  what  occurs 
then  ?  Is  the  sinister  side  of  the  shield 
again  divided  into  chief  and  base  to  allow 
the  impalement  of  the  two  femmes  arms, 
or  how  otherwise  ?  A.  H. 

[See  also  10  S.  x.  429 ;  xi.  296 ;  xii.  97.] 

1839. — In  a  periodical  of  1839,  to  some 
extent  dealing  with  archaeology,  is  an  edi- 
torial note  stating  that 

'  a  curious  MS.  has  just  been  completed  after  a 
abour  of  more  than  twenty  years,  a  treatise  on  the 
Temple  of  Jerusalem,  in  four  books,  dealing  with 
the  successive  Temples,  their  furniture  and  utensils, 
,nd  giving  the  most  minute  details,  some  calcula- 
;kms  descending  to  one-sixth  of  an  inch." 

After  describing  the  MS.  as  a  condensation  of 

:he   labours   of   more   than   three   hundred 

authors,  the  notice  says  : — 

"The  author  has  employed  as  translators  the 

rincipal  Rabbins,  of   whom    he    had   frequently 

hree  at  a  time,  either  travelling  or  domicilea  with 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [11  s.  n.  -AUG.  e,  mo. 

him,  and  he  estimates  his  outlay  at  10,000/.  He 
now  seeks  to  find  a  purchaser,  or  aid  in  printing 
the  work  by  subscription;  the  necessity  for  his 
return  to  Rome  will  induce  him  very  thankfully  to 
accept  a  very  moderate  remuneration." 

I  can  find  no  further  allusion  to  the  subject, 
and  shall  be  glad  if  light  can  be  thrown  upon 
the  identity  of  the  author  mentioned,  and 
if  the  manuscript  can  be  recognized  as 
haying  been  published  at  any  subsequent 
date  to  1839.  :  W.  B.  H. 

read  somewhere  of  an  Irishman  who  mistook 
the  buzzing  in  his  own  ears  for,  I  think, 
a  thunderstorm,  and  was  angry  because 
people  did  not  fly  at  his  call  to  shelter. 
Will  some  one  oblige  me  by  a  reference  to 
the  author  ?  Lucis. 



(11  S.  ii.  49.) 

THE  'York  Pontifical,*  Surtees  Society, 
vol.  Ixi.,  under  '  Dedicatio  Ecclesiae,' 
pp.  59-61,  gives  this  ceremony  of  the 
alphabet.  The  bishop  is  to  write,  "  cum 
baculo,"  the  Greek  alphabet  in  sand,  or  in 
ashes,  on  the  pavement,  from  the  left 
corner  east  to  the  right  corner  west.  The 
names  of  the  letters  are  set  down,  26  in 
number,  and  the  numbers  1  to  10,  then 
by  tens  to  100,  then  by  hundreds  to 
1,000,  and  last,  by  thousands,  to  "  ecato- 
stochile."  The  arrangement  and  spelling 
are  peculiar.  Next,  from  the  right  corner 
east  to  the  left  corner  west  was  to  be 
written  the  Latin  alphabet.  Here  was  left 
a  blank  for  it  in  the  manuscript,  the  bishop 
being  presumed  to  know  it.  The  accom- 
panying "  Oratio  "  refers  to  Moses  on  Sinai 
receiving  the  two  tables  of  stone  written  by 
the  finger  of  God,  and  the  bishop  beseeches 
the  acceptance  of  the  prayers  of  those  who 
pray  upon  this  pavement  "in  quo  ad  instru- 
mentum  fidei  illarum  divinarum  caracteres 
literarum  a  duobus  angulis  hujus  domus 
usque  in  alios  duos  depinximus  angulos.n 
It  is  to  be  concluded,  therefore,  that  at  an 
earlier  time  the  letters  were  those  of  the 
Hebrew  alphabet. 

Many  instances  of  the  alphabet  on  bells 
fonts,  paving-tiles,  &c.,  and  extracts  from 
ancient  writers  about  its  use  at  consecra 
tions,  are  to  be  found  at  3  S.  x.  351  (353  in  th 

General  Index  is  an  error),  425,  486  ;  xi. 
184,  449  ;  4  S.  i.  349  ;  6  S.  iv.  187  ;  7  S. 
i.  309,  411;  iii.  Ill;  x.  346;  xi.  134. 
Fo  these  I  can  add :  Archceologia,  xxv. 
243  ;  Reliquary,  1871,  xi.  129-32  ;  '  Hand- 
book to  the  York  Museum,'  1891,  p.  156  ;  and 
he  books  on  bells  by  Lukis  and  Raven. 
There  is  an  alphabet-tile  in  Holy  Trinity 
Church,  Hull.  A  testator  in  1431  bequeaths 
'  unum  collok  pece  argenti  cum  scriptura  in 
cooperculo  ^.  $.  C."  ('  Test.  Ebor.,'  ii.  15). 

Another  use  of   the  Greek  alphabet  was 
as  a  precept  in  gentility  :    "  that  an  angr^ 
man  should  not    set  hand  or  heart  to  an; 
thing  til  he  had  recited  the  Greek  alphabet 
or  by  that  time  the  heat  of  choller  woul 
be  alaide  »  (Kinge,    '  lonas,'   1597,  p.   541] 
'  This  was  Augustus  his  cure.     Prescril 
oy  the  philosopher  (Athenod.).     If  you 
angry,   say   over  the   alphabet   before   yoi 
speak  or  do  anything'4  (Brough,   '  Manu 
of    Devotions,'    1659,    p.    237  ;     Macleam 
1  Horace,'  1853,  p.  108  n.). 

The  Greeks  had  a  pastime  of  framing 
sentence  with  the  24  letters  of  the  alphabet 
ach  used  once  only  (Jebb,  '  Bentley,'  188 
p.  15).  W.  C.  B. 

Mgr.  L.  Duchesne  in  '  Origines  du  Cull 
chretien  *  refers  to  this  alphabet  ceremony 
(English      translation,       S.  P.  C.  K.,      190 
p.  417) :— 

"  Sig.  de  Rossi  points  out  interesting  relati< 
between  this  singular  rite  and  certain  Christian 
monuments  on  which  the  alphabet  appears 
bo  have  a  symbolical  signification.  He  has 
removed  all  doubt  as  to  the  idea  which  suggested 
bhe  ceremony.  It  corresponds  with  the  taking 
possession  of  land  and  the  laying  down  of  its 
boundaries.  The  saltire,  or  St.  Andrew's  cross 
(crux  decussata),  upon  which  the  bishop  traces 
the  letters  of  the  alphabet,  recalls  the  two  trans- 
verse lines  which  the  Roman  surveyors  traced  in 
the  first  instance  on  the  lands  they  wished  to 
measure.  The  letters  written  on  this  cross  are  a 
reminiscence  of  the  numerical  signs  which  were 
combined  with  the  transverse  lines  in  order  to, 
determine  the  perimeter. 

"  The  series  formed  by  these  letters  moreover, 
that  is,  the  entire  alphabet,  is  only  a  sort  of  ex- 
pansion of  the  mysterious  contraction  A  ft  ,  just 
as  the  decussis,  the  Greek  X,  is  the  initial  of  the 
name  of  Christ.  The  alphabet  traced  on  a  cross 
on  the  pavement  of  the  church  is  thus  equivalent 
to  the  impression  of  a  large  signum  Christi  on  the 
land  which  is  henceforward  dedicated  to  Christi~ 


Crofton  Park,  S.E. 

As  to    "  the  ceremony  of   the  alphabet, 
see  letters  from  Sir  George  Birdwood 
Miss  Jane  Ellen  Harrison  in   The  Times 

5,   11,    15  July.  ROBEKT  PlEBPOINT. 

ii  B.  ii.  AUG.  6,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


«'  DENIZEN  "  :  "  FOREIGN  "  (11  S.  i.  506  ; 
ii.  71). — I  am  afraid  I  cannot  accept  the 
derivation  of  denizen  from  Provencal.  There 
is  no  trace  of  such  forms  as  desnisein  or 
desnisien  in  that  language,  nor  any  reason 
why  it  should  be  of  Southern  French  origin. 
And  the  sense  "to  turn  out  of  a  nest  n  is 
almost  diametrically  opposed  to  that  of 
"native,"  or  person  who  has  never  been 
turned  out  at  all.  "  Native  "  is  the  oldest 
sense  in  English.  On  the  other  hand, 
Godefroy  gives  deinzein  as  the  O.F.  equiva- 
lent of  the  Latin  indigena  in  Josh.  viii.  33 ; 
and  four  examples  of  denzein  or  denezyn. 
One  has  to  remember  that  the  z  is  here 
the  Norman  z,  pronounced  as  ts,  and  that  is 
why  the  derivation  is  from  the  O.F.  deinz, 
i.e.  Lat.  deint's,  for  deintus.  The  sense  is 
precisely  that  which  is  required,  viz.,  a 
person  who  comes  "  from*  within."  The 
word  was  fairly  common  in  Anglo-French  ; 
and  as  Sir  James  Murray  does  not  very  fully 
exemplify  this,  I  give  some  quotations  and 

In  the  first  place  it  occurs  as  denzeyns, 
in  the  plural,  in  the  *  Statutes  of  the  Realm,' 
vol.  i.  p.  137,  under  the  date  1300  (not  a 
time  for  Proven£al  influence  in  a  word  of  this 

"Auxi  bien  de   denzeins   come    de   foreyns."— 

*  Liber  Albus,'  p.  295. 

"  Auxibien    des  foreins  come   dez   deinzeins." — 

*  Liber  Albus,'  p.  367,  in  an  ordinance  of  Edw.  III. 

"  Auxi  bien  de  denzeins  come  de  foreios."-— 
4  Liber  Custumarum,'  p.  303, 14  Edw.  II. 

"Pur  garder  lassise  entre  les  denzeins."— Id., 
p.  305,  14  Edw.  II. 

"Auxi  bien  as  foreins  come  as  denzeyns." — Id.. 
p.  385, 14  Edw.  II. 

.  Npte  the  invariable  spelling  with  z,  a 
symbol  rarely  used.  And  we  must  really 
look  to  the  dates.  Thus,  our  "  citizen " 
occurs  in  1275,  in  the  '  Statutes  of  the 
Realm,'  vol.  i.  p.  34,  in  the  form  citein,  but 
as  citeseyn  in  the  same,  p.  381,  in  1363.  So 
that  we  know  for  certain  that  it  was  the 
word  "  citizen  "  that  was  modified  in  form 
rather  than  denizen.  We  meet  with  denzein 
already  in  1300  ;  but  the  verb  to  denize 
is  not  known  till  1577.  The  latter  derives 
its  i  from  the  form  denizen,  which  was  a 
mistaken  form  of  deinzen,  as  we  know 
from  the  more  original  form  denzein.  If 
denize  (why  with  z  ?)  had  been  derived  from 
Proven9al,  the  form  -would  have  been 
desnise,  as  the  prefix  des~  is  retained  in  such 
words  to  the  present  day.  And  if  it  had 
been  derived  from  O.F.  desnicker,  it  would 
have  been  deniche.  I  have  no  faith  at  all 
in  the  proposed  correction. 


RISTER (US.  ii.  69). — John  Brooke  was  one 
of  the  Serjeants  called  to  the  coif  in  Novem- 
ber, 1510,  being  the  first  call  after  the 
accession  of  Henry  VIII.  The  list  of 
Serjeants-at-law  towards  the  close  of  the 
reign  of  Henry  VII.  and  the  early  years  of 
that  of  Henry  VIII.  is  somewhat  imperfect, 
so  that  it  is  possible  that  some  of  those 
included  in  the  call  of  1510  may  have  been 
originally  appointed  under  Henry  VII. 
John  Brooke  was  never  himself  a  judge,  but 
was  father  to  Sir  David  Brooke,  Serjeant- 
at-law  in  1547,  and  Chief  Baron  of  the 
Exchequer  from  1553  till  his  death  in 

John  Brooke  was  chief  steward  of  Glaston- 
bury  Monastery,  resided  at  Canynge  House, 
Redclyffe,  Bristol,  and  married  Joan, 
daughter  and  heir  of  Richard  Amerike.  He 
di«d  25  December,  1522,  and  was  buried  at 
St.  Mary  Redclyffe.  It  is  not  stated  to  which 
Inn  of  Court  he  belonged,  but  as  it  was  to 
neither  Gray's  Inn  nor  Lincoln's  Inn,  nor, 
apparently,  to  the  Inner  Temple  (his  son 
David's  Inn),  it  is  all  but  certain  that  he 
would  be  identical  with  the  barrister  of  that 
name  who  was  a  Bencher  and  Treasurer  of 
the  Middle  Temple. 

Your  correspondent  in  making  this  John 
Brooke  a  judge  has,  I  think,  confused  him 
with  Richard  Brooke  of  the  Middle  Temple, 
who  was  called  to  the  coif  at  the  same  time 
as  his  namesake  John,  was  Recorder  of 
London  1510-20,  M.P.  for  London  1512 
and  1515,  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas  1520, 
and  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer  1526 
till  his  death  in  1529.  W.  D.  PINK. 

ii.  68). — William  Davies  of  Warrington, 
author  of  that  charming  book  '  The  Pil- 
grimage of  the  Tiber,4  was  an  old  friend  of 
mine.  I  do  not  know  any  facts  concerning 
his  intimacy  with  the  D.  G.  Rossetti  circle, 
but  he  probably  knew  one  member  of  it 
at  least,  viz.,  Stillman,  the  American,  who 
was  later  a  regular  Times  correspondent  in 
Italy  during,  and  alter,  my  seven  years  in 
Rome.  Davies's  fellow-townsman,  Wood 
the  sculptor  (called  Warrington  Wood,  to 
distinguish  him  from  Shakespeare  Wood, 
another  Times  correspondent  in  Italy),  was 
our  contemporary.  Elihu  Vedder(  illustrator 
of  Omar  Khayyam)  is  still  living  in  Rome,  I 
fancy  ;  he  was  Davies's  great  friend  in  the 
seventies,  and  I  now  and  then  met  the  latter 
at  Vedder's  table,  whereat  he  dined  regularly 
every  Sunday.  WILLIAM  MERCER. 

[Reply  from  MR.  R.  A.  POTTS  next  week.] 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       en  s.  IL  AUG.  6, 1910. 

T.  L.  PEACOCK'S  PLAYS  (11  S.  ii.  27). — 
Two  plays  translated  by  Peacock  were 
published  in  one  volume  in  1862.  Their 
titles  were  *  Gl*  Ingannati l  (englished  as 
'  The  Deceived :  a  comedy  performed  at 
Siena  in  1531  *)  and  '  ^Elia  Laelia  Crispis.*  A 
notice  of  these  plays,  according  to  Allibone, 
appeared  in  The  Athenaeum,  1862,  ii.  305. 
Copies  of  the  volume  may  be  found  in  the 
Dyce  Collection  of  Books,  South  Kensington, 
and  in  the  Advocates*  Library,  Edinburgh. 

w.  s.  s. 

STAKES  (11  S.  ii.  66). — Except  indirectly  as  a 
patronymic  of  a  Norman  family,  the  saint 
has  nothing  to  do  with  horse -racing.  The 
St.  Leger  Stakes  were  founded  in  1776  by 
Anthony  St.  Leger,  a*  nephew  of  the  first 
Viscount  Doneraile ;  he  was  a  Major- 
General,  Colonel  of  the  86th  Foot,  M.P. 
for  Grimsby,  and  died  in  1786  s.p.  The 
St.  Leger  family  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  the 
kingdom,  a  Seynt  Leger  being  mentioned 
in  Brompton's  '  Chronicle  *  amongst  the 
Normans  who  came  over  with  the  Con- 
queror ;  in  fact,  it  is  traditionally  reported 
that  this  warrior  (i.e.  St.  Leger)  had  the 
distinguished  honour  of  helping  the  Con- 
queror out  of  the  boat  when  he  landed  in 
this  country.  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

The  famous  contest  at  Doncaster  was  not 
instituted  in  pious  memory  of  St.  Leode- 
garius,  but  was  named  after  Col.  St.  Leger. 
The  patronymic  is  no  doubt  due,  however 
indirectly,  to  the  popularity  of  the  martyr- 
bishop.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

Is  there  any  connexion  ?  The  race  takes 
its  name  from  Col.  St.  Leger.  See  a  state- 
ment at  2  S.  viii.  362  by  C.  J.,  i.e.,  Charles 
Jackson,  a  very  competent  Doncaster  anti- 
quary. W.  C.  B. 

[Ms,.  W.  B.  KINGSFOBD,  MR.  J.  HOLDEN  MAC- 
MICHAEL,  MB.  C.  SWYNNEBTON,  and  MB.  J.  B. 
WAINEWBIGHT  also  thanked  for  replies.] 

ST.  AGATHA  AT  WIMBOBNE  (US.  ii.  29). — 
Among  the  relics  formerly  preserved  in 
Wimborne  Church  was  part  of  the  thigh  of 
the  blessed  Virgin  Agatha,  who  is  apparently 
identical  with  St.  Agatha,  Virgin  and 
Martyr,  but  who  dwelt  in  the  city  of  Catania 
in  Sicily.  No  mention  is  made  in  Mrs. 
Jameson's  *  Sacred  and  Legendary  Art  *  of 
her  having  been  educated  at  Wimborne. 


The  following  sentence,  quoted  from  '  The 
Catholic  Encyclopaedia,1  i.  204,  seems 

eminently  sensible  :  "If  there  is  a  kernel  of 
historical  truth  in  the  narrative  [relating  to 
St.  Agatha],  it  has  not  as  yet  been  possible 
to  sift  it  out  from  the  later  embellishments.'* 
It  may  also  be  pointed  out  that  some  five 
centuries  intervened  between  St.  Agatha 
and  St.  Lioba.  SCOTUS. 

363  ;  ii.  52). — MB.  WELFOBD  and  others  have 
shown  that  my  lists  "  are  very  incomplete.11 
Let  me  say  again  that  they  are  the.  result 
of  no  research,  but  only  a  by-product  of  work 
which  was  directed  to  another  object.  Never- 
theless, they  make  a  good  beginning  towards 
exhibiting  the  condition  of  provincial  book- 
selling as  distinct  from  printing. 

It  was  impossible  for  me  to  make  notes  of 
the  vast  number  of  title-pages,  but  for- 
tunately, I  can  serve  MB.  RHODES.  I  have 
a  copy  of 

"  Divine  Emblems  :  or,  Natural  Things  Spirit- 
ualized   By  a  Spectator. . . .  London  :  Printed 

for  and  sold  by  George  Keith,  Gracechurch- 
Street. .  .  .Thomas  Cole,  Greenwich  ;  and 
Nathaniel  Whitefield,  King's  Stairs,  Rotherhithe. 

It  is  an  8vo  of  19  leaves,  and  relates  to 
Flamborough  Head  in  1766.  The  author's 
initials  are  J.  P.  W.  C.  B. 

MOCK  COATS  OF  ABMS  (11  S.  i.  146,  313, 
497  ;  ii.  59). — In  the  early  volumes  of  Punch 
there  are  some  pictorial  *  Mock  Coats  of 
Arms,'  and  descriptions  of  others.  In  1848 
(vol.  xiv.  p.  57)  Douglas  Jerrold  contributed 
the  following  : — 

The  Arms  of  the  See  of  Manchester. — The 
College  of  Arms  has  done  the  handsome  thing  by 
the  new  Bishop  of  Manchester,  and  has  fitted  him 
up  with  a  very  significant  article.  As  the  arms 
have  been  altogether  falsely  described  by  our 
contemporaries,  we  are  the  more  earnest  that 
the  error  should  be  corrected.  The  Arms  may 
be  thus  technically  described  :  '  Or,  on  a  pale  of 
spikes  '  (to  show  how  difficult  it  sometimes  may 
be  to  climb  into  a  bishopric),  '  three  mitres  of 
Brummagen  proper '  (showing  that  episcopacy 
is  altogether  above  gold) ;  '  a  cotton  pod  '  (to 
mark  humility  ;  for,  whereas  all  other  Bishops 
wear  lawn  sleeves,  the  Bishop  of  Manchester  will 
always  appear  in  calico)  ;  and  '  a  square  shield, 
charged  with  a  factory  chimney  proper,  with  this 
motto — Ex  fumo  dare  gingham." 



'The  Comic  History  of  Heraldry,1  by 
R.  N.  Edgar,  gives  many  examples  of  ficti- 
tious armorial  bearings,  illustrated  by 
William  Vine,  and  published  by  Tegg  in 
1878.  J.  BAGNALL. 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  6,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


"  HANDYMAN  n  =  SAILOR  (11  S.  i.  448, 
498). — May  I  add  a  sentence  or  two  to  the 
replies  already  given  ?  There  can  be  no 
doubt,  as  has  been  clearly  shown,  that  the 
word  "  handyman,"  meaning  sailor,  was  in 
use  long  anterior  to  the  siege  of  Ladysmith. 
Like  MB.  BURNETT  in  his  query,  however, 
I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  events  of  the 
siege  gave  to  the  name  its  abiding  popu- 
larity. My  recollection  is  that  among 
numerous  telegrams  thanking  the  Naval 
Brigade  for  their  skill  and  bravery  at  Lady- 
smith  in  1899,  there  was  one  from  Queen 
Alexandra,  then  Princess  of  Wales,  in 
which  the  term  "  handyman "  occurred. 
Proceeding  from  so  exalted  a  source,  the 
name  became  fixed  in  popular  esteem. 

w.  s.  s. 

In  a  letter  from  the  Crimea,  describing  the 
fall  of  Sebastopol,  Gordon  wrote  :  "  Most  of 
their  artillerymen,  being  sailors,  were 
necessarily  handy  men,  and  had  devised 
several  ingenious  modes  of  riveting.'1  See 
4  Life  of  Gordon  *  by  Demetrius  C.  Boulger, 
chap.  ii. 

There  was  a  song  at  the  time  of  the  South 
African  War  with  the  following  chorus  : — 
O  Jack,  you  are  a  handyman  ; 
Whether  in  love  or  in  war. 
Whether  on  land  or  on  shore, 

You  're  all  right, 
Beat  you  no  one  can. 
That 's  why  they  call  you 
Jack  the  handyman. 

G.  H.  W. 

FOLLY  (11  S.  ii.  29,  78).— The  sham  castles 
of  the  eighteenth  century  are  known  by  this 
name.  In  two  cases  within  my  memory  they 
have  become  dwelling-houses.  At  Park  End, 
Gloucestershire,  however,  "  The  Folly  "  is  a 
tract  of  oak  forest.  D. 

At  Kildwick  Hall,  a  few  miles  south  of 
Skipton,  West  Riding  of  Yorks,  a  small 
wood  in  a  narrow  valley,  with  a  very  small 
stream  running  through  it,  has  always  been 
called  "  The  Folly."  J.  A.  GREENWOOD. 

In  the  'N.E.D.,1  v.  Folly,  sense  5,  there 
are  some  remarks  which  are  worth  consider- 
ing. Reference  having  been  made  to 
Hubert's  Folly  (Stultitia  Huberti),  the  note 
concludes  thus  : — 

"  Probably  the  word  used  by  Hubert  was  F.  folie; 
;he •original  meaning  seems  to  have  been  not 
stulhtia,  but  'delight,'  'favourite  abode.'  Many 
houses  in  France  still  bear  the  name  La  Folie,  and 
there  is  some  evidence  that '  the  Folly '  was  as  late 

\  the  present  century  [the  nineteenth]  used  in  some 

th  rk  "  for  a  public  Pleasure-garden  °r 

Pepys  on  15  April,  1668,  went  to  the 
"Folly,"  a  house  of  entertainment  on  the 

Some  reader  may  yet  explain  the  origin 
of  the  following  place-names  : — 

Follifoot  or  Follyfoot,  Folly  Hall,  Folly 
Gill,  all  in  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire. 

Folly  Bridge,  Oxford.  Surely  this  bridge 
was  never  reputed  to  be  a  costly  structure  on 
an  ill-chosen  site.  And  it  has  no  leafy 

Folly,  Old  and  New.  Two  hamlets  in 

Folly  Island  (Channel),  Charleston,  U.S. 

Folly  Lake,  Nova  Scotia. 

Folly  Mountain,  Nova  Scotia. 

Folly  Mills,  Va.,  U.S.  TOM  JONES. 

FRANCIS  THOMPSON  (II  S.  i.  467). — May  one 
not  suppose  that  both  poets  are  referring  to 
the  old  classical  fable  of  the  chariot  and 
horses  of  the  sun  ?  They  are  drawing  their 
imagery  from  a  common  source.  It  is  un- 
necessary to  imagine  any  oblivious  "  taking 
over u  by  the  one  from  the  other.  In 
harmony  with  the  legend,  one  naturally 
expects  to  hear  the  sound  of  hoof-beats 
before  the  chariot  actually  appears,  which, 
being  interpreted,  may  perhaps  mean  that 
as  day  breaks  and  the  shadows  of  darkness 
flee  away,  the  world  bestirs  itself  and  begins 
to  prepare  for  strenuous  toil.  The  clanging 
or  thundering  sound  may  be  taken  to  refer 
to  the  awakening  of  nature  to  noisy  activity 
after  the  hush  and  stillness  of  the  night. 

W.  S.  S. 

The  idea  that  the  sun's  movements  are 
accompanied  by  a  shock  or  sound  is  not 
peculiar  to  any  one  country.  According  to 
Tacitus,  the  Germans  believed  that  the  sun 
made  sounds  in  setting.  The  Pythagorean 
idea  of  the  "  music  of  the  spheres  "  seems 
also  to  come  under  this  heading.  Goethe 
refers  to  solar  music  twice  in  his  '  Faust  *  :  in 
the  '  Prolog  im  Himmel  *  and  in  the  first 
scene  of  Act  I.  of  the  Second  Part. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF  LONDON  (11  S.  i.  407, 
495  ;  ii.  53). — I  have  never  seen  the  biblio- 
graphy of  London  issued  by  the  British 
Museum  authorities.  It  forms  part  of  the 
General  Catalogue  of  the  Library,  but  was 
also  issued  separately.  See  Sonnenschein's 
'  The  Best  Books,'  2nd  ed.,  1891,  p.  703. 

A  bibliography  of  London  might  be  com- 
piled in  either  of  two  ways.  In  my  reply 
at  the  second  reference  I  followed  what  may 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  e,  1910. 

be  called  the  topographical  method,  including 
only  such  publications,  or  parts  of  publica- 
tions, as  dealt  with  London  exclusively.  The 
other  and  more  complete  method,  appa- 
rently approved  by  MR.  ABRAHAMS,  would 
include  every  book,  pamphlet,  or  single  sheet 
published,  printed,  or  written  in  London, 
no  matter  what  its  theme — everything,  in 
short,  that  bore  the  word  "  London  "  any- 
where on  its  title-page-^-from  the  days  of 
Oaxton  down  to  the  present  hour.  This 
wider  bibliographical  outlook  is,  I  think, 
quite  legitimate,  and  would  cover  what 
might  be  considered  a  complete  bibliography 
of  London,  comprising  not  only  every  book 
dealing  with  the  capital,  but  every  species 
of  printed  matter,  historical,  topographical, 
antiquarian,  theological,  scientific,  and  artist- 
tic,  published,  printed,  or  written  within  its 
bounds.  In  my 'own  case,  in  attempting  the 
compilation  of  a  bibliography  of  a  Scottish 
county  according  to  this  wider  method,  I 
found  that  a  very  large  section  of  Scottish 
literature  was  embraced  within  the  scope  of 
the  work.  On  the  same  plan,  which  I 
believe  with  Mr.  ABRAHAMS  to  be  the  right 
one,  the  vast  majority  of  English  printed 
books,  metropolitan  and  provincial,  as  well 
as  a  huge  mass  of  foreign  literature,  would 
fall  to  be  included  in  a  bibliography  of 
London.  To  this  wider  plan,  however,  the 
objection  is  that  human  life  is  too  short 
for  any  single  person  to  achieve  a  task  so 
stupendous.  W.  S.  S. 

WINDSOR  STATIONMASTER  (11  S.  ii.  68). — 
Perhaps  L.  L.  K.  is  thinking  of  a  man  who 
wrote  his  experiences  under  the  pseudonym  of 
"  Ernest  Struggles."  I  remember  the  book, 
and  how,  when  going  to  visit  one  of  the 
servants  at  Windsor  Castle,  he  took  a  wrong 
turn,  and  found  himself  in  Queen  Victoria's 
•dining-room.  The  preface  was  dated  from 
€aversham.  I  forget  the  precise  title  of  the 

The  book  referred  to  by  L.  L.  K.  is,  I 
think,  '  Life  of  a  Stationmaster,'  by  Ernest 
Struggles,  published  in  1879.  A  second 
part,  entitled  '  Ernest  Struggles, *  was,  I 
believe,  published  in  1880.  It  is  many  years 
since  I  saw  the  books,  and  I  forget  the  real 
name  of  the  writer,  but  recollect  that  the 
G.  W.  R.  felt  displeasure  at  their  publication. 

Gloucester  Public  Library. 

EGERTON  LEIGH  (11  S.  ii.  68). — Egerton 
Leigh  of  West  Hall  was  eldest  son  of  the 
Rev.  Peter  Leigh,  Rector  of  Lymme,  and 

Mary,  daughter  and  heir  of  Henry  Doughty  of 
Broadwell,  Glos.,  and  grandson  of  the  Rev. 
Egerton  Leigh  of  West  Hall,  Archdeacon  of 
Salop.  The  Rev.  Peter  Leigh  died  two  years 
before  his  father. 

Egerton  Leigh,  Esq.,  baptized  at  Lymme, 
married  Elizabeth,  daughter  and  coheiress  of 
Francis  Jodrell  of  Yeardsley  and  Twemlow, 
on  21  September,  1778.  He  died  22  June, 
1833.  See  '  Landed  Gentry,'  1853. 

A.  H.  ARKLE. 

Elmhurst,  Oxton,  Birkenhead. 

THOMSON,  R.A.  (11  S.  ii.  69). — MR. 
STILWELL  will  find  a  brief  account  of  Henry 
Thomson,  R.A.,  in  Bryan's  '  Dictionary.7 
He  was  born  in  1773,  was  a  pupil  of  John 
Opie,  and  died  in  1843.  A  much  fuller 
notice  of  him  will  perhaps  be  found  in  The 
Art  Union  of  the  period.  He  exhibited  at 
the  Royal  Academy  from  1792  to  1826, 
chiefly  historical  and  poetical  subjects  ;  he 
occasionally  sent  a  portrait — his  earliest  was 
one  of  Home  Tooke — and  portrait  groups, 
but  one  of  the  Sykes  family  does  not  appear 
to  be  among  them.  He  was  a  good  deal 
patronized  by  Sir  John  Leicester  (Lord  De 
Tabley),  and  was  a  frequent  visitor  at  Sir 
John's  country  seat,  Tabley  Hall,  where 
there  are  still  several  of  his  works. 


18,  King's  Avenue,  Clapham  Park,  S.W. 

This  must  be  Henry  Thomson,  who  was 
born  at  Port  sea  31  July,  1773,  and  died 
there  6  April,  1843.  He  was  elected  an 
Associate  1801,  and  R.A.  1804,  and  was 
Keeper  1825-7.  See  Hodgson  and  Eaton's 

*  Royal  Academy  and  its  Members  '  (1905), 
pp.  238-9  ;    Bryan's  '  Diet,  of  Painters  and 
Engravers  l   (1905),  v.  174  ;  and  the  '  Diet,  of 
Nat.   Biog.,'   Ivi.    244.     The   last   authority 
gives   1802  as  the  year  in  which  Thomson 
became  an  R.A.,  but  Hodgson  and  Eaton, 
who  are  more  likely  to  be  correct  on  this 
point,  say  1804.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

See  Sandby's  '  History  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Arts,1  vol.  i.  pp.  326-7  (Long- 
mans, 1862).  W.  H.  PEET. 

JOHN  WILKES  (11  S.  ii.  27). — MB.  BLEACK- 
LEY  is  probably  acquainted  with  the  MS. 

*  Autobiography  *  of  John  Wilkes  in  2  vols. 
preserved  in  the  British  Museum.     It  is  not 
strictly  an  unpublished  MS.,  as  a  privately 
printed  edition  was  issued  in  1888,  with  the 
title  '  John  Wilkes,  Patriot  :    an  Unfinished 
Autobiography2  (Harrow,  William  F.  Tay- 
lor),   sq.    24mo,    pp.    xxiv.    and    70,    price 
10s.  6d.     See  Mr.  Bertram  Dobell's  '  Cata- 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  6,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


logue  of  Books  printed  for  Private  Circula- 
tion J  (London,  1906),  p.  193.  Mr.  Dobell 
calls  it  "  a  curious  production,"  and  regrets 
that  Wilkes  did  not  proceed  further  in  his 
design.  W.  S.  S. 

DOOR-KNOCKER  ETIQUETTE  (11  S.  i.  487  ; 
ii.  17).  —  In  continuation  of  my  reply,  I 
have  found  the  following  reference  in  '  The 
Servants'  Guide  and  Family  Manual,  with 
new  and  improved  Receipts,  arranged  and 
adapted  to  the  Duties  of  all  Classes  of 
Servants  '-  (London,  printed  for  John  Lim 
bird,  143,  Strand,  1830),  p.  253  :  — 

"  Unnecessarily  loud  knocking  at  a  street-door  is 
thought  by  some  to  give  an  air  of  style  and  conse- 
quence to  an  arrival  ;  but  the  practice  has  been  so 
often  complained  of,  and  carried  to  such  extent,  that 
the  custom  is  somewhat  abated." 

Kew  Green. 


(11  S.  ii.  68).— The  5  Elizabeth,  chap.  v. 
section  37,  is  as  follows  : — 

"And  also  such  persons  as  have,  or  hereafter 
-shall  have,  upon  good  and  just  consideration,  any 
lawful  licence  to  eat  flesh  upon  any  fish  day  (except 
such  persons  as  for  sickness  shall  for  the  time  be 
licensed  by  the  bishop  of  the  diocese,  or  by  their 
curates,  or  shall  be  licensed  by  reason  of  age,  or 
other  impediment,  allowed  heretofore  by  the  eccle- 
siastical laws  of  this  realm),  shall  be  bound,  by 
force  of  this  statute,  to  have  for  every  one  dish  of 
flesh  served  to  be  eaten  at  their  table,  one  usual 
dish  of  sea  fish,  fresh  or  salt,  to  be  likewise  served 
at  the  same  table,  and  to  be  eaten  or  spent  without 
iraud  or  covin,  as  the  like  kind  is  or  shall  be  usually 
eaten  or  spent  on  Saturdays." 

W.  McB.  and  F.  MARCHAM. 

The  statute  asked  for  is  5  Eliz.  c.  5,  "An 
Act  touching  Politick  Constitutions  for  the 
Maintenance  of  the  Navy."  Sections  14  to 
3  and  35  to  39  deal  with  "fish  days'' 
and  their  observance,  together  with  penalties 
and  licences.  Section  39  declares  that  the 

"is  purposely  intended  and  meant  politically  for 
the  Increase  of  Fishermen  and  Mariners,  and 
Repairing  ot  Port  Towns  and  Navigation,  and  not 
onSelts  »perstition  to  be  maintained  in  the  Choice 

-  In  ,?ibs°n's  '  Codex>?  1761  edition,  pp.  255- 
A  T  I  -£,.°Und  the  essential  portions  of  the 
Acts  5  Eliz.,  cap.  5,  27  Eliz.,  cap.  11,  and 
T?  cap.  7,  which  refer  to  the  eating  of 
ish.  By  the  first  of  these  Acts  Wednesdav 
was  made  a  fish  day  in  the  same  way  as 
Saturday  In  the  case  of  a  person  in  ill- 
health  the  bishop  or  the  parish  parson 
could  grant  a  licence,  which  was  toTe  °n 

writing,  and  was  not  to  endure  longer  than 
the  time  of  the  sickness  ;  and  if  the  sickness 
continued  above  the  space  of  eight  days  after 
the  granting  of  the  licence,  then  the  licence 
was  to  be  registered  in  the  church  book, 
with  the  knowledge  of  one  of  the  church- 
wardens. The  other  particulars  of  the  Act 
are  too  long  to  quote.  DIEGO. 

A.  L.  F.  may  be  interested  in  the  following 
extract  from  the  parish  registers  of  Mack- 
worth,  co.  Derby  : — 

"  Whereas  the  right  worple  Francis  Munday  of 
Markeaton  in  the  parish  of  Mach  worth  and  countie 
of  Derbie,  Esq.,  for  the  avoiding  of  the  penalties 
and  dangers  of  the  laws  and  statutes  made  for 
restrainte  of  eating  flesh  in  Lent,  and  in  considera- 
tion that  he  hath  in  his  house  at  diett  or  table  the 
right  worple  Mrs.  Dorothy  Poole,  gentlewoman, 
about  the  age  of  three-score  years,  who  is  very  weak 
and  sickly,  not  able  to  go  or  stand  without  help, 
hath  desired  me  to  grant  license  to  and  for  the  said 
Dorothy  Poole  to  eat  flesh  for  and  during  the  time 
of  her  sickness,  which  I  have  thought  fitting,  and 
in  regard  I  know  the  considerations  aforesaid  to  be 
most  true,  I  do  hereby  grant  license  unto  the  said 
Dorothy  Poole  to  eat  flesh  for  and  during  the  time 
of  her  sickness  according  to  the  laws  and  statutes 
of  this  realm  in  that  case  made  and  provided,  and 
hereunto  I  have  putt  my  hand  the  ninth  day  of 
February  in  the  reign  of  King  James  of  England  the 
sixteenth  and  of  Scotland  the  fifty-second,  A.D. 
1618-  Byrne, 

Edward  Hincheliffe,  clerk." 

P.  D.  MUNDY. 

(11  S.  ii.  27). — A  later  edition  or  reprint  of 
*  Shaving  Them,'-  undated,  but  about  1875, 
was  issued  by  Messrs.  Ward,  Lock  &  Tyler, 
Warwick  House,  Paternoster  Row.  It  was  in 
illustrated  wrappers,  and  contained  a  frontis- 
piece and  230  pp.  Titus  A.  Brick,  evidently 
a  pseudonym,  is  mentioned  in  a  list  of  Ward, 
Lock  &  Tyler's  publications  as  being  also  the 
author  of  '  Awful  Crammers.'- 

I  recollect  reading  in  some  literary  journal 
about  twenty  years  ago  an  account  of  the 
origin  of  '  Shaving  Them.1  This  stated  that 
the  three  adventurers  were  Londoners,  and 
not  citizens  of  the  great  Republic.  So  far 
as  recollection  serves,  John  Camden  Hotten 
and  S.  O.  Beeton  were  mentioned  as  having 
something  to  do  with  the  writing  of  the  book. 


(11  S.  i.  508  ;  ii.  36).— Miss  Emma  Phipson 
n  her  '  Choir  Stalls  and  their  Carvings  * 
1896),  p.  36,  says  of  the  stalls  formerly  be- 
onging  to  the  chapel  of  the  Royal  Hospital 
of  St.  Katherine  by  the  Tower,  mentioned 
by  MR.  MACMICHAEL  and  myself  in  our 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  A™,  e,  mo. 

replies,  that  "they  were  begun  by  William 
de  Enderby,  Master  in  1340,  and  completed 
by  John  de  Hemensthorpe  in  1369.  Queen 
Philippa,  wife  to  Edward  III.,  was  a  great 
patroness  of  the  church.'* 

A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

"  THE  HOLY  CROWS,?S  LISBON  (US.  ii.  67). 
— Beckford's  statements,  where  capable  of 
being  tested,  are  found  to  be  wholly  in- 

St.  Vincent  was  not  "  martyrized  near  the 
Cape  which  bears  his  name,"  but  at  Valentia. 

His  mangled  body  was  not,  though  the 
major  portion  of  his  relics  were,  "  conveyed 
to  Lisbon  in  a  boat,  attended  by  crows." 
This  was  in  1139,  and -St.  Vincent  suffered 
in  304.  It  is  therefore  impossible  that 
"these  disinterested  birds. ..  .pursued  his 
murderers  with  dreadful  screams  and  tore 
their  eyes  out.'' 

The  probability  is  that  Beckford's  com- 
mand of  Portuguese  was  insufficient  to 
enable  him  to  follow  what  the  sacristan  told 

The  two  crows  kept  near  the  Cathedral 
of  Lisbon  in  1787  have  a  parallel  in  the 
bears  kept  at  Bern  at  the  present  day. 


.The 'descendants  of  "The  Holy  Crows'' 
are  still  kept  in  the  cloisters  of  the  Cathedral 
at  Lisbon,  and  I  saw  them  there  when  visiting 
the  Cathedral  in  March  last.  The  legend, 
as  told  to  us,  is  that  St.  Vincent  was  first 
buried  at  the  cape  which  bears  his  name, 
where  the  crows  watched  continually  over 
his  grave.  When  his  bones  were  removed 
.to  the  Cathedral  at  Lisbon,  the  crows  are 
said  to  have  followed  them. 

H.  J.  B.  CLEMENTS. 
Killadoon  Celbridere. 

Two  crows  are  still  maintained  in  honour- 
able, if  not  happy  captivity  in  a  court  con- 
nected with  Lisbon  Cathedral.  On  the 
walls  of  the  church  the  attentions  paid 
to  St.  Vincent  by  them  or  their  progenitors 
are  attractively  commemorated  in  blue  and 
white  tiles. 

Geese  are  kept  in  the  cloisters  of  Barcelona 
Cathedral.  Augustus  Hare  says  this  has 
been  done 

"  from  time  immemorial  to  guard  the  treasures  of 
the  cathedral,  according  to  the  old  Catalonian 
custom  which  makes  the  geese  serve,  and  more 
efficaciously  too,  the  place  of  watchdogs  at  the 
country  houses."—'  Wanderings  in  Spain,'  p.  41. 

Everybody  remembers  the  valuable  help 
rendered  by  the  geese  of  the  Capitol. 


'JANE  SHORE  ?  (US.  ii.  66).— There  is  a 
copy  of  this  book  here,  undated,  but  seem- 
ingly published  within  the  last  twenty  years. 
The  publishers  are  W.  Nicholson  &  Sons 
of  26,  Paternoster  Square,  E.G.,  and  also  of 
the  Albion  Works,  Wakefield,  and  the  book 
with  others  is  stated  to  be  "  printed  by 
special  arrangement  with  the  authoress, 
Mrs.  Bennett."  The  title-page  describes 
the  book  (382  pp.)  as  follows  : — 

Jane  Shore ;  or,  the  Goldsmith's  Wife,  an  His- 
torical Tale.  By  Mrs.  Bennett,  author  of  '  The 
Cottage  Girl,'  '  The  Jew's  Daughter,'  &c. 

At  the  end  of  the  book  is  the  following, 
advertisement : — 

Mrs.  Bennett's  Works.  2s.  each.  Complete  Editions. 
Jane  Shore  ;  or,  the  Goldsmith's  Wife. 
The  Cottage  Girl ;  or,  the  Marriage  Day. 
The  Jew's  Daughter ;  or,  the  Witch  of  the  Water- 

The  Broken  Heart ;  or,  the  Village  Bridal. 
The  Gipsy  Bride;  or,  the  Miser's  Daughter. 
The  Gipsy  Queen  ;  or,  the  Maori's  Daughter. 
The  Canadian  Girl ;  or,  the  Pirate  of  the  Lakes. 

I     have     no      further     information,     buk 

no  doubt  Mr.  H.  T.  FOLKARD,  if  he  wrote  to 

Messrs.  W.  Nicholson  &  Sons,  could  obtain 

other  details  if  that  firm  is  still  in  business.  • 


46,  Maryborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

ROYAL  TOMBS  AT  ST.  DENIS  (US.  ii.  65).— 
MB.  ALECK  ABRAHAMS  may  be  interested  to 
know  that  in  1681  M.  Combes  wrote  a  little 
handbook  which  was  translated  into  English, 
and  published  in  1684,  with  the  following 
title-page  : — 

"  An  Historical  Explanation  I  of  |  What  there  is 
most  remarkable  in  that  |  Wonder  of  the  World,  | 
The  French  King's  |  Royal  House  |  at  |  Versailles, 
|  And  in  that  of  Monsieur,  at  |  St.  Cloud.  |  Written, 
in  the  French  Tongue  by  the  Sieur  Combes,  |  And 
now  faithfully  done  into  English.  I  Together  with  | 
A  Compendious  Inventory  |  of  the  |  Treasury  of 
S.  Denis.  |  London  :  |  Printed  for  Matthew  Turner,, 
near  Turn-  |  stile  in  Holborri.  1684."  12mo,  pp.  xxiv, 
140,  and  leaf  with  list  of  books  published  by 
M.  Turner. 

This  little  guide,  a  copy  of  which  is  in  my 
possession,  gives  a  very  interesting  account 
of  all  the  marvellous  relics  John  Evelyn 
enumerates,  and  -of  the  various  presses  in 
which  they  are  contained.  The  "  Gundola 
of  Chrysolite"  is  here  described  as  "A 
Vessel  inclining  to  the  fashion  of  a  great 
Drinking-cup,  made  of  a  Chrysolite,  and 
enchast  in  Gold  by  St.  Eloy.  Given  by  tl 
same  Abbot  Suger."  Solomon's  cup  is  al 
there,  as  well  as  another  used  in  the  Temple 
The  little  book  is  quite  entertaining,  and 
dedicated  "  To  Madam  the  Dolphiness.n 

ii  s.  IL  AUG.  6,  i9io.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


(11  S.  i.  85). — These  are  further  illustrated  in 
the  case  of  Prince  Ernest  Augustus,  son  of 
George  III.,  Duke  of  Cumberland,  after- 
wards king  of  Hanover,  as  amusingly 
recorded  by  the  Rev.  C.  A.  Wilkinson, 
domestic  resident  chaplain  to  King  Ernest 
at  Hanover.  The  King  of  Hanover  was  a 
younger  brother  of  William  IV.,  who  used 
to  say  of  him  :  ' '  Ernest  is  not  a  bad  fellow, 
but  if  any  one  has  a  corn,  he  is  sure  to  tread 
on  it." 

See  '  Reminiscences  of  the  Court  and 
Times  of  King  Ernest  of  Hanover,'  1886, 
vol.  i.  pp.  16,  18,  123,  128,  134,  145,  149. 

L.  M.  R. 

D'EBESBY  OB  DE  EBESBY  ?  (11  S.  i.  469.)— 
It  might  be  thought  at  first  sight  that  less  of 
learning  than  of  ordinary  intelligence  was 
required  to  pronounce  "  D'Eresby,n  not 
*'  De  Eresby,"  the  correct  form  of  the  title. 
The  leading  newspapers,  however,  and  most, 
it  not  all,  peerage  and  genealogical  writers 
agree  in  writing  "  De  Eresby. "  The  ex- 
planation, I  fancy,  is  that  De  Eresby  is  not 
a  surname,  but  a  territorial  designation.  It 
refers  to  the  barony  of  Eresby,  bestowed 
upon  Walter  de  Bee  by  William  the  Con- 
queror, and  acquired  in  marriage  by  the 
Willoughby  family  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III. 
Presumably  the  rule  permitting  the  elision  of 
a  vowel  when  two  came  together  does  not 
apply  in  the  case  of  titles.  Hence  we  have 
"  Lord  Willoughby  de  Eresby."-  SCOTUS. 

DEVON  (11  S.  i.  106,  238). — I  was  interested 
in  learning  of  the  grant  to  Nicholas  Yet- 
sweirt  in  1577  of  a  monopoly  for  printing 
the  common  law  books  ;  and  I  think  that 
the  contributors  on  this  subject  may  be 
equally  interested  in  the  fact  that  on  the 
Patent  Roll  of  9  Eliz.,  1566-7  (pt.  5,  m.  3), 
there  is  recorded  a  grant  to  one  Nicholas 
Yetswirt  (not  improbably  the  same  man) 
and  to  Bartholomew  Brokesby  of  a  number 
of  rents  in  Devon,  Somerset,  and  other 
•counties,  mostly  arising  from  ancient 
bequests,  chantries,  and  gilds,  which  by  the 
Act  of  1547  were  vested  in  the  Crown. 
These  included  a  tenement  in  the  parish  of 
South  Tawton,  Devon,  which  in  1530  had 
been  given  by  John  Frende  of  South  Tawton, 
weaver,  towards  the  maintenance  of  a  priest 
for  the  Brotherhood  of  the  Store  of  Jesus 
in  the  parish  church,  as  appears  from 
collation  of  this  roll  with  another  Record 
Office  document  (Court  of  Augmentations, 

Misc.  Book,  vol.  cxxiii.  pp.  245-6)  and  with 
an  entry  of  1535-6  in  the  old  churchwardens' 
accounts  of  South  Tawton  (fol.  9 ID). 

The  surname  Yetsweirt  has  a  Dutch 
sound,  and  at  the  same  time  it  is  curiously 
like  that  of  "  De  Yadeworth,n  which  I  find 
in  lists  of  residents  of  South  Tawton  on  the 
Lay  Subsidy  Rolls  of  1337  and  "  1340  ?" 

I  should  be  glad  if  the  descent  of  Frende' s 
little  property  could  be  traced. 


(11  S.  i.  87,  171).— The  question  asked  by 
MB.  EGEBTON  GABDINEB  and  the  answers 
to  it  illustrate  the  many  pitfalls  into  which 
writers  on  genealogical  subjects  are  apt  to 
fall.  "  Sir  Henry  Audley,n  as  pointed  out 
by  MB.  A.  R.  BAYLEY,  should  be  Henry 
Dudley — whether  ' '  Sir  "  Henry  Dudley 
or  not  is  questionable.  At  any  rate,  this 
Henry  Dudley  is  not  to  be  confounded  with 
Sir  Henry  Dudley  the  conspirator,  about 
whom  two  other  correspondents  write  at 
the  second  reference,  and  who,  according 
to  the  '  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,' 
was  "  apparently  "•  third  son  of  John  Sutton 
de  Dudley,  seventh  Baron  Dudley. 

The  Henry  Dudley  asked  about  appears 
to  have  been  a  son  of  John  Dudley,  Viscount 
Lisle,  Earl  of  Warwick,  and  Duke  of  North- 
umberland, and  grandson  of  the  infamous 
Edmund  Dudley,  one  of  the  "  horse-leeches  " 
of  King  Henry  VII.  Apparently  the 
'  D.N.B.'  is  wrong  in  giving  the  Duke  of 
Northumberland  only  five  sons  and  two 
daughters.  According  to  Burke,  *  Dormant 
Peerages,'  1866,  p.  180,  he  had  by  his  wife 
Jane,  daughter  of  Sir  Edward  Guilford  (sic), 
Kt.,  seven  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz.  : — 

1.  Henry,    who    died    at    the    siege    of 

2.  John,  Earl  of  Warwick,  who  d.v.p.  s.p. 

3.  Ambrose,  created  Earl  of  Warwick. 

4.  Lord  Guilford  (sic),  who  married  Lady 
Jane  Grey. 

5.  Robert,  K.G.,  created  Baron  of  Den- 
bigh and  Earl  of  Leicester. 

6.  Henry,  slain  at  St.  Quintin  (sic). 

7.  Charles,  who  died  young. 

1.  Mary,  who  married  Sir  Henry  Sidney, 

2.  Catherine,     who     married     Sir    Henry 
Hastings,  Earl  of  Huntingdon. 

The  '  D.N.B.'  agrees  with  Burke  in  making 
Lord  Guildford  the  fourth  son  ;  but,  by  a 
curious,  though  evident  double  error,  it  also 
designates  Ambrose  and  Lord  Henry  (who 
died  at  St.  Quintin)  each  as  the  fourth  son 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         tii  s.  n.  A™,  e,  1910. 

of  John,  Duke  of  Northumberland.  Two 
of  the  sons  were  evidently  lost  sight  of 
owing  to  their  early  deaths.  Were  there 
yet  other  children  ?  MB.  EGERTON  GAR- 
DINER in  his  query  says  that  John  had 
thirteen  children,  of  whom  two  were  named 
Henry  (this  agrees  with  Burke,  u.s.)  and  two 
Katherine.  What  is  his  authority  for  this 
statement  ?  These  Henries  and  Katherines 
are  but  further  instances  of  the  puzzling 
custom  of  giving  the  same  name  to  two 
brothers  or  to  two  sisters  which  has  recently 
been  discussed  in  '  N.  &  Q.' 

Let  us  come  back  to  the  eldest  son,  the 
elder  Henry,  who  is  stated  to  have  been 
killed  at  the  siege  of  Boulogne.  This  must 
have  been  on  14  September,  1544,  when 
Boulogne  was  taken  by  King  Henry  VIII. 
(Haydn's  'Index  of  Dates').  As  his  father 
is  believed  to  have  been  born  about  1502 
— only  42  years  before — Henry  must  have 
been  young,  and  probably  unmarried,  at  the 
time  of  his  death.  He  died  nine  years 
before  the  marriage  of  his  brother  Guildford 
with  Lady  Jane  Grey  (1553)  and  the  con- 
spiracy to  place  her  on  the  throne,  and 
could  not  therefore  have  been  involved,  as 
were  his  father  and  brothers,  in  the  con- 
spiracy. Is  MR.  GARDINER  right  in  calling 
him  "  Sir  Henry  ? "  Burke  and  the 
'  D.N.B.'  do  not  give  him  this  title. 

As  to  his  younger  brother  Henry  there  is 
some  confusion.  G.  H.  W.  in  his  reply  calls 
him  the  "  youngest "  son  (he  was  no  doubt 
the  youngest  then  living),  and  adds  that 
"he  was  killed  at  St.  Quentin  in  1558." 
The  *  D.N.B.'  in  the  life  of  his  father  (xvi.  Ill) 
makes  him  the  fifth  son,  and  states  that  he 
was  slain  at  the  battle  of  St.  Quentin  in 
1555.  In  the  Supplement  to  the  'D.N.B.' 
(ii.  160)  he  is  designated  the  fourth  son,  and 
the  date  of  his  death  is  given  as  10  August, 
1557.  This  last  date  is  evidently  the  correct 
one,  for  St.  Quentin,  Aisne,  France,  was 
captured  by  the  Spaniards  on  the  day  of 
St.  Lawrence,  1557  ('  Encyclopaedia  Bri- 
tannica,'  9th  ed.,  xxi.  197  ;  Supplement, 
xxxii.  376).  FREDK.  A.  EDWARDS. 

(11  S.  ii.  29). — The  same  entry  about  Mel- 
mont  berries  is  given  in  the  '  E.  D.  D.,' 
apparently  taken  from  Jamieson.  No  ex- 
planation of  the  meaning  is  offered  .  So  far 
as  is  known,  Melmont  as  a  place-name  does 
not  occur  in  Morayshire.  There  is,  how- 
ever, a  hill  in  Galston  parish,  Ayrshire,  which 
bears  the  name  Molmont,  sometimes  called 
Melmont.  In  Gaelic  the  name  would  be 
derived  from  maol,  bare,  and  monadh,  hill  = 

the  bare  or  bleak  hill.  If  Jamieson  is 
correct  in  saying  that  Melmont  is  a  word 
used  in  Morayshire,  it  has  there,  presumably,, 
the  Gaelic  signification.  Hence  Melmont 
berries  will  mean  literally  bare -hill  berries  or 
berries,  such  as  the  juniper,  growing  wild 
on  a  hillside.  W.  S.  S. 

Jamieson  probably  uses  a  local  name  for 
this  fruit,  as  it  is  not  mentioned  by  botanists- 
The  only  book,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  in 
which  it  appears  (and  then  with  a  slight 
change  in  the  spelling)  is  A.  B.  Lyons's 
(Detroit)  'Plant  Names,'  which  has  "Juni- 
per berries,  Melmot  berries." 


PRINCE  BISHOP  OF  BASLE,  1790  (US.  ii. 
68). — This,  the  last  Prince -Bishop,  was  John 
Sigmund  von  Roggenbach,  who,  like  all  his 
predecessors,  was  a  Catholic.  His  territory 
was  turned  into  the  Rauracian  Republic, 
which  after  four  months  was  incorporated 
(1793)  in  the  French  Republic.  In  1815 
the  Congress  of  Vienna  gave  the  territory  of 
the  diocese  to  the  cantons  of  Bern  and 
Basle,  with  the  exception  of  the  portion 
already  belonging  to  Germany. 

The  last  Prince -Bishop  to  reside  in  Basle, 
was  Christopher  of  Utenham  (1502-27). 
See  the  interesting  article  on  '  Basle-Lugano, 
Diocese  of,'  in  the  '  Catholic  Encyclopaedia.' 
After  the  Reformation  the  capital  of  the 
bishopric  was  Porrentruy,  where  was  the  chief 
episcopal  residence.  The  bishop  also  owned 
Schloss  Buseck  above  Arlesheim,  and  after 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  a 
summer  residence  at  Delemont. 

It  is  surprising  in  a  book  published  in 
1816  to  find  the  Prince-Bishopric  treated  as 
still  subsisting.  In  '  The  Swiss  Tourist,' 
published  by  Samuel  Leigh,  18,  Strand,. 
London,  in  that  year,  the  writer,  speaking 
of  Bienne,  says  at  p.  55  : — 

"  The  place  is  a  sort  of  republic  in  itself,  and  in 
this  capacity  sends  a  deputy  to  the  general  diets  of 
the  Confederation.  It  is,  at  the  same  time,  in  some 
degree  subjected  to  the  Bishop  of  Basle.  His 
privileges  consist  in  appointing  the  mayor,  who 
presides  at  the  councils  without  having  a  delibera- 
tive voice,  and  in  having  his  name,  conjointly  with 
that  of  the  town,  at  the  head  of  public  deeds,  over 
the  contents  of  which  he  has  no  influence.  When- 
ever a  bishop  is  elected,  he  is  bound  to  come 
hither,  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  an  oath  of  sub' 
mission  on  the  part  of  the  inhabitants  ;  but  the 
legislative  power,  the  administration  of  justice,  and 
the  right  of  making  alliances  belong  to  the  town 
itself.  The  inhabitants  are  of  the  reformed  religion  : 
they  can  go  through  their  studies  at  Berne,  which 
canton  is  the  established  protector  of  all  Protestant 
subjects  of  the  Bishop  of  Bale." 


us.  ii.  AUG.  6,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


ANGLO-SPANISH  AUTHOR  (11  S.  i.  349). — 
With  deference  I  venture  to  put  forward 
a  theory  on  this  subject.  The  man  whom 
Borrow  heard  of  was  not  the  same  as  the  man 
he  saw  at  Madrid.  There  is  considerable 
reason  to  believe  that  the  secretary  who 
' '  had  acquired  a  name  both  in  English  and 
Spanish  literature  "  was  Don  Telesforo  de 
Trueba  y  Cosio.  He,  at  all  events,  wrote  a 
large  number  of  novels  and  plays  both  in 
English  and  Spanish,  all  of  them  doubtless  by 
this  time  completely  forgotten.  In  this 
country  he  may  still  be  remembered  as  the 
author  of  two  volumes  in  "Constable's 
Miscellany "  (a  '  Life  of  Cortes ?  and  a 
'History  of  Peru').  He  also  wrote  'The 
Romance  of  History  :  Spain,'-  1830,  3  vols. 
Educated,  and  residing  most  of  his  life,  in 
England,  where  he  was  extremely  popular 
in  fashionable  society,  he  returned  to  his 
native  country  in  1834,  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Cortes,  and  appointed  by  that  body 
one  of  its  secretaries.  While  residing  in 
England  he  was  one  of  the  Fraser  group  of 
writers,  and  his  portrait  finds  a  place  in  the 
'  Maclise  Portrait  Gallery.*  The  likeness  is 
something  of  a  caricature,  showing  him 
admiring  his  own  dancing  shadow,  while  the 
letterpress  accompanying  it  is  distinctly 

Don  Telesforo  de  Trueba  y  Cosio,  however, 
cannot  have  been  the  secretary  whom 
Borrow  saw  at  Madrid.  He  was  dead  in 
1835,  at  the  early  age  of  30,  before  Borrow  had 
set  foot  in  the  Peninsula.  Borrow,  I  take  it, 
has  made  a  mistake.  He  saw  a  secretary, 
"a  fine,  intellectual-looking  man,n  whose 
name  apparently  he  did  not  know,  but  was 
"subsequently  informed "  of  his  literary 
attainments.  It  is  easy  to  understand  how 
in  talking  over  the  matter  at  a  considerably 
later  period  some  Spanish  friend  may  have 
mentioned  Don  Telesforo  de  Trueba  y 
Cosio  as  a  distinguished  author  and  one  of 
the  secretaries  to  the  Cortes.  Borrow 
probably  leaped  to  the  conclusion  that  Don 
Telesforo  was  the  secretary  be  had  seen  in 
attendance  on  the  Spanish  Finance  Minister, 
but  the  "fine,  intellectual-looking''  person 
he  saw  was  not  Don  Telesforo,  and  possibly 
not  an  author  at  all.  W.  SCOTT. 

ii.  8). — The  statement  made  by  L.  S.  M. 
that  ' '  none  of  the  republican  grants  now 
remain  in  the  Herald's  College  "  is  incorrect. 
The  arms  borne  by  my  family  were  granted 
to  my  ancestor  Robert  Abbott,  scrivener,  on 
•9  August,  1654,  and  the  grant  is  recorded 
at  the  Heralds'  College  in  extenso.  Nor  is 

that  an  exceptional  case.  I  am  informed 
by  the  Registrar,  Mr.  H.  Farnham  Burke, 
that  dockets,  and  very  often  full  records, 
of  the  republican  grants  are  duly  registered 
in  the  College.  G.  F.  ABBOTT. 

Royal  Societies  Club,  St.  James's  Street,  W. 

BIBLE  :  CURIOUS  STATISTICS  (11  S.  i.  127, 
276).—  If  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.2  who  are 
interested  in  Bible  statistics  will  consult 
the  excellent  Indexes  of  the  several  Series  of 
*  N.  &  Q.*  they  will  find  such  statistics  in 
3  S.  xii.  412,  510  ;  4  S.  i.  88  ;  7  S.  xi.  207, 
364,  452. 

The  statistics  quoted  at  11  S.  i.  276  were 
compiled  by  George  Home,  Bishop  of 
Norwich  (born  1730,  died  1792),  and  are  said 
to  have  occupied  three  years  of  his  life 
(see  7  S.  xi.  364).  PATRICK. 


HEAVEN  BLUE  (11  S.  i.  488  ;  ii.  33).—  The 
name  "  Canopy-of  -heaven  blue  "  is  derived, 
I  should  think,  from  the  Chinese  name  for 
certain  blue  silk  known  as  fien  ch'ing> 
cerulean  blue.  J.  DYER  BALL. 

Hadley  Wood,  Middlesex. 

KEMPESFELD  :  KEMYS  (11  S.  i.  409,  478  ; 
ii.  13).  —  Is  not  Kemys,  properly  Kemeys 
(Monmouthshire),  the  English  corruption 
of  the  Welsh  word  "  cemaes 
no  k  in  the  Welsh  language. 

"  ?     There  is 

DR.  JOHN  HOUGH  (US.  ii.  48).  —  See  his 
'  Life  '  by  John  Wilmot,  published  in  1812,  in 
4to.  His  will  is  there  printed  in  full. 

W.  D.  MACRAY. 


Scottish  Historical  Clubs,  1780-1908,  with  a 
Subject-Index.  By  Charles  Sanford  Terry. 
(Glasgow,  MacLehose  &  Sons.) 

PROF.  TERRY  has  in  this  work  laid  all  students 
of  Scottish  history  under  a  heavy  obligation. 
He  gives  us  first  a  Catalogue  of  the  publications  of 
Scottish  historical  and  kindred  clubs  and  societies, 
including  the  Scottish  publications  of  His  Majesty's 
Stationery  Office  ;  and  secondly  a  Subject  Index 
to  "  the  materials  revealed  by  the  Catalogue  as 
bearing  especially,  though  not  exclusively,  on 
Scottish  institutions,  events,  reigns,  characters, 
and  historical  periods,  civil  and  ecclesiastical." 

The  Scotch  have  always  been  great  believers 
in  and  promoters  of  education,  and  their  clubs 
and  societies  concerned  with  history  and  anti- 
quities are  a  remarkable  feature  of  this  activity. 
Recent  examples  of  new  clubs  are  the  St.  Andrews 
Society,  founded  in  1906,  and  the  Old  Edinburgh 
Club  in  1908. 


NOTES'  AND  QUERIES.        [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  e,  1910. 

Of  the  wealth  of  matter  preserved,  and,  as  the 
Professor  says,  "  not  infrequently  concealed," 
in  such  publications  all  genuine  students  are 
aware.  The  difficulty  has  been  to  put  one's 
hand  on  the  piece  of  information  or  the  special 
subject  required.  This  is  solved  by  the  fine 
Subject  Index  provided,  a  piece  of  laborious 
work  which  has  been  admirably  performed.  Thus 
we  find  almost  two  pages  on  portraits,  near  half 
a  page  each  on  Gordons,  and  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots, 
and  several  references  to  Mr.  P.  J.  Anderson,  to 
whom  the  book  is  dedicated.  The  first  part  of  the 
book  is  very  full  in  its  details,  with  various 
notes  added  by  the  editor,  whose  standing  as  an 
expert  renders  such  information  particularly 

THE  current  issue'of  The  Quarterly  Review,  which 
appeared  late  in  July,  has  a  specially  interesting 
article  on  '  The  Character  of  King  Edward  VII.,' 
in  which  private  papers  in  the  royal  archives  of 
Windsor  Castle  have  been  used.  The  young  prince 
was  confronted  with  a  scheme  of  education  which 
was  most  careful  and  praiseworthy,  and  also 
singularly  oppressive,  one  thinks,  to  the  human  boy 
and  young  man.  A  striking  letter  from  Sir  Henry 
Bulwer  supplies  hints  as  to  the  late  King's  gifts  in 
early  days.  Dr.  A  W.  Verrall's  article  on  '  The 
Prose  of  Walter  Scott '  is  brilliant  and  attractive, 
like  all  his  writing,  and  it  fortifies  the  view  long 
held  by  the  writer  of  these  notes  that  Scott  was  at 
his  best  a  great,  if  unconscious,  artist  in  style.  Dr. 
Verrall  analyzes  the  charm  of  that  incomparable 
short  story  in  *  Redgauntlet,'  '  Wandering  Willie's 
Tale,'  which  Stevenson  could  not  rival.  Mr.  F.  G. 
Aflalo's  article  on  *  The  Genius  of  the  River '  is 
commonplace.  Mr.  H.  A.  L.  Fisher  writes  very  well 
on  '  The  Beginning  and  End  of  the  Second  Empire ' ; 
and  Dr.  Hans  Gadow  is  lucid  on  the  disputed  sub- 
ject of 'Birds  and  their  Colours,'  i.e.,  trie  reasons 
which  have  been  alleged  for  special  coloration. 
Mr.  Edwyn  Bevan  has  an  excellent  subject  in  '  The 
First  Contact  of  Christianity  and  Paganism,'  but 
his  field  of  inquiry  is  more  restricted  than  his  title 
suggests.  A  second  article  on  *  Socialism  '  is  impor- 
tant ;  and  there  is  also  a  capital  study  of  *  John 
Stuart  Mill'  by  Mr.  Wilfrid  Ward.  He  has  a  sound 
judgment  of  the  "saint  of  rationalism,"  but  hardly 
indicates  Mill's  perplexing  changes  of  view  during 
various  periods  or  his  life,  which  make  it  possible 
to  quote  his  authority  for  opposed  schools  of 

The  Cornhill  opens  with  a  facsimile  of  a  translation 
by  Thackeray  of  Beranger's  poem  •  Ma  Vocation.' 
It  is  not  so  much  a  translation  as  another  poem  on 
the  same  subject,  with  touches  of  Thackeray's  neat 
versification.  Mrs.  Woods's  *  Pastel  under  the 
Southern  Cross'  is  this  month  devoted  to  Cecil 
Rhodes  and  his  tomb  on  the  Matoppos,  and  is  an 
excellent  piece  of  writing.  '  The  Lost  Voice,'  by 
Sir  George  Scott,  is  an  amusing  story  of  the  effect 
on  savages  of  a  phonograph.  The  Master  of  Peter- 
house  has  an  account  of  'The  Oberammergau 
Passion  Play  in  1871,'  which  should  be  very  useful 
to-day,  not  only  from  its  knowledge,  but  also 
because  it  is.  likely  to  reduce  the  hysteria  of 
sentimentalists  concerning  the  actors.  Mr.  Guy 
Kendall's  verse,  '  The  Whole  Design,'  is  thoughtful 
and  effective,  though  a  little  slack  in  form  and 
phrasing.  Miss  Edith  Sellers  has  an  indictment 
against  'The  Latter-Day  Swiss,'  in  which  she 
proves  an  effective  advocatus  diaboli.  We  find  no 

difficulty  in  believing  much  that  she  says.  Mr. 
Kenneth  Bell  writes  with  candour  on  'Goldwin 
Smith  as  a  Canadian,'  revealing  well  the  paradox 
of  the  former  Oxford  Professor's  position.  The 
number  is  good  reading  throughout. 

Miss  ROSE  BRADLEY,  like  Mrs.  Woods,  is  an 
admirable  writer  ot  notes  of  travel,  and  her  account 
in  The  Nineteenth  Century  of  '  A  Day  in  Provence,' 
dealing  mostly  with  the  dead  glories  of  the  City  of 
Les  Baux,  is  easily  the  most  interesting  article  in 
a  number  which  contains  little  of  literary  interest, 
though  the  personal  side  of  history  is  well  repre- 
sented by  Lady  Paget's  account  of  '  A  Royal  Mar- 
riage,' i.e.,  that  of  King  Edward,  and  Mr.  W.  S. 
Lilly's  of  '  Cardinal  Vaughan,'  mainly  a  summary  of 
Mr.  Snead-Cox's  notable  biography.  The  Cardinal 
was  a  wonderful  worker  for  his  Church,  though  he 
lacked  the  faculties  which  made  Manning  and 
Newman  eminent  above  their  fellows.  The  Rev. 
D.  W. -Duthie  deals  with:  familiar  matter  in  'The 
Women  of  the  Paston  Letters,'  and  adds  little  to 
our  pleasure  by  his  sentimental  rhetoric  on  the 
subject  of  love.  Besides  political  articles  on 
Ireland,  the  Third  French  Republic,  Protection  in 
Germany,  and  the  American  Negro,  there  is  one  by 
Sir  Edward  Clayton  on  'The  Working  of  the 
Prevention  of  Crime  Act,'  which  is  well  worth 
attention.  Mr.  W.  G.  Burn-Murdoch  has  some 
enthusiastic  notes  on  *  Modern  Whaling ' ;  and 
Mr.  G.  Clarke  Nuttall  should  interest  students  of 
science  with  his  remarks  on '  The  Eyes  of  Plants.' 

to  (E0msp0nfottts. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  dp  not 
print,  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately, 
nor  can  we  advise  correspondents  as  to  the  value 
of  old  books  and  other  objects  or  as  to  the  means  of 
disposing  of  them. 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "The  Pub- 
lishers "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  B.C. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  arid 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

GALLOWAY  FRASER  ("  Barabbas  a  Publisher").- 
The  authority  quoted  by  you  was  evidently  in  error. 
See  MR.  JOHN  MURRAY'S  reply,  ante,  p.  92. 

n  s.  ii.  AUO.  is,  1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.— No.  33. 

Is' OTES  :— Richard  Gem,  121— King's  '  Classical  Quotations,' 
123 -Horses'  Names,  124— George  II.  to  George  V.— New- 
castle  -  under  -  Lyme  Charter  Restored  —  Verulamium  — 
Snails  as  Food,  125— Motorists  as  Fairies— St.  Swithin's 
Tribute— Peter  Gordon,  Explorer—  "  Chemineau  "— Vestris 
Family— Early  Printing  in  Europe,  126. 

QUERIES  :— Col.  Condon:  Capt.  Mellish  —  Vestments  at 
Soissons  Cathedral  —  Sark  Bibliography,  127  — Viscount 
Courtenay— Speaker's  Chair  of  the  Old  House  of  Commons 
—Carter  Family— Archdeacons  of  Hereford—"  Staple  "  in 
Place-Names,  128— '  Oliver  Twist'  on  the  Stage— H.  A. 
Major— Smollett's  '  History  of  England  '—Rev.  T.  Clarke 
of  Chesham  Bois — Horses  stabled  in  Churches  in  1745-6 — 
Magazine  Story  of  a  Deserter— Authors  Wanted— Royal 
Shield  of  Scotland  —  Hawkes  Family,  129  —  Minster : 
Verger  v.  Sacristan—  "King"  in  Place-Names  — H. M.S. 
Avenger— Moke  Family  of  Flanders,  130. 

KEPLIES  :— Parish  Armour,  130—"  Storm  in  a  teacup  "— 
Myddelton:  "Dref":  "Plas,"  131— American  Words— 
"  Tilleul "— Ben  Jonson-Sir  W.  Godbold,  132— Names 
terrible  to  Children — Ansgar,  Master  of  the  Horse— 
•  Yon  "— J.  Faber— Sir  M.  Philip,  13 9—'  Reverberations ' 
— Christopher  Moore — S.  Joseph,  Sculptor — E.  I.  C.'s 
Marine  Service,  134— Licence  to  Eat  Flesh— Sleepless 
Arch— Authors  Wanted— Col.  Skelton— George  I.  Statues, 
135— Pitt's  Statue— Francis  Peck— Windsor  Station- 
master— Clergy  at  the  Dinner  Table,  136— Door-Knocker 
Etiquette -Boys  in  Petticoats— Priors  of  Holy  Trinity, 
Aldgate— Fourth  Estate— R.  Sare,  137— Thames  Water 
Company—"  Portygne"— South  African  Slang— Tennyson's 
'Margaret'— "Seersucker,"  133. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :-'  F.  W.  Maitland  '—Reviews  and 
Magazines— Book  sellers'  Catalogues. 



RICHABD  GEM,  the  only  son  of  Richard  Gem, 
gentleman  of  Worcestershire,  was  born  at 
Barnsley  Hall  in  the  parish  of  Bromsgrove, 
but  there  is  no  entry  of  his  baptism  in  the 
parish  register.  Nash  in  his  '  History  of 
Worcestershire*  (i.  154)  says  that  "Mr. 
Gem  of  Birmingham  is  now  lord  of  the  Manor 
of  Dodford  [in  Bromsgrove],  where  he  has 
an  estate  of  160Z.  per  ann."  The  son  was  bred 
in  the  house  of  William  Philips,  clerk,  in  the 
city  of  Worcester.  Philips  took  the  degree  of 
B.A.  of  Oriel  College,  Oxford,  in  1704 ; 
was  Rector  of  All  Saints,1  Worcester,  from 
1710  to  1715  ;  Vicar  of  St.  Peter's,  Worcester, 
from  the  latter  year  until  1741  ;  and 
Rector  of  Bromsgrove  from  1741  to  1754. 

A  contributor  to  The  Monthly  Magazine 
for  1821  (vol.  li.  pp.  138-9)  supplies  some 
interesting  reminiscences  of  Gem  under  the 
title  of  Dr.  Gpm,  but  in  the  index  the  name 
is  correctly  given.  He  was  not  fond  of  the 
ordinary  system  of  education,  but  sought  the 
instruction  "  of  a  neighbouring  gentleman 
•characterized  as  a  freethinker,  who  had  in 
fact  been  obliged  to  leave  the  University  of 
•Cambridge  (where  he  had  graduated)  for  his 

'  openly-avowed  penchant  to  Unitarianism." 
This  preceptor  put  translations  of  the 
works  of  Helvetius  and  Rousseau  into  the 
youth's  hands,  which  inspired  him  with 
the  desire  of  reading  them  in  their  original 
language,  and  he  learnt  French.  This  intro- 
duction to  the  philosophical  literature  of 
France  coloured  the  rest  of  his  life. 

On  12  June,  1735,  when  aged  19,  Gem  was 
admitted  pensioner  at  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge,  when  Dr.  Williams  became 
his  tutor  and  surety  ('  Admissions  to  St. 
John's,1  Pt.  III.,  1903,  ed.  Scott,  p.  80); 
but  he  seems  to  have  left  without  taking  his 
degree.  We  shall  probably  not  err  in 
drawing  the  inference  that  he  was  not  in 
sympathy  with  the  system  of  instruction 
which  was  then  imposed  on  youth  at  the 
University.  His  "  fond  parent "  had 
pointed  out  the  study  of  the  law  as  the  most 
profitable  for  him,  but  he  put  the  suggestion 
on  one  side,  and  studied  French  and  physic 

In  1741  there  was  published  in  London 
a  little  tract  of  54  pages  bearing  the  title  of 
"  An  Account  of  the  Remedy  for  the  Stone 
lately  published  in  England ....  extracted 
from  the  examinations  of  this  remedy,  given 
into  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Paris, 
by  M.  Morand  and  M.  Geoffrey.  By  Richard 
Gem  of  the  University  of  Cambridge.'*  This 
description  shows  that  he  was  not  at  that 
time,  when  he  was  25  years  old,  possessed  of 
any  medical  degree,  and  I  am  not  acquainted 
with  the  nature  of  his  subsequent  qualifica- 
tion. Probably  it  was  from  a  foreign,  if  any, 
university.  His  name  does  not  appear  in  Dr. 
Munk's  volumes  on  the  members  of  the 
London  College  of  Physicians,  nor  does 
it  occur,  says  Mr.  Victor  G.  Plarr,  librarian  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  "in  our 
college  books  between  the  years  1745-83." 
Mr.  Plarr  therefore  concludes  that  he  was  not 
a  member  of  the  old  Corporation  of  Surgeons. 

It  is  stated  in  The  Monthly  Magazine  that 
Gem  was  known  to  and  noticed  by  the  Earl  of 
Hertford,  who  gave  him  permission  to  visit 
Paris  and  to  enjoy  the  advantages  of  con- 
nexion with  the  embassy.  Unless  this  were  a 
temporary  visit  only  the  statement  con- 
flicts with  that  recorded  by  the  first  Earl  of 
Malmesbury  in  his  diary  (November,  1796), 
after  a  call  from  Gem,  that  ' '  he  came  to 
Paris  in  1751  with  Lord  Albemarle."  The 
Monthly  Magazine  anecdotist  chronicles  that 
Gem  obtained  through  the  favour  of  Lord 
Stormont  the  practice  of  the  sick  English  at 
Paris.  His  professional  income  was  large, 
his  prescriptions  were  simple.  The  patient 
could  even  tell  from  them  the  nature  of  the 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [11  s.  n.  AUG.  13, 1910. 

disease  from  which  he  was  suffering.  Gem 
became  physician  to  the  embassy  at  Paris  in 
1762  on  the  appointment  of  the  Duke  of 
Bedford  as  ambassador  to  France. 

For  the  rest  of  his  days  Gem  was  domiciled 
in  that  country.  His  was  a  striking  per- 
sonality, for  he  was  six  feet  and  two  or  three 
inches  in  height,  of  an  athletic  build,  and 
when  over  70  as  upright  as  a  dart.  When 
he  was  82  he  was  very  stout.  He  was 
admitted  into  the  most  brilliant  society 
of  Paris,  becoming  very  intimate  with  the 
Encyclopaedists  and  with  many  of  the 
leading  Englishmen  who  were  admitted  to 
its  salons.  Benjamin  Franklin  and  Thomas 
Jefferson  were  his  intimate  friends.  A 
letter  from  the  latter  dated  New  York, 
4  April,  1790,  is  in  [J.  Wright's]  '  Biog. 
Memoir  of  Huskisson,*  pp.  8-9,  and  a  second 
letter  to  him  is  in  '  Jefferson's  Memoir  and 
Correspondence  '  (ed.  T.  J.  Randolph),  iii.  32. 
Sterne  in  1766  wrote  to  Dr.  Jemm  of 
Paris  introducing  [John]  Symonds  to  him, 
and  giving  details  of  his  winter  in  Italy. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Cross  in  his  '  Life  of  Sterne  '  hesi- 
tatingly suggests  this  to  be  Dr.  A.  A. 
Jamme  of  Toulouse,  who  sometimes  resided 
at  Paris.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  it  was 
Dr.  Gem.  Horace  Walpole  refers  to  him 
in  the  letters  which  he  wrote  from  Paris 
in  1765  and  1766,  and  George  Selwyn 
received  a  letter  from  him  in  the  former 
year  in  which  he  intimated  that  he  was 
coming  with  Baron  D'Olbach  to  dine  with 
Selwyn,  and  looked  forward  with  pride 
to  "  the  honour  of  meeting  Lord  March." 
He  was  devoted  to  Selwyn,  and  figures 
constantly  in  Dr.  Warner's  letters  to  his 
patron,  being  playfully  dubbed  by  him  as 
"  Roger.'1  Warner  sometimes  expresses  his 
anxiety  lest  he  should  be  suspected  by  Gem 
of  a  desire  to  supplant  him  in  Selwyn' s 
good  graces. 

The  allusions  to  Gem  by  Warner  show 
that  he  took  things  seriously.  In  fact, 
he  said  to  Walpole  in  1765:  "Sir,  I  am 
serious,  I  am  of  a  very  serious  turn."'  He 
was  a  rigid  disciplinarian  and  parsimonious, 
and  it  was  noted  as  a  trait  in  his  character 
that  he  allowed  no  eating  between  breakfast 
and  dinner  in  the  evening.  His  parsimony, 
however,  did  not  restrain  him  from  acts  of 
kindness  and  generosity.  Walpole,  when 
writing  to  him  in  April,  1776,  describes  him  as 
"  no  less  esteemed  for  his  professional  know- 
ledge than  for  his  kind  attention  to  the  poor 
who  applied  to  him  for  medical  assistance." 
Ten  years  later  (1786)  Gem  was  exerting 
himself  in  getting  books  for  Walpole. 
The  mother  of  William  Huskisson  the 

statesman  was  Gem's  favourite  niece.  She 
died  in  1774  (when  William  was  in  his 
fifth  year)  leaving  four  sons.  The  father 
married  again,  when  Gem  expressed  the 
desire  that  the  two  elder  sons,  one  of  whom 
was  William,  should  be  assigned  to  his 
keeping,  and  in  1783  they  were  allowed  to 
return  to  Paris  with  him  ;  but  their  acquain- 
tance with  England  was  maintained  by  an 
annual  visit  which  he  and  the  two  boys  paid 
to  their  native  land.  To  his  watchful 
care  and  constant  encouragement  in  study 
were  due  the  successful  training  of  Huskis- 
son's  abilities  and  the  strain  of  enlightened 
thought  which  was  conspicuous  in  his  political 
career.  It  is  generally  said  that  the  future 
politician  was  intended  for  the  medical  pro- 
fession, and  that  he  actually  began  the  study 
of  medicine.  But  through  the  influence  of 
Warner,  then  chaplain  to  the  English 
embassy,  he  was  introduced  to  Lord  Gower, 
and  thus  secured  an  opening  into  the  highest 
circles  of  political  life,  which  resulted  in  a 
lasting  alliance  with  Canning,  and  a  leading 
place  in  that  statesman's  Cabinet.  (See  my 
'  Eight  Friends  of  the  Great,'  where  the  name 
is  incorrectly  printed  Robert  Gem.) 

Gem  was  a  staunch  republican,  and  was 
in  complete  sympathy  with  the  French 
Revolution.  Even  the  brilliant  victories  of 
Bonaparte  did  not  shake  his  faith  in  repub- 
lican principles.  He  was  doubtless  the 
"  Ghym  anglais'1  who  in  1792  presented 
1,000  francs  to  the  Patriotic  Fund  ;  but 
this  did  not  prevent  his  arrest  in  1793  as  a 
hostage  for  Toulon,  when  his  name  appears 
in  the  police  records  as  "  Gesme.'*  For  nine 
days  he  was  detained  at  the  Luxembourg 
and  was  then  transferred  to  the  ScotcJ 
College.  After  a  short  release,  probabb 
under  the  decree  of  3  November,  179J 
exempting,  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of 
doctors,  foreign  practitioners  from  imprison- 
ment, he  was  rearrested  by  the  authority 
of  Versailles  and  imprisoned  in  the  Recollets. 
Here  he  found  himself  in  the  same  rooi 
with  Grace  Dalrymple  Elliott  ("Dolly  the 
tall"),  who  says  that  he  was  conscious 
"  that  he  ran  no  risk  of  being  murdered,  for 
he  was  a  philosopher,  and  I  am  sorry  to  say 
an  atheist."  Still,  the  restraint  repressed 
his  spirits,  and  Mrs.  Elliott  in  November, 
1796,  repeated  to  Harris  that  "he  cried 
the  whole  time,  was  terrified  to  death." 
This  clever  woman,  however,  was  incon- 
sistent in  her  recollections.  She  told  Loi 
Malmesbury  that  "no  candles  were  allow* 
them,  or  fire,  after  it  was  dark  "  ;  but  h6 
journal  records  that  Gem  used  to  get  up  at 
four  o'clock  and  *'  uncover  the  wood  fire  and 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  13,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


light  a  candle,  and  read  Locke  and  Helvetius 
till  seven  o'clock.'*  She  did  many  kind 
offices  for  the  doctor,  endeavouring  to  drive 
away  his  gloom,  and  by  her  representations 

i  to  the  deputy  that  her  fellow-prisoner  was  a 
sincere  republican  obtained  his  release  after  a 

!  detention  of  three  or  four  months.  They 
wept  at  parting  in  the  expectation  that  they 

I  wrould  never  see  one  another  again  ;  but  her 
freedom  came  also  in  time.  Gem  had  rooms 
for  years  in  the  Rue  St.  Sepulcre  at  Paris, 
even  down  to  1796  ;  but  his  home  seems 
to  have  been  at  Meudon,  and  when  Grace 
Elliott  came  out  of  prison  he  used  every  day 
to  walk  a  mile  to  see  her.  She  was  in  his 
company  the  day  before  he  died. 

When  James  Harris,  the  first  Earl  of 
Malmesbury,  went  to  Paris  in  October, 
1796,  to  negotiate  terms  of  peace,  he  called  on 
Gem,  and  next  day  (9  November)  the  doctor 
repaid  the  call,  when  Harris  summed  up 
somewhat  harshly  his  character  :  "  Atheist, 
systeme  de  la  nature,  economist,  &c. — the 
cold  apathetic  scoundrel  described  by 
Burke.'1  Gem  breakfasted  with  him  on 
15  November,  and  when  one  of  the  secretaries, 
Leveson,  afterwards  Earl  Granville,  four  days 
later  became  ill,  his  assistance  was  called  for. 
For  his  services  on  this  occasion  he  refused 
to  take  any  fees.  He  breakfasted  with  the 
ambassador  on  2  December,  "always  harp- 
ing on  his  philosophy  n  ;  and  on  20  December 
dined  there  with  Henry  Swinburne,  who 
swells  the  chorus  of  his  praise  as  "a  very 
good  physician n  (Swinburne,  '  Courts  of 
Europe,1  1841,  ii.  132,  158,  184,  209). 

It  is  said  in  The  Monthly  Magazine  that 
Gem  was  so  upset  by  Huskisson's  change  of 
political  opinions  as  to  disinherit  him,  but 
that  under  Malmesbury's  influence  he 
altered  his  will  and  restored  his  nephew  to  his 
favour.  .  Certain  it  is  that  his  will  was  made 
at  this  date,  and  under  Malmesbury's 
cognizance,  for  it  is  dated  9  October,  1796, 
and  witnessed  by  Malmesbury,  Granville 
Leveson  Gower  (Lord  Granville),  and  George 
Ellis  of  '  The  Rolliad  *  and  other  works.  He 
appointed  William  Huskisson  "son  of  my 
niece  Elizabeth  Huskisson,  deceased,"  his 
executor,  giving  him  and  his  heirs  "  all  my 
real  estate  in  Bromsgrove,11  and  making  him 
the  residuary  legatee  (which  included  a 
mortgage  on  Hayley's  estate  of  Eartham  in 
Sussex),  but  subject  to  the  following 
legacies  : — 

1.  "To  Marie  Cleine,  now  in  my  service  at 
Paris,  501.  a  year  for  life." 

2.  To  Samuel  Huskisson,  brother  of  the 
aforesaid  William,    1,500/. 

3.  To  Sarah,  Elizabeth,  Jane,  Marie,  and 

Richard   Rotton    "children   of   my  nephew 
Samuel  Rotton,  deceased, n  1,OOOZ.  each. 

Gem  died  suddenly  in  Paris  early  in  the 
spring  of  1800,  at  the  age  of  83,  "undis- 
turbed by  any  of  the  infirmities  which  so 
generally  embitter  the  last  years  of  pro- 
tracted life.11  His  will  was  proved  on  6  May, 
1800,  and  the  estate  was  sworn  at  10,000^. 


(See  10  S.  ii.  231,  351  ;  iii.  447  ;  vii.  24  ; 
ix.  107,  284,  333  ;  x.  126,  507  ;  xi.  247  ; 
xii.  127;  11  S.  i.  463.) 

No.  361,  "  Conticuisse  nocet  nunquam,. 
nocet  esse  locutum." — King  takes  this  from 
Joseph  Lang's  (or  Lange's)  '  Polyanthea 
Nova,1  1612,  p.  673,  where  it  is  the  first  of 
eight  lines  quoted  from  the  '  Anthologia 
Sacra  l  of  Jacobus  Billius  (Jacques  Billy  de 
Prunay).  It  is  evidently  modelled  on  a  line 
in  Cato's  '  Disticha,*  I.  xii.  2, 

Nam  nulli  tacuisse  nocet,  nocet  esse  locutum. 

No.  796,  "Fiat  justitia,  ruat  cselum." — 
King,  after  giving  Bartlett's  statement 
('Familiar  Quotations1)  that  these  word& 
are  to  be  found  in  [Nathaniel]  Ward's. 
'  Simple  Cobler  of  Aggawam  in  America  * 
(1647),  published  under  the  pseudonym  of 
Theodore  de  la  Guard,  adds  the  variations, 
(2)  "  Ruat  caelum,  fiat  Voluntas  Tua," 
quoted  by  Sir  T.  Browne,  '  Religio  Medici,  *' 
Pt.  II.  sect  11,  and  (3),  from  Biichmann,  the 
saying  attributed  to  the  Emperor  Fer- 
dinand I.  (1556-64),  "Fiat  justitia,  et 
pereat  mundus "  (Joh.  Manlius,  *  Loci 
Communes,1  1563,  vol.  ii.  p.  290). 

This  article  can  be  improved  in  more  than 
one  respect.  With  regard  to  (3),  the  *  Stan- 
ford Dictionary  1  quotes  ' '  Fiat  justicia  ruat 
mundus  51  from  the  '  Egerton  Papers '  (1550),. 
p.  27,  Camd.  Soc.  ;  while  with  regard  to 
(1),  "Fiat  justitia,  ruat  cselum,"  the  same 
dictionary  gives  frcm  W.  Watson's  *  Quod- 
libets  of  Religion  and  State1  (1602),  p.  338, 
"You  goe  against  that  Generall  maxime- 
in  the  lawes,  which  is  that  fiat  iustitia  & 
ruant  cceli.11  I  have  noted  a  still  closer 
approximation  to  (1)  in  Manningham's 
'Diary*  (Camd.  Soc.),  p.  169,  under  the 
date  11  April,  1603:  "When  I  was  men- 
tioning howe  dangerous  and  difficult  a 
thing  it  would  be  to  restore  appropriacions,. 
he  [  =  "Mr.  Thomas  Overbury J1  :  he  was 
not  knighted  till  1608]  said  Fiat  justicia  et 
ccelum  ruat.1* 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  u.  AUG.  13,  mo. 

No.  866,  "  Habemus  confitentem  reum." — 
It  is  curious  that  King  should  have  contentec 
himself  with  styling  this  a  law  maxim.  A  refer 
ence  ought  to  have  been  added  to  Cicero 
'  Pro  Q.  Ligario '  1,  2.  The  words  are  quoted 
from  Cicero  by  Quintilian,  ix.  2,  51 .  Petronius, 
130,  has  "Habes  confitentem  reum." 

No.  1175,  "Je  dirais  volontiers  des 
metaphysiciens  ce  que  Scaliger  disait  des 
Basques  :  '  on  dit  qu'ils  s'entendent ;  mais 
je  n'en  crois  rien,' n  S.  B.  N.  Chamfort 
(1741-1794),  '  Maximes  et  Pensees,'  chap.  vii. 
('  (Euvres  Choisies,3  1890,  vol.  ii.  p.  84).  The 
jest  would  certainly  seem  to  be  more  after 
the  style  of  Mark  Twain,  but  an  eighteenth 
century  French  wit  is  one  of  the  last  persons 
from  whom  to  expect  an  intelligent  appre- 
ciation of  either  Scaliger.  The  remark  of 
which  the  above  is  a  ludicrously  perverted 
version  was  made  by  J.  J.  Scaliger.  What 
he  disbelieved  was  the  statement  that  the 
inhabitants  of  Wales  and  Brittany  could 
understand  one  another's  speech.  See 
*  Scaligerana '  [Secunda],  p.  135,  ed.  altera, 
Cologne,  1667,  s.v.  '  Langues  * :  "  II  y  a 
encore  au  pays  de  Galles,  le  langage  vieux 
-d'Angleterre  semblable  au  Breton  breton- 
nant ;  on  dit  qu'ils  s'entendent,  je  n'en  crois 
rien.'*  The  Basque  language  and  people 
are  mentioned  in  the  same  section. 

No.  1447,  "  Lupus  in  fabula." — King  refers 
to  Cic.,  'Ep.  ad  Att.,'  xiii.  33,  4.  A  much 
•earlier  example  might  have  been  given- — 
Terence,  '  Adelphi,1  537. 

No.  1992,  "  O  tempora,  O  mores  !  "—The 
source  stated  is  Cicero's  '  Pro  Rege  Deiotaro  ' 
(B.C.  45),  11,  31,  but  Cicero  had  said  this 
in  B.C.  63.  See  '  Cat.,'  i.  1,  2. 

No.  3023  (among  the  '  Adespota  '), 

Bonis  nocet  quisquis  pepercerit  malis. 
This  inelegant  iambic  line  has  been  included 
in  some  editions  of  Publius  Syrus,  e.g.  J.  C. 
Orelli's,  1822,  but  is  now  rejected.  It  is 
obviously  a  translation  of  the  Greek  proverb 
AoiK€t  TOVS  ayaOovs  6  (/^iSojuefo?  TOJV  KaKtov. 
See  Leutsch  and  Schneidewin's  'Corpus 
Parcemiographorum  Graecorum,*  vol.  ii. 
(1851)  p.  247.  A  similar  apophthegm  is 
attributed  to  Pythagoras  by  Stobseus, 
*  Florilegium,*  xlvi.  112:  Oi  /*r)  KoA  " 
TOV?  Ka/covs  J3ov\ovrai  aSiKcio-flai 



THE  following  names  have  been  collected 
from  a  few  places  in  Berkshire,  Worcester- 
shire, and  Yorkshire  (East  Riding),  indicated 
in  the  list  by  B,  W,  and  Y.  They  are  those 

of  working  farm-horses.  Most  of  them 
have  been  in  use  for  many  generations. 
The  names  common  to  the  three  counties 
are  Bob,  Captain,  Dick,  Duke,  Flower, 
Jolly,  and  Violet.  Berks  has  the  most 
military  names.  Turpin  is  appropriately 
found  in  Yorkshire,  but  perhaps  Dick  may 
also  represent  him.  Something  has  been 
noted  about  this  subject  at  8  S.  i.  492  ;  ii.  73, 

I  propose  to  add,  later,  a  list  of  ancient 

Admiral,  Y. 
Ball,  Y. 
Banjo,  B. 
Banker,  Y. 
Bellringer,  W. 
Blackbird,  B,  W. 
Blossom,  B,  Y. 
BluebeD,   W. 
Bob,  B,  W,  Y. 
Bonny,  W,  Y. 
Bounce,  W. 
Bouncer,  Y. 
Bowler,  B,  W. 
Boxer,   B,   Y. 
Bute,  Y. 
Butler,  Y. 
Captain,  B,  W,  Y. 
Champion,  B. 
Charger,  B. 
Charlie,  Y. 
Cobby,  Y. 
Colonel,  B. 
Conjurer,   B. 
Corporal.  3. 
Daisy,  B,  Y. 
Damsel,  B. 
Dapple,  W. 
Darling,  B,  Y. 
Delver,    Y. 
Depper,  W,  Y. 
Derby,  Y. 
Diamond,  B,  Y. 
Dick,  B,  W,  Y. 
Dinah,  B. 
Dobbin,  B,  Y. 
Dolly,  B,  Y. 
Donald,  W. 
Dora,  Y. 
Dorington,  W. 
Dragon,  B,  Y. 
Duke,  B,  W,  Y. 
Dumpling,  B,  W. 
Dunstan  Boy,  W. 
Dutch,   Y. 
Farmer,  Y. 
Flora, Y. 
Flower,  B,  W,  Y. 
Forest  King,  W. 
Frolic,  W. 
Gilbert,  B. 
inger,   B. 
Gypsy,  W,  Y. 
liawatha,  W. 
Jack,  B,  Y. 
Tacko,   W. 
Jennie,  W. 

Jessie,  W,  Y. 

Jet,  W,  Y. 

Jewel,  Y. 

Jim,  W. 

Jolly,  B,  W,  Y. 

Judy,  Y. 

Kit,  W. 

Kitty,  B. 

Kruger,  B. 

Lion,  B. 

Lively,  W. 

Major,  B. 

Masterpiece,  W. 

Merryman,   W. 

Mettle,   Y. 

More  ton  Lass,  B. 

Nell,  Y. 

Nellie,  W. 

Oliver,  B. 

Paddy,  W. 

Pansy,   B. 

Pedlar,  B,  Y. 

Prince,  B,  Y. 

Punch,  Y. 

Battler,  Y. 

Robin,  W. 

Roderick,  W. 

Roger,  Y. 

Rose,  B,  Y. 

Royal,   Y. 

Sandy,  B. 

Sergeant,  B. 

Shanker,  Y. 
Short,  W. 
Shot,  Y. 
Smart,  W.  Y. 
Smiler,  W,  Y. 
Snip,  W. 
Squirrel,  B. 
Star,  W,  Y. 
Starlight,  W. 
Starling,  W. 
Thunderer,  B. 
Tidy,  Y. 
Tinker,  B. 
Toby,  W. 
Tom,  B,  Y. 
Tommy,  W. 
Topper,  Y. 
Topsy,  B. 
Trooper,  B. 
Turpin,  W,  Y. 
Venture,  B. 
Violet,  B,  W,  Y. 
Whitefoot,  B,  W. 
Yeoman,  B. 

W.  C.  B. 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


GEORGE  II.  TO  GEORGE  V. — I  have  the 
special  reason  that  I  myself  was  born  in 
1817,  and  my  father  in  1767,  for  asking 
you  to  include  for  permanent  reference  in 
'  N.  &  Q."4  the  following  extract  from  a  letter 
in  The  Times  of  18  July  :— 

My  father  was  born  in  1750,  and  I  was  born  in 
1819  (when  he  was  69).  I  attained  my  91st  birthday 
on  the  3rd  of  last  month  (June).  That  is  to  say, 
our  joint  lives  have  extended  160  years. 

Normanhurst,  Compton -street,  Eastbourne, 
July  3. 

In  this  regard  I  should  wish  to  append  the 
following  paragraph  from  The  Westminster 
Gazette  of  25  June,  which  especially  refers  to 
a  very  old  friend  of  mine  : — 

*'  Graham stown's  claim  to  possess  among  its  in- 
habitants 'an  old  lady  who  enjoys  the  distinguished 
record  of  having  lived  under  the  reign  of  the  last 
six  British  Sovereigns,  having  been  born  in 
George  II. 's  reign,'  may  at  once  be  consigned  to  the 
region  of  myth,  for  there  can  be  no  possible  proof  of 
such  a  birth  in  or  before  1760.  But  the  new  reign 
has  already  afforded  one  most  remarkable  and  well- 
attested  instance  of  great  longevity ;  and  it  would 
be  interesting  to  know  whether,  with  full  proof,  it 
can  be  exceeded.  There  has  been  taken  in  open 
court  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  George  V.,  both  as 
a  county  and  a  borough  magistrate,  by  Mr.  Richard 
Peter,  of  Launceston,  Cornwall,  who  was  born 
not  merely  in  the  reign  of  George  III.,  but  even 
before  the  Prince  of  Wales,  who  was  afterwards 
George  IV.,  was  appointed  Regent.  From  October, 
1809,  to  now  not  far  from  October,  1910,  is,  indeed, 
a  wonderful  stretch  of  time  ;  and  that  one  who  was 
born  even  before  Mr.  Gladstone,  so  long  known  as 
'  the  Grand  Old  Man,'  should  to-day  be  taking  an 
alert  part  in  magisterial  work  is  sufficiently  striking 
to  deserve  special  note." 

It  would  be  very  interesting  to  know 
whether  there  is  another  magistrate  who, 
born  before  the  Regency,  has  sworn 
allegiance  on  the  bench  to  George  V.  ;  and  I 
should  like  also  to  hear  of  others  than 
myself  who  can  recall  the  popular  celebration 
of  the  coronation  in  1821  of  George  IV., 

"  own  memories  of   which  were  given  at 


9  S.  x.  3. 


STORED.—The  following  appeared  in  The 
Daily  Telegraph  of  Monday,  the  25th  of 
July  : — 

"  LONG-LOST  CHARTER.— After  being  lost  between 
six  and  seven  hundred  years  the  mutilated  charter 
of  Edward  III.,  dated  1328,  to  the  burgesses  of 
Newcastle-under-Lyme,  will  this  week  be  restored 
to  that  Corporation  by  the  Corporation  of  Preston. 
According  to  the  opinion  of  British  Museum  ex- 
i»erts,  the  evidence  showed  that  Preston  borrowed 
the  charter  for  its  guidance  between  1342  and  1372, 
and  forgot  to  restore  it,  thus  forcing  Newcastle- 
under-Lyme  to  apply  for  another  copy.  The  charter 

has  been  in  the  possession  of  the  Preston  Corpora- 
tion for  many  years,  but  expert  evidence  shows  that 
it  was  not  a  charter  to  Preston.  There  was  no- 
doubt  a  charter  to  Preston  of  that  date,  but  it  was- 
now  missing." 

A.  N.  Q. 

VERULAMIUM. — Some  months  ago  it  was 
announced    that    excavations    were    to    be 
undertaken  to  disclose  the  ancient  Roman 
city  by  St.  Albans,  and  I  hope  the  rumour 
that  the  project  may  be  abandoned  is  not 
true.     In  connexion  with  this  subject  two 
quotations  may  prove  interesting.     One  is 
from   Spenser's    *  Ruines    of    Time '   (1591), 
"I"  representing  the  genius  of  Ver'lam: — 
I  was  that  citie,  which  the  garland  wore 
Of  Britaine's  pride,  delivered  unto  me 
By  Romane  victors,  which  it  wonne  of  yore ; 
Though  nought  at  all  but  ruines  now  I  be, 
And  lye  in  mine  owne  ashes,  as  ye  see  : 
Ver'lame  I  was  ;  what  bootes  it  that  I  was, 
Sith  now  I  am  but  weedes  and  wastefull  gras  ? 

The  other  is  from  Michael  Drayton's  '  Poly- 

Olbions  (1612):— 

Thou  saw'st  when  Ver'lam  once  ahead  aloft  did 


(Which  in  her  cinders  now  lies  sadly  buried  here) 
With  alabaster,  tuch,  and  porphyry  adorned 
When  (well-near)  in  her  pride  great  Troynovant  she 

Thou  saw'st  great  burden'd  ships  through  these 

thy  vallies  pass, 
Where  now  the  sharp-edg'd  scythe  shears  up  the 

spiring  grass : 

That  where  the  ugly  seal  and  porpoise  us'd  to  play, 
The  grass-hopper  and  ant  now  lord  it  all  the  day : 
Where  now  St.  Alban's  stands  was  called  Holmhurst 

Whose  sumptuous  fane  we  see  neglected  now  again. 

J.   S.   S. 

SNAILS  AS  FOOD. — Mr.  Baring-Gould  and 
Mr.  Harry  Hems  have  been  writing  in 
The  Guardian  on  the  excellence  of  cooked 
snails.  I  have  come  on  the  following  note 
about  them  in  '  Table  -Talk,  or  Selections 
from  the  Ana  »  (1827),  at  pp.  292-3.  It  is  due 
to  the  memorandum -making  pen  of  Robert 
Southey  : — 

"  That  Maecenas  of  Cookery,  Sir  Kenelm  Digby, 
who  is  remembered  for  so  many  odd  things,  was  one 
of  the  persons  who  introduced  the  great  shell  snail 
(Helix  Pomaria)  into  this  country  as  a  delicacy. 
He  dispersed  the  breed  about  Gpthurst,  his  seat  near 
Newport  Pagnel ;  but  the  merit  of  first  importing 
it  is  due  to  Charles  Howard,  of  the  Arundel  family. 
The  fashion  seems  to  have  taken,  for  that  grateful 
and  great  master  cook  Robert  May  has  left  several 
receipts  for  dressing  snails  among  the  secrets  of  his 
fifty  years'  experience.  Snails  are  still  sold  in 
Covent-Garden  as  a  remedy  for  consumptive  people. 
I  remember,  when  a  child,  having  seen  them 
pricked  through  the  shell  to  obtain  a  liquor  for  this 
purpose,  but  the  liquor  was  as  inefficacious  as  the 
means  to  obtain  it  were  cruel.  They  were  at  that 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  11.  AUG.  13, 1910. 

time,  I  know,  eaten  by  the  men  who  worked  at  the 
glass-houses,  probably  from  some  notion  of  their 
restorative  virtue. 

"  Snail  shells  of  every  kind  are  rarely  found  in 
^Cumberland  ;  the  large  brown  species  I  have  never 
seen  there.  The  snail  is  so  slow  a  traveller  that  it 
will  probably  require  manv  centuries  before  he 
makes  the  tour  of  the  island.5' 

I  cannot  say  that  snails  strike  me  as  being 
a  very  delightful  item  of  a  menu.  I  ventured 
on  them  when  travelling  in  Burgundy,  and 
was  disappointed  that,  instead  of  being 
tender,  glutinous  morsels,  they  proved  to  be 
tough,  tasteless,  and  uninteresting,  Frogs 
are  excellent — one  is  led  to  wish  that  they 
had  more  flesh  on  their  little  bones — but 
snails  need  deeper  gustatory  culture  than 
is  mine.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

MOTORISTS  AS  FAIRIES. — The  following 
is  an  extract  from  "  La  Vie  et  la  Mort  des 
Fees  :  Essai  d'Histoire  litteraire.  Par  Lucie 
J'elix-Faure-Goyau.  Paris,  Perrin  &  Cie., 
1910 "  ;  and  seems  to  me  sufficiently 
interesting,  from  a  folk-lore  point  of  view, 
to  be  put  on  record  : — 

"The  peasants  in  certain  districts  of  Brittany 
willingly  state  that  the  nineteenth  century  was  an 
invisible  century,  but  that  the  twentieth  will  be  a 
visible  century,  that  is  to  say  a  century  wherein  the 
fairies  and  sprites  will  again  show  themselves  to 
mankind.  The  first  motor-cars  that  they  saw 
•caused  them  to  believe  that  the  prophecy  was  ful- 
filled. They  took  the  motorists  for  fairies  revisiting 
their  old  domains." 


HUNTS. — The  following  is  taken  from  The 
Daily  Telegraph  of  19  July,  and  deserves, 
I  think,  a  place  also  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  : — 

"ST.  SWITHIN'S  TRIBUTE.— A  curious  custom 
which  has  existed  at  Old  Neston,  Hunts,  from  time 
immemorial,  has  again  been  observed.  The  church 
is  dedicated  to  St.  Swithin,  and  on  the  Sunday 
nearest  to  St.  Swithin's  Day  the  edifice  is  strewn 
with  new-mown  hay.  The  tradition  is  that  an  old 
lady  bequeathed  a  field  for  charitable  purposes  on 
condition  that  the  tenant  provided  the  hay  to  lessen 
the  annoyance  caused  by  the  squeaking  of  the  new 
boots  sported  by  the  villagers  on  Feast  Sunday. 
Ihere  are  two  other  explanations  :  one  that  it  is 
an  offering  of  the  first  fruits  of  the  hay  harvest,  and 
another  that  it  is  a  survival  of  the  custom  of  strew- 
ing the  church— when  the  floor  was  only  beaten 
earth— with  rushes,  these  being  renewed  on  the 
festival  Sunday.  The  custom  is  also  observed  at 
Olenfield-cum-Branstone,  Leicester." 


PETER  GORDON,  EXPLORER. — At  10  S.  iii. 
283,  324,  I  dealt  with  the  curious  explorer 
who  sailed  from  Calcutta  to  Okhotsk  in  a 
little  65-ton  schooner,  travelled  through 
Persia,  and  fought  the  Indian  Government 

in  the  House  of  Lords.  After  many  years  of 
search  I  have  just  discovered  that  he  was 
the  son  of  Capt.  Peter  Gordon  of  the  extra 
E.I.C.  ship  Wellesley,  who  was  a  brother  of 
the  Rev.  William  Gordon  of  Elgin,  and  a 
cadet  of  the  Cairnfield  Gordons. 

118,  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

"  CHEMINEAU."- — This  French  slang  word 
is  mentioned  at  11  S.  i.  494,  s.v.  "  Cheminots." 
There  is  a  good  example  of  its  meaning  in 
a  short  story,  'Le  Chemineau,*  by  Jean 
Florae,  in  the  paper  called  Fin  de  Siecle  of 
29  Mai,  1904  :— 

"J'aime    trop    mon    ind^pendance    pour   rester 

longtemps  dans   le   meme   endroit Je  suis  un 

chemineau  ;  ca  dit  tout,  n'est-ce  pas  ?  Je  dois  avoir 

dans  les  veines  du  sang  bohemien il  faut  que  je 

marche que  je  marche  toujours que  je  marche 



VESTRIS  FAMILY. — A  good  history  of  the 
Vestris  family,  so  far  as  their  English  careers 
are  concerned,  would  make  an  interesting 
and  diverting  book.  I  have  transcribed  the 
following  three  paragraphs  from  The  Morning 
Post  of  1781,  which  seem  worth  reprinting  :— 

"  Madame  de  Polignac  has  obtained  leave  of  the 
French  King  for  the  Vestris  to  remain  not  only  one 
month  longer  in  England,  but  for  ever  if  they 
like  it.  It  is  added  that  when  the  French  King 
was  petitioned  on  this  occasion  he  made  the  follow- 
ing sensible  answer :  '  1  wish  the  King  of  Great 
Britain  would  rid  my  kingdom  of  the  numberless 
capering  drones  that  infest  it.'  "—June  9. 

"  Yesterday,  about  one  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
both  the  Vestris  were  admitted  members  of  the 
Royal  Society,  when  they  presented  three  new 
capers  as  specimens  of  the  sublimity  of  their  new 
genius,  and  Signer  Bartolozzi  is  engaged  to  engrave 
them  for  the  next  volume  of  the  Philosophical 
Transactions" — Ibid. 

"  Mr.  Lee  Lewis  of  the  Co  vent  Garden  Theatre 
sets  off  for  Paris  on  Wednesday  in  company  with 
the  two  Vestris."— J  uly  3. 


WHERE.— Information  about  the  history  of 
printing    in    an    unexpected    and    unlikely 
publication  may  well  be  noted  in  *  N.  &  Q.' 
for    bibliographical    purposes.     In    looking 
through    some    old    volumes    of    Nouvelles 
Annales  des  Voyages,  a  French  geographic* 
monthly  magazine,  I  recently  came  across 
series  of  notes  on  the  beginnings  of  printing 
in  various  countries,  arranged  alphabetically 
under  towns.     The  notes  on  early  printing  ii 
European  towns  are  in  the  volumes  for  1 
tome  iii.  pp.  129-70  ;   1842,  iv.  129  sq.  ;   1843 
i.  129  sq.  ;    1843,  ii.  79-114.     For  printing  ii 

n  s.  ii.  A™,  is,  1910.)       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


towns   outside    of    Europe    see  idem,   1842 
i.  5-53.    I  have  not  tested  the  value  of  these 
notes,   though   I  saw  that   several   English 
provincial  towrjjs  were  included. 

The  Nouvelles  Annales  are  in  the  library 
of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  1,  Savile 
Row,  W.,  where,  no  doubt,  inquirers  would 
be  allowed  to  consult  them. 


WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

Who  was  the  second  wife  of  Col.  Thomas 
Condon  (b.  1692,  d.  1759),  of  Willerby,  Kiln- 
wick,  and  York,  who  was  Sheriff  of  York  in 
1733  ?  When  were  they  married  ?  The 
wife's  first  name  was  Elizabeth,  and  they  had 
one  son  Thomas — both  named  in  Col. 
Condon's  will  made  in  1749.  His  first  wife 
was  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Charles  Mellish, 
Esq.,  of  Ragnal,  Notts.  There  was  one  son  of 
this  marriage,  Charles,  who  took  the  name 
of  Mellish,  and  whose  daughter  Mary  was 
married  in  1787  to  Hugh,  13th  Lord  Sempill. 
Col.  Condon's  son  Thomas  also  took  the  name 
of  Mellish,  entered  the  Army  as  lieutenant 
in  1761,  and  was  subsequently  known  as 
Capt.  Mellish.  When  and  where  was  he 
born,  and  when  did  he  die  ?  He  was, 
according  to  half -pay  lists,  alive  in  1794. 

Brown  University,  Providence,  Rhode  Island. 

MENTS AT  EASTER. — Signora  Costantini, 
writing  in  the  July  number  of  The  Reunion 
Magazine  on  the  symbolism  ana  colours  of 
church  vestments,  says  :  k '  It  is  curious  to 

note that  green  is  used  instead  of  white 

on  Easter  at  Soissons  Cathedral."     May  I 
inquire  of  your  readers  the  reason  for  this 

UBoage  ?  SCANNELL    O'NEILL. 

Society  of  the  Divine  Word,  Techny,  Illinois. 

SARK  BIBLIOGRAPHY.— I  am  endeavour- 
ing to  compile  a  list  of  books,  magazine 
articles,  &c.,  dealing  with  Sark,  and  should 
welcome  any  corrections  in,  or  additions  to, 

my  present  list,  which  is  as  follows  • 

'  Carette  of  Sark''  The  Maid  of  the  Silver  Sea,' and 

nf£r  v^  KW  J*iand'  2Uoby  John  Oxenham  and 
published  by  Hodder  and  Stoughton. 

'  Dearlove,'  by  Frances  Campbell  (?  publisher.) 

'  Cavern  of  Laments,'  by  Catherine  E.  Mallardaine, 
published  by  John  Long. 

'The  Doctor's  Dilemma'  (?  by  Hesba  Stretton ; 
?  publisher.) 

'  Legends  of  Normandy'  (? author  ;  ? publisher.) 

'  Saut  Juan '  (?  author ;  ? publisher.) 

'  Sark  Girl'  (? authoress ;  ?  publisher.) 

Another  work  by  the  same  authoress. 

'  The  King's  Dues '  (?  author ;  ?  publisher. ) 

'The  Island  of  Hoses,'  by  Capt.  T.  Preston 
Battersby,  published  by  the  Sunday  School  Union, 

'  The  Garden  of  Cymodoce,'  the  title  under  which 
'  The  Island  of  Roses '  was  originally  published. 

'  To  Pleasure  Madam '  (?  author ;  ?  publisher  ;  ?about 

'  Toilers  of  the  Sea,'  by  Victor  Hugo,  contains 
occasional  references  to  Sark. 

Articles  about  Sark  are  said  to  have  appeared  in 
The  Badminton  Magazine  (about  1896)  and  The 
Idler  y  Wanted  exact  dates. 

The  Gentleman's  Magazine,  September,  1878,  pp.  273- 
87,  contains  an  article  by  the  Hon.  Roden  Noel, 
entitled  'Sark,  and  its  Caves.' 

The  Strand  Magazine,  January,  1896,  pp.  72-7,  con- 
tains an  illustrated  article  by  F.  Startin  Pilleau, 
entitled  '  How  I  visited  the  Gouliot  Caves.' 

Good  Words  (?  date ;  probably  about  1880),  pp.  112-19, 
contains  an  illustrated  article  by  Dr.  Charles 
Grindrod,  entitled  'The  Caves  and  Rocks  of 

An  early  number  of  The  Yellow  Book  (?  date)  con- 
tains a  short  story  relating  the  remorse  suffered 
by  a  man  who  thought  he  had  murdered  a  com- 
panion by  pushing  him  over  a  cliff.  I  am  told 
that  the  scene  is  laid  in  Little  Sark,  though  it  is 
not  named  (?  author  and  title). 

The  Guernsey  Magazine  for  1874,  1875,  and  1876,  con- 
tains numerous  articles  on  Sark,  its  history, 
geology,  customs,  &c.  These  were  written  by  the 
Rev.  J.  L.  V.  Cachemaille,  then  Vicar  of  Sark. 
Publisher,  F.  Clarke,  States  Arcade,  Market- 
place, Guernsey. 

'A  Guide  to  Sark,  with  Map,'  by  H.  Noel  Malan 
and  Frank  G.  Hume,  published  by  T.  B.  Banks 
&  Co.,  Guernsey. 

'A  Souvenir  of  Sark.'  Printers  and  Publishers, 
Alexander  Matthews  &  Co.  for  the  Hotel  Bel 
Air,  Sark. 

'A  Hobble  through  the  Channel  Islands  in  1858,' 
by  Edward  T.  Gastineau,  published  1860  by 
Charles  Westertou,  London.  Pp.  12,  13,  156-66. 

The     following     also     contain   historical 
references  to  Sark  : — 

'Le  Cotentin  et  ses  iles,'  by  Gustav  Du  Pont, 
Counsellor  of  the  Court  of  Appeal,  Caen,  1870-73. 
Souvenirs  historiques  de  Guernsey,'  by  George 

Recherches  sur  les  iles  du  Cotentin  en  general,' 
by  C.  de  Gerville,  1846. 
History  of  Guernsey,'  by  F.  B.  Tupper. 
The  Bulletins  of  the  Socie"te  Jersiaise. 
Please  reply  direct. 



NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [ii  s.  IL  AUG.  is,  1910. 

OF  DEVON  :  MOCK  COAT  OF  ARMS. — At  p.  49 
of  'The  Heraldry  of  Nature,1  1785,  the 
following  appears  : — 

C— ,  Viscount  C— . 
Arms.    A  set  of  bells. 
Supporters.    The  dexter,  Juno  Lucina ;  the  sinister, 

a  mocking  bird,  both  proper. 
Crest.    A  drum  proper. 
Motto.    Quantum,  eheu  !  sapere ! 

How  rare  a  thing  is  wisdom. 

A  contemporary  hand  has  filled  in  the 
blanks  with  the  narne  of  "  Courtney.11  At 
this  date  the  holder  of  the  title  was  William 
Courtenay,  the  3rd  Viscount,  afterwards 
Earl  of  Devon. 

I  should  be  much  obliged  for  information 
on  these  satirical  allusions. 


[For  other  mock  coats  of  arms  see  11  S.  i.  146, 313, 
497 ;  ii.  59,  112.] 

COMMONS. — In  reading  the  history  of  a  local 
Masonic  lodge  I  have  found  a  remarkable 
record  of  the  temporary  use  of  the  historic 
Speaker's  chair  of  the  old  House  of  Commons, 
on  the  occasion  of  the  visit  of  the  Duke  of 
Sussex  to  Sunderland  in  1839.  The  descrip- 
tive account  was  taken  from  a  London  news- 
paper, and  also  from  the  pages  of  a  Masonic 
publication,  whose  representative  came 
North  to  report  the  Royal  Duke's  proceed- 
ings. In  this  report  we  have  the  story  of 
the  celebrated  chair  : — 

"  After  having  been  led  into  the  room  by  the  Earl 
of  Durham,  His  Royal  Highness  rested  himself  for 
a  few  moments  in  a  commodious  chair  which  had 
been  provided  for  the  occasion,  and  which,  it  is 
reported,  was  formerly  the  Speaker's  chair  in  the 
old  House  of  Commons,  preserved  from  the  fire 
which  destroyed  the  two  Houses  of  Parliament  in 
1834.  This  curious  relic  was  purchased  by  a  pro- 
fessional man,  a  resident  in  Sunderland,  and  after- 
wards presented  by  him  to  the  Corporation." 

This  story  is  corroborated  by  the  local 
newspaper  in  its  report  of  the  ceremony  : — 

*'The  east  end  of  the  News  Room  of  the  Ex- 
change was  used  by  a  raised  platform,  in  the  centre 
of  which  was  placed,  for  the  use  of  the  Royal  Duke, 
'  the  awful  seat'  from  which  Sir  Charles  Manners 
Sutton  called  'Order!  Order!'  to  the  noisy  Com- 
moners of  England  in  Parliament  assembled." 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  story  is  given 
without  any  reserve  or  doubt  as  to  the  chair 
being  the  real  seat  of  the  Speaker  of  the  old 
House  of  Commons  ;  yet  I  have  been  unable 
to  secure  any  personal  information  or 
municipal  record  of  such  a  chair  in  the 
borough.  I  shall  be  glad  if  any  of  the 
readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.s  can  give  information 
as  to  the  disposal  of  the  Speaker's  chair  after 

the  fire  at  the  old  Houses  of  Parliament  in 
1834.  On  the  occasion  of  the  Duke  of 
Sussex's  visit  to  Sunderland  on  a  Masonic 
mission,  the  well-known  antiquary  and 
historian,  Sir  Cuthbert  Sharp,  a  resident  in 
the  town,  was  Worshipful  Master  ot  the 
Palatine  Lodge,  and  Deputy  Provincial 
Grand  Master  of  the  Province  of  Durham 
Masonic  Lodges.  This  fact  gives  weight  to 
the  story  that  this  historic  chair  of  the  old 
Houses  of  Parliament  wag  used  on  the 
occasion.  JOHN  ROBINSON. 

Delaval  House,  Sunderland. 

CARTER  FAMILY. — Can  any  readers  kindly 
furnish  information  concerning  the  descen- 
dants of  John  and  William  Carter,  of 
Charlton  Abbotts,  co.  Glos.,  and  Brize 
Norton,  Oxon,  respectively  ?  They  were 
the  sons  of  John  Carter,  Esq.,  lord  of  the 
manors  of  Cold  Aston,  Charlton  Abbotts^ 
and  Nether  (or  Lower)  Swell  in  1608,  and 
High  Sheriff  of  Gloucestershire  for  1612. 
A  monument  to  their  elder  brother  Giles 
(who  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Paul 
Tracy,  and  died  without  progeny  in  1664) 
is  in  Cold  Aston  Church.  According  to 
Atkyns  (*  Present  State  of  Gloucestershire,? 
1712),  the  family  moved  into  Oxfordshire. 
The  estates  of  the  above  Giles  Carter  were 
sequestered  in  the  Great  Rebellion  for  968Z. 
The  granddaughter  of  William  Carter 
married,  previous  to  1727,  Sir  John 
D'Oyley,  Bt.  J.  J.  FOSTER. 

Offa  House,  Upper  Tooting,  S.W. 

Ecclesiae  Anglicanae,*  Hardy,  MDCCCLIV.  vol.1, 
p.  481,  under  Hereford — Archdeacons,  occur 
the  following  entries  : — 

"  Robert   Crowley resigned  in    1567." 

"  Edward  Cowper,  collated  5th  April, 

In  Gloucester  Diocesan  Registry  (Case  2] 
is  a  proxy  made  20  July,  1566,  in  the 
presence  of  Edward  Cooper,  Archdeacon  of 
the  Archdeaconry  oi  Hereford,  who  affixed 
his  official  seal  to  the  document.  Can  any 
correspondent  supply  the  correct  dates  ? 

F.    S.   HOCKADAY. 

Highbury,  Lydney. 

"  STAPLE  "  IN  PLACE-NAMES. — At  Staple- 
ford,  Nottinghamshire,  is  preserved  on  a  later 
base,  in  the  village  street,  opposite  the 
approach  to  the  church,  an  elaborately 
sculptured  pillar  or  cross,  of  Anglo -Saxon 
or  Danish  origin.  High  county  authorities 
are  of  opinion,  not  only  that  it  may  ante- 
date the  foundation  of  the  church  of  Staple- 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


ford,  but  moreover  that  it  even  furnishec 
a  name  for  the  village,  in  its  situation  by  th 
crossing  of  the  river  Erewash.  "  Stapol ' 
and  its  variants,  as  applied  to  a  pillar  o 
post,  and  as  represented  in  the  "  steeple  ' 
of  a  church,  are  sufficiently  familiar.  Wha 
it  would  be  interesting  to  learn  is  whethe 
remains  or  evidences  of  pre-Norman  pillar 
or  crosses  survive  in  others  of  the  seven 
Staplefords  and  seven  Stapletons  said  tc 
exist  in  England.  A.  STAPLE-TON. 

1  OLIVER  TWIST  *  ON  THE  STAGE  IN  1838. — 
Under  the  management  of  John  Braham,  at 
the  St.  James's  Theatre,  on  Tuesday 
27  March,  1838,  '  Oliver  Twist,*  founded  on 
"the  popular  tale  by  Boz,"  was  produced 
Who  was  the  adapter,  and  who  played  in  it 
As  Dickens's  original  burlettas  were  done  ai 
the  theatre  the  previous  ye"ar,  and  as  he 
always  had  an  idea  of  dramatizing  *  Oliver 
Twist *  himself,  is  it  possible  that  he  did  so  on 
this  occasion  ?  S.  J»  A.  F. 

H.  A.  MAJOR. — I  have  a  drama  in  three 
acts  by  H.  A.  Major,  called  *  The  Nondescript 
or,  Beauty  in  Ugliness.*  Where  can  I  find 
particulars  of  the  author  ?  There  is  no  date 
on  the  play,  which  was  printed  by  Taylor 
&  Co.,  10,  Little  Queen  Street,  Lincoln's  Inn 
Fields.  Major  was  a  *'  property-maker  and 
mask-moulder,11  and  he  wrote  over  twenty 
plays,  none  of  which  I  am  able  to  trace  as 
having  been  produced  anywhere. 

S.  J.  A.  F. 

Smollett's  '  Continuation  of  Hume's  History 
of  England,1  embracing  the  period  from  1688 
to  1783,  was  published  in  eight  volumes  at 
Edinburgh  in  1791.  Smollett  died  in  1771  ; 
and  in  the  "  Advertisement  "  which  follows 
the  title-page  it  is  stated  that  six  of  the 
volumes  were  by  him — the  remaining  two 
being  by  "other  writers."  Is  it  known 
who  these  other  writers  were  ? 

I  have  always  understood  that  a  great- 
great-grand-uncle  of  mine,  the  Rev.  William 
Bisset  of  Horncastle,  a  native  of  Banff,  where 
he  died  in  1807,  aged  78,  assisted  Smollett 
with  his  portion  of  the  work,  but  in  reality 
he  may  have  been  one  of  the  "other 
writers."  JOHN  CHRISTIE. 


-Can  any  one  give  me  particulars  of  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Clarke,  who  was  Rector  of 
Chesham  Bois,  Bucks,  from  1766  to  1793, 
and  who  is  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  that 
parish  ?  The  day  and  the  month  in  which 

he  died  are  not  recorded  on  his  tomb.  I 
shall  be  glad  to  know,  if  possible,  the  names 
of  his  parents,  his  birthplace,  the  date  of  his 
ordination,  and  any  other  preferment  he 
may  have  held  ;  also  his  wife's  maiden  name, 
and  how  many  children  they  had.  Two  are 
buried  in  the  vault  with  their  father  and 
mother :  Thomas,  who  died  20  March, 
1785,  aged  25  ;  and  Mary,  the  wife  of  the 
Rev.  J.  H.  Swain,  who  died  in  July,  1786, 
aged  35.  The  widow's  Christian  name  was 
Anne  ;  she  died  12  January,  1810,  aged  80. 


— I  have  heard  it  stated  that  the  churches 
of  Hooton-Pagnall,  near  Doncaster,  and  one 
of  those  at  Retford  in  Nottinghamshire,  were 
used  as  stables  when  the  army  of  the  Duke  of 
Cumberland  was  on  its  march  northward 
in  pursuit  of  the  Jacobite  forces.  Has  this 
been  proved  ?  K.  P.  D.  E. 

to  learn  in  what  magazine  appeared  a  story 
of  a  deserter  who  returned  to  his  village 
without  knowing  that  the  regiment  had  been 
ordered  home  from  abroad.  O.  H. 

Whence  come  the  following  lines,  quoted  in 
hap.  ix.  Book  II.  of   'The  Last  Days  of 
Pompeii  *  ? 

Their  look,  with  the  reach  of  past  ages,  was  wise, 
A.nd  the  soul  of  eternity  thought  in  their  eyes. 

A.  J.  MITCHELL,  Major. 
Murree,  Punjab. 

In  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Warter's  posthumous 
work  'An  Old  Shropshire  Oak*  Sir  John 
Stuart  is  styled  "  Hero  of  the  plains  of 
Vtaida,"  apparently  a  quotation  from  some 
3oem.  I  thought  it  might  be  from  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  but  have  failed  to  trace  it  in  any 
f  his  works.  Will  one  of  your  readers 
dndly  direct  me  to  its  source  ? 

E.   L.   H.  TEW. 
Uphara  Rectory,  Southampton. 

f  your  readers  kindly  say  whether  the  lion 
ampant  gules  blazoned  on  the  royal  shield 
f  Scotland  was  derived  from  the  lion 
ampant  gules  depicted  on  the  flags  or 
>anners  of  some  of  the  Kings  and  Earls  of 
sTorthumbria  ?  SADI. 

e  much  obliged  for  the  reference  to  any 
edigree  or  other  information  relating  to 
lawkes  of '  Kilcrea,  &c.,  co.  Cork.  John 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  is,  1910. 

Hawkes    settled    in    Ireland    about     1630, 
if  I  am  not  mistaken.     The  family  are  said 
to     be     descended    from    Richard     Nevill, 
Earl  of  Warwick.     F.  M.  R.  HOLWOBTHY. 
Elsworth,  Tweedy  Road,  Bromley,  Kent. 

shall  be  glad  of  information  as  to  the 
derivation  of  the  term  "minster,11  as  it 
does  not  seem  in  some  cases  (for  instance, 
York)  to  have  the  connexion  with  monastic 
buildings  which  is  the  suggestion  generally 

I  also  desire  an  explanation  of  the  term 
"  verger "  as  distinct  from  the  sacristan 
of  Roman  Catholic  churches.  M.  L.  D. 

[The  'New  English  Dictionary'  gives  "minster" 
as  from  the  A.-S.  mynster,  and  the  earliest  meaning 
as  a  monastery,  the  first  quotation  being  from  Bede. 
The  second  definition  is  "The  church  of  a  mon- 
astery  also  applied  gen.  to  any  church  of  con- 
siderable size  or  importance,  esp.  a  collegiate  or 
cathedral  church."  The  last  quotation  under  this 
section  is  from  Leach's  '  Beverley  Church  Act  Book,' 
1898,  Introd.,  p.  34 :  "  The  word  minster  itself  is 
peculiarly  one  used  not  of  monasteries  but  oi 
secular  churches — York,  Beverley,  Ripon,  South- 
well, Lincoln,  Lichfield,  Wimborne,  these  are  the 

churches  to  which  the  title  of  minster  has  clung 

and  they   were  one  and  all  churches  of  secular 

"KiNGn  IN  PLACE-NAMES. — Can  any  one 
inform  me  of  the  meaning  of  the  word  King 
in  such  names  as  Kingsford,  Kingsmill 
Kingswood,  Kingsley,  &c.  ?  Does  it  ever 
imply  royal  ownership  ?  R.  C.  D. 

H.M.S.    AVENGER    was    a    steam    frigate 
mounting  six  guns,  with  a  crew  of  250  men 
She    sailed    from    Gibraltar    under    Capt 
G.  E.  Napier  on   17  December,    1847,  and 
on  the  20th  struck  the  Sorelle  Rocks,  where 
she    foundered.     Lieut.    Rooke,    six    men 
and  a  boy  managed  to  get  free  in  a  cutter 
but   four    of   them   were    drowned.     Lieut 
Rooke    and   the    three    others    after   mua 
suffering    reached    the  island  of  Galita  in 
safety.     I  should  be  glad  to  know  the  name 
of    the    lieutenants    and    midshipmen    wh 
lost  their  lives  in  this  disaster.       F.  K.  P. 

MOKE  FAMILY  OF  FLANDERS. — This  famil 
was  long  settled  at  Thourout  in  Flanders,  th 
earliest  recorded  member  being  Jan  Moke 
who  died  at  the  beginning  of  the  seventeent 
century.  It  is  said  the  family  cam 
originally  from  Wynendael,  and  I  shall  b 
glad  if  any  one  with  a  knowledge  of  Flemis 
families  can  tell  me  about  the  origin  of  th 
family  and  the  derivation  of  its  name. 

F.  A.  J. 


(10  S.  xii.  422.) 

AMONG  the  collection  of  MS.  papers  temp. 

Elizabeth  extant  in  the  church  of  SS.  Anne 

and  Agnes,  Aldersgate,  are  numbered  three 

original  documents  relating  to  the  provision 

of    arms,    which,    as    being    contemporary 

ecords  of  the  Armada  period,  may  be  of 

ufficient   general   interest   to   justify   their 

nsertion  in  the  columns  of  '  N.  &  Q.* 

1.  By  the  first  John  Colleye,  constable  of 
the    parish,    acknowledges    the    receipt    of 

.7s.  Qd.  from  the  upper  churchwarden,  "  for 
ihat  he  layd  out  aboaut  [sic]  the  soyldiers 
Jurny  twice  according  to  the  presept  from 
my  lord  mayor  "  : — 

This  is  John  Colly  [*tc]  the  Constables  bill : 
For  prest  moneye,  iiij8 
For  iij  girdles,  ij8 
For  a  leather  for  a  muskett,  iiijd 
For  a  Scottish  Capp,  xvjd 
For  a  sword,  iiij8  iiijd 
Paied  to  thre  solders  for  ij  dayes,  viz.  one  day  iiij,d 

&  the  other  daye  vjd  a  pece,  ij8  vjd 
For  a  pike  wch  was  cast  in  the  feild  by  the  Cap- 
tayne,  iij8 

Some  is  xvij8  vjd 

2.  By     the     second     document     William 
Hop  ton,     armourer,     acknowledges    a    sum 
of  51.   6$.  which  he  has  received  from  the 
wardens  "  for  armor,11  his  account  running 
thus : — 

This  is  William  Hopton,  Armorer,  his  bill : 
Bought  ye  Corslettes  at  the  price  of  iiju 
For  ij  swordes  &  ij  daggers,  xiij8 
For  the  lynning  of  ij  hedpeeces,  xijd 
For  one  picke  [sic]  armed,  iiij8  vjd> 
For  a  muskett  &  the  furniture  to  it,  xxvij8  vjd 
Som'a  is  vu  o8  vjd 

3.  The  third  record  apparently  consists 
of  a  transcript  from  the  long-vanished  vestry 
minute-book  of  the  period  : — 

"  Delivered  to  the  Churchwardens  for  somqch  [sic] 
collected  of  the  p'ishioners  towarde  the  furniture  of 
Arms  win  saied  wch  was  com'anded  to  be  had  & 
provided  in  this  p'ish  by  p'cept  fro  the  Maior  about 
the  beginning  of  this  moneth  &  the  latter  end  of 
the  moneth  before,  viz.  Marche,  And  for  as  mud 
as  the  for  said  arms  was  p'vided  and  the  soldie 
went  not  forth  but  were  discharged,  &  that  tl 
contributions  of  the  p'ish  collected  amounted  not 
the  full  discharge  &  paym4  of  the  said  Armorer 
was  agreed  this  daie,   that  the  Church  warder 
shold  disbursse  the  rest  of  the  money  wch  the  sai 
Arms  amounted  to,  &  to  take  the  same  Arms 
to  p'serve  the  same  to  the  use  of  the  p'ish,  &  the 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


to  be  allowed  the  surplus  laid  out  by  them  at  their 

Agreed  on  by  Mr  Harvey  &  Mr  Jarvis,  Church 
Wardens ;  Mr  Stevens,  Mr  Gale,  Mr  Johnson  &  Mr 
Goodere.  Tho.  Bedford,  scr[ivener]." 

The  date  of  the  last  document  is  20  April, 
1589,  the  two  others  (which  are  engrossed 
upon  its  reverse  side  as  regards  the  specifica- 
tions, the  actual  receipts  being  on  separate 
slips,  whence  the  reference  to  "  three  docu- 
ments ")  being  dated  the  day  previous. 


"  STORM  IN  A  TEACUP  '*  (11  S.  ii.  86).— 
I  am  sure  that  I  have  met  with  this  phrase 
far  earlier  than  1872.  I  should  be  surprised 
it  it  did  not  occur  as  early  as  the  time  of 
Bolingbroke ;  indeed,  I  think  he  used  it,  but 
cannot  verify  my  opinion,  as»I  have  not  a 
copy  of  his  works  near  at  hand.  Whenever 
it  was  used  for  the  first  time,  it  is  almost 
certain  to  have  been  a  free  translation  of 
Cicero's  "  excitare  fluctus  in  simpulo.'* 


Athenseus,  the  grammarian  of  Naucratis, 
A.D.  230,  in  his  '  Deipnosophistfe  '  represents 
the  flute-player  DorionridiculingTimotheos, 
a  virtuoso  on  the  zither,  who  wished  to 
imitate  a  storm  at  sea  on  his  instrument  : 
"  I  have  heard  a  greater  storm  in  a  boiling 
pot "  (viii.  19). 


MYDDELTON  :  "  DREF  "  :  "  PLAS  "  (11  S. 
i.  329). — The  present  meaning  of  the  Welsh 
"  tref  "  (pr.  trave)  is  the  same  as  the  present 
meaning  of  the  English  "town,"-  and  both 
are  used  alike  in  place-names.  "  Tre- 
forus,"  for  instance,  is  the  exact  equivalent 
of  "  Morris-ton."  In  place-names  and  in 
ordinary  speech  the  /  is  often  dropped,  as 
in  "Tre-fach"  (Little-ton),  "  Tre-fran " 
(Crow-ton),  "  Tre-herbert "  (Herbert's  Town), 
and  "  Tre-madoc  "  (Madoc's  Town).  The  / 
is  retained  in  "  Tref-eglwys "  (Church- 
town),"  Tref -garn  "  (Cairn-ton),"  Tref -nant  " 
(the  tun  of  the  hollow),  &c. 

In  all  these  examples  the  adjective  or 
possessive  follows  the  noun,  as  it  generally 
does.  Numerals  are  an  exception,  "  can- 
tref"-  (not  "  cantre#  ")  being  "  cant-tref," 
a  hundred  (literally  a  hundred  tuns). 

Some  compound  words  also  present 
exceptions.  Thus  "y  tir  canol Ft  (the 
middle  land)  becomes  in  composition  "y 
Canol-dir  "  (the  Mediterranean). 

In  full  "  the  middle  town  "  would  be  "  y 
dref  ganol,"  and  "  the  middle  of  the  town  " 
would  be  "  canol  y  dref."  I  know  a  village 

which  has  two  farms,  "  Canol-dre "  and 
"  Pen-isha'r-dre  "  (the  middle  and  the  lower 
end  of  the  village). 

"  Plas  "  means  a  palace,  mansion,  hall, 
not  a  place.  There  is  no  connexion  between 
it  and  "tref."-  "Plas  Canol"  means  the 
middle  mansion.  DAVID  SALMON. 


The  radical  form  is  not  "dref,'1  but 
"tref,'J  "  dref  "  being  merely  the  lenation 
of  this.  "  Canoldref  ri  is  a  perfectly  correct 
form,  "  tref  "  lenating  to  "  dref  "  in  accord- 
ance with  the  rule  (adjective  preceding  the 
noun).  There  are  several  words  of  this  form 
in  Welsh,  e.g.,  "  canoldir,"  midland ; 
"  canolfor,"  Mediterranean  Sea.  William 
Myddelton  is  called  by  Gweirydd  ap  Rhys  in 
his  '  Hanes  Llenyddiaeth  Cymreig  '  ( '  His- 
tory of  Welsh  Literature  '),  p.  330,  "  Gwilym 
Ganoldref"  (not  "  Canol-dref,"  the  word 
being  treated  as  an  epithet,  and  lenated 
accordingly).  Whether  any  place  is  actually 
called  "  canoldref "  where  in  English  it 
would  be  "  Middleton,"  or  whether  William 
Myddelton's  name  is  an  invented  bardic 
name  only,  I  am  unable  to  say. 

Where  does  "  Cantref  "  occur  as  a  place- 
name  ?  It  seems  a  curious  name.  The 
word  signifies,  as  MR.  MYDDELTON  says, 
a  territorial  division,  "  hundred." 

"  Tref  "  and  "  Plas  "  are  quite  distinct 
in  meaning.  The  former  signifies  a  home- 
stead, and  then  a  town,  like  tun  ;  the  latter, 
a  palace,  hall.  "  Plas  Canol "  therefore 
could  not  be  equivalent  to  "  Canoldref." 
For  other  instances  of  "tref"  as  a  suffix 
cf.  "hendref  "  (old  homestead,  winter  dwel- 
ling, as  opposed  to  "  hafotty,"  summer 
dwelling),  &c.  H.  I.  B. 

According  to  Owen  Pughe's  Welsh- 
English  dictionary  of  1832,  "  tref  "  means  in 
Welsh  a  dwelling-place,  homestead,  town : 
' '  As  the  name  of  a  single  house,  it  answers 
to  the  English  ham.  The  adage  is  quoted, 
f.i.,  '  Nid  tref  ond  nef,1  there  is  no  dwelling- 
place  but  heaven."  Al.  Macbain,  in  his 
Gaelic  etymological  dictionary,  identifies 
Cymric  or  Welsh  "  tref,"  a  homestead,  in  its 
origin  with  Old  Irish  treb,  a  dwelling,  and 
with  Latin  tribus,  trebus,  a  tribe,  connecting 
it  also  with  Eng.  thorp. 

"  Plas  "  is  defined  by  O.  Pught>,  I.e.,  as  a 
large  edifice  or  hall,  and  may  be  probably 
akin  to  Latin  palatiu~n,  regarded,  primitively, 
as  a  place  where  cattle  feed.  During  my 
stay  at  Llaneilian,  near  Amlwch,  in  Ynys 
Mon  (or  Anglesey),  with  a  Cymric  farmer 
at  his  newly  built  house,  I  remember  his  old 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  IL  AUG.  13, 1910. 

farm-house  with  cattle-sheds,  situated  in 
the  neighbourhood,  used  to  be  called  by  him 
"  Plas." 

In  answer  to  the  question,  "Is  *  Gwilym 
Canoldref '  good  Welsh  ?  "  I  am  told  by  a 
native  Cymric  friend  that  it  correctly  renders 
"William  Middleton."  In  answer  to  the 
further  question,  "Is  there  a  difference  in 
signification  between  *  tref "  and  *  plas  *  ?  " 
I  learn  from  the  same  source  that  nowadays 
"  tref  "  commonly  denotes  a  number  of 
houses,  village,  or  town,  and  "  plas "  a 
single  abode  or  mansion.  Thus,  for  instance, 
the  name  given  to  a  Welsh  private  residence 
is  "Plas  y  Derwen,"  i.e.,  Oakham.  But 
"  tref,"  when  used  in  the  compound  noun 
"  Car -tref  "  (cara  tribus),  is  also  applied  to 
denote  a  single  dwelling-place,  or  home. 
This  name  is  frequently  met  with  as  that  of 
a  Cymric  house  (cf.  Owen  Pughe,  I.e.). 


"  Canoldref "  is  an  exact  translation  of 
"Middletun."  William  Middleton  used  the 
name  "  Gwilym  Canoldref  "  himself,  and  it 
was  the  name  generally  used  by  his  Welsh 
bardic  contemporaries.  As  a  general  rule  in 
Welsh,  when  an  adjective,  or  a  noun  used 
as  an  adjective,  is  connected  with  another 
noun,  the  adjective  follows  the  noun,  thus 
"Tref  Ganol,11  the  Middle  Town;  "Tref 
Newydd,"  New  Town  ;  but  when  the  words 
are  formed  into  one  compound  the  adjec- 
tive leads,  as  in  "  Hendref  or  Hendre,'1  a 
very  common  place-name  in  Wales,  meaning 
the  Old  Town  or  homestead. 

As  to  the  difference  between  "  tref  n  and 
"  plas,"  the  latter  invariably  means  a 
palace,  so  Plas  Canol  means  the  Middle 
Palace,  there  being  in  the  same  neighbour- 
hood a  Plas  Uchaf  (Higher  or  Upper  Palace) 
and  Plas  Isaf  (Lower  Palace).  D.  M.  R. 

The  Plas  Heaton  mentioned  in  the  query 
is  the  seat  of  the  old  family  of  that  name  ; 
so  also  Plas  Clough  and  Plas  Pigot  are  or 
were  the  residences  of  the  ancient  families 
of  those  names,  all  in  or  near  Denbigh. 

[H.  P.  L.  also  thanked  for  reply.]  • 

67). — MR.  THORNTON  mentions  "  pikery," 
and  adds  ' '  Something  bitter  ;  but  what  ?  " 
This  is  our  old  friend  hiera  picra,  the  name 
of  which  has  had  many  corrupt  variations. 
It  was  in  the  '  London  Pharmacopoeia,1  being 
composed  of  gum  extracted  from  socotrine 
aloes,  and  Canella  alba.  In  the  '  Edin- 
burgh Pharmacopoeia,1  instead  of  the  Canella 

alba,  ginger  and  Virginian  snake-root  were 
employed.  It  is  about  as  nauseous  a  mixture 
as  could  be  desired.  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

"  Prickly -heat  "  is  an  expression  I  have 
often  heard  here.  Is  it  an  Americanism  ? 

R.  B— R. 
South  Shields. 

['  N.E.D.'  quotes  it  in  1736  from  Wesley.] 

"TILLEUL"  (11  S,  ii.  47,  93).— They  say 
in  Vienne  "  La  fille  qui  aime  la  tisane  de 
tilleul  aura  un  beau  mari.'*  I  do  not  know 
whether  faith  in  lime-tea  be  held  on  this  side 
of  the  Channel,  though  my  '  Family  Herbal l 
mentions  the  utility  of  a  decoction  or  in- 
fusion of  the  flowers  for  asthma  and  for 
coughs,  while  the  powdered  leaves,  taken  in 
treacle  or  in  tea,  are  recommended  in  some 
cases  of  inflammation.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

"  Un  tilleul  "  is  a  common  drink  in  some 
parts  of  France,  e.g.,  at  Lyons.  The  same 
"  tea  "  is  also  well  known  in  Germany  under 
the  name  of  "  Lindenblume."  It  is  some- 
what tasteless,  but  not  at  all  unpleasant. 

H.  K. 

BEN  JONSON  (11  S.  ii.  67). — 

'"Slight!  fed  with  it,  the  whoreson  strummel, 
patched,  goggle-eyed  grumbledories,  would  have 
gigantomachized."  —  '  Every  Man  out  of  His 
Humour,'  V.  iv. 

Patched  =  long  dishevelled -haired. 

Grumbledories = possibly  compounded  of 
"grumble"  and  "dor"  (beetle),  meaning 
cheat  or  fool. 

See  '  Ben  Jonson,1  vol.  i.  p.  241  (ed.  Dr. 
Brinsley  Nicholson),  "Mermaid  Series.'1 
A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

ITALY  IN  1654  (US.  ii.  64).— With  reference 
to  the  earthquake,  is  it  possible  that  the  letter 
reads  "  2 — 3rd  Instant  at  midnight,"  i.e., 
the  midnight  between  the  2nd  and  3rd  of 
July,  1654,  and  not  the  23rd,  as  Mr.  H.  J. 
GODBOLD  prints  it  ?  On  the  former  date 
there  was  a  terrible  earthquake,  which  is 
mentioned  by  Marcello  Bonito  in  his  '  Terra 
Tremante,1  Naples,  1691,  lib.  x.  p.  781  :— 

"'Nell'  anno  1654,  per  un  gagliardo  Terremoto 
la  gik  detta  Chiesa  cadde,  onde  di  nuovo  nell'  anno 
1682,  si  &  dato  principio  a  ristorarla.'  [This  is  a 
quotation  from  'Descrit  d'Alvit,'  par.  i,  pag.  26.] 

"A  questo  accidente  allude  Athan.  Kircher, 
'Mund.  Subterr.,'  torn.  i.  lib.  4,  cap.  10,  §  2,  osser- 
vando  che  insorsero  i  spiriti  a'  2.  di  Luglio  di  quell' 
anno  nel  Territorio  della  Cittk  di  Sora  vicina  ad 
Alvito  con  le  cui  scosse  trem6  anche  Roma. 

"Reliqua  vero  vicina  Oppida  tremorem  quidem 
terrse  sentire,  at  non  nisi  ex  terrestrium  partium 
consensu,  ut  in  ingenti  Terremotu  in  agro  Sorano 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


2.  lulii  anno  1654.  exorto  contigit,  quo  vel  ipsam 
Roraam  fere  triduo  distantem  ex  consensu  contre- 
muisse  sentimus." 

This  is  the  only  earthquake  Marcello 
Bonito  mentions  for  1654. 


509;  xi.  53,  218,  356,  454;  xii.  53).— 

"Paul  Jones  is  known  as  a  rebel  and  a  pirate. 
Five-and-twenty  years  have  not  elapsed  since  the 
nurses  of  Scotland  hushed  their  crying  infants  by 
the  whisper  of  his  name." — Quoted  from  'Life  of 
Paul  Jones,'  London,  1825,  at  p.  170  of  '  Nelson,  and 
other  Naval  Studies,'  by  J.  R.  Thursfield,  and 
ascribed  to  Benjamin  Disraeli  (see  note  p.  195). 

The  following  is  not  such  a  plain  threat, 
though  it  has  been  referred  to  as  such  ; 
citing  it  here  may  lead  to  some  better 
example  to  the  same  effect  :— »• 

"  The  earliest  idea  I  had  of  Napoleon  was  that 
of  a  huge  ogre  or  giant,  with  one  large  flaming  red 
eye  in  the  middle  of  his  forehead,  and  1  .»ng  teeth 
protruding  from  his  mouth,  with  which  he  tore  to 
pieces  and  devoured  naughty  little  girls,  especially 
those  who  did  not  know  their  lessons."— P.  12  of 

"Recollections  of   the    Emperor   Napoleon by 

Mrs.  Abell,  late  Miss  Elizabeth  Balcombe/' 
London,  1844. 


Boston,  Mass. 

EDWARD  THE  CONFESSOR  (11  S.  i.  369  ;  ii.  73). 
— In  the  twelfth  century  it  was  believed, 
whether  rightly  or  wrongly,  that  Ansgar  (or 
Esegar)  had  been  preceded  in  his  office  of 
Staller  by  his  father  JSthelstan  and  his 
grandfather  Tovi  (or  Ton),  and  that  certain 
lands  were  attached  to  this  office.  This 
appears  from  a  passage  quoted  in  Round's 
'  Geoffrey  de  Mandeville  *  (p.  37)  from  the 
Waltham  Chronicle  : — 

"Cui  [Tovi]  successit  films  ejus  Adelstanus  pater 
Esegari  qui  stalra  inventus  est  in  Anglias  conquisi- 

one  a  Normannis Successit  quidem  Adelstanus 

patri  suo  Tovi,  non  in  totam  quidem  possessionem 
quam  possederat  pater,  sed  in  earn  tantum  quse 
pertmobat  ad  Stallariam." 

This  was  written  when  William  de  Mande- 
ville was  Earl  of  Essex,  i.e.,  1166-89. 

G.  H.  WHITE. 

(11  S.  i.  43,  131,  254,  498).— The  modern  use 
of  codesto  or  cotesto  by  Tuscan  Italians  is 
not  to  denote  an  object  equally  distant  from 
both  speakers,  but  to  indicate  one  that  is 
nearer  to  the  person  spoken  to.  Petrocchi 
thus  defines  it :  "  Pronome  che  indica 
persona  o  cosa  vicina  o  relativa  alia  persona 
a  cui  si  parla  »  ('  Dizionario  italiano,'  vol.  i. 

p.  497).  In  Tuscany  codesto  is  really  used 
in  this  sense  ;  but  it  may  not  be  so  in  all 
parts  of  Italy.  Iste  in  Latin  has  surely  the 
same  meaning.  M.  HAULTMONT. 

J.  FABER  (11  S.  ii.  69).— There  were  two 
artists  by  the  name  of  J.  Faber,  father  and 
son,  and  each  of  them  called  John. 

John  Faber  the  elder  was  born  in  Holland, 
where  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  art  of 
mezzotinto  engraving.  Subsequently  he 
came  to  England,  and  died  at  Bristol  in 
May,  1721. 

The  younger  John  obtained  a  high  reputa- 
tion as  an  engraver  in  mezzotinto.  He  lived 
in  London,  where  he  is  believed  to  have 
died  in  1756. 

Both  father  and  son  are,  however,  too  early 
for  MR.  ANSCOMBE'S  date. 

L.   H.   CHAMBERS. 

SPROTT'S  CHRONICLE  (11  S.  ii.  24,  73,  94).— 
Sprott  the  chronicler  lived  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  certainly  did  not  record  events 
which  happened  nearly  two  centuries  after 
he  ceased  to  write.  All  we  know  of  the  docu- 
ment from  which  MR.  JOHN  HODGKIN  quotes 
with  the  preface  "  Sprott  writes  "  is  that 
it  is  bound  in  the  same  volume  with  Sprott's 
Chronicle,  and  that  its  editor,  Thomas 
Hearne,  says  (p.  xl)  that  he  received  the 
document  from  which  it  is  printed  at  the 
hands  of  a  learned  friend  ("reperi  in  codice 
MS.  vetusto  mihi  porrecto  at  amico  per- 
erudito  IJ).  MR.  HODGKIN'S  identification  of 
the  anonymous  chronicler  with  Sprott  is 
therefore  manifestly  out  of  court. 

Fabyan  did  not  write  that  John  Stone 
was  Mayor  in  1465.  This  is  a  misreading 
on  the  part  of  MR.  HODGKIN.  Stone  was 
Sheriff  in  that  year,  but  he  was  never  either 
Mayor  or  Alderman. 

As  to  the  value  of  MR.  HODGKIN'S 
authorities,  no  competent  scholar  would 
accept  Fabyan  as  infallible  in  matters  of 
minute  detail,  and  we  have  no  data  for 
estimating  the  value  of  the  document  which 
MR.  HODGKIN  erroneously  attributes  to 
Sprott.  But  Gregory  not  only  was  a  con- 
temporary of  Philip,  but  had  also  been  his 
colleague  as  an  alderman,  and  he  expressly 
states  that  no  other  citizens  than  the  five  he 
names  were  made  Knights  of  the  Bath  in 

We  have  material  for  testing  the  respective 
statements  of  Gregory  and  Fabyan. 

Gregory  gives  five  names — Wyche,  Coke, 
Gosselyn,  Plomer,  Whafyr. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  13,1910. 

Fabyan  gives  four — Cook,  Philip,  Jos- 
selyne,  Wauyr. 

The  anonymous  chronicler  agrees  with 
JFabyan  (even  in  the  order)  except  for 
orthographic  variations. 

It  will  be  seen  that  Gregory  omits  Philip, 
and  the  others  omit  Plomer  and  Coke. 

I  need  not  trouble  *N.  &  Q.5  with  proofs  in 
the  case  of  the  three  names  common  to  both 
lists,  though  I  have  them  before  me.  With 
regard  to  Wyche,  he  is  described  as  "  miles," 
21  July,  1468  (Guildhall  Records,  Journal  7, 
fo.  175  b).  So  also  Plomer  is  called  "  miles  " 
4  February,  1468  (Husting  Roll  197  (26)  ), 
and  4  July,  1468  (Journal  7,  fo.  175). 

On  the  other  hand,  Philip  is  not  described 
as  "miles"-  in  any  record  at  Guildhall 
earlier  than  1471,  and  moreover  in  Husting 
Roll  198  (20),  under  date  20  June,  1468, 
lie  is  described  as  "  Aldermannus  "  simply, 
without  the  addition  of  "  miles,"  which  is 
invariably  found,  where  it  is  applicable,  in 
Husting  Roll  entries. 

The  monumental  inscription  on  Philip's 
wife  (date  1470)  which  MB.  PINK  has  quoted 
•confirms  my  inference  from  the  Guildhall 
records.  ALFRED  B.  BEAVEN. 

See  'Memorials  of  Herne,  Kent'  (4th  ed., 
1887),  by  the  Rev.  J.  R.  Buchanan,  pp.  6, 
.33,  40-41,  61.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

Long  Itchington,  Warwickshire. 

In  his  reply  at  the  last  of  the  above 
references  MB.  W.  D.  PINK  writes  :  "I 
know  of  no  case  in  which  the  same  man 
received  the  accolade  twice.'1  My  ancestor, 
Sir  John  Dethick,  Kt.,  Lord  Mayor  of 
London  1655-6,  was  knighted  by  Oliver 
Cromwell  on  15  September,  1656,  and  again 
by  Charles  II.  on  13  April,  1661. 


9,  Broughton  Road,  Thornton  Heath. 

ii.  68,  111). — The  author  was  Wathen  Mark 
Wilks  Call  (1817-1890),  B.A.  1842,  M.A. 
1846  of  Cambridge,  entered  Holy  Orders  in 
1843,  but  withdrew  in  1856  from  the  service 
of  the  Church,  on  conscientious  grounds. 
He  wrote  in  The  Leader  under  G.  H.  Lewes, 
and  in  the  Westminster  and  Theological 
Reviews,  and  later  in  The  Fortnightly.  He 
seems  to  have  published  only  three  volumes 
of  poems,  one  of  which  was  '  Reverberations.' 
Unfortunately,  in  a  reissue  of  this  book  he 
inserted  a  long  prose  introduction  (explain- 
ing his  reason  for  retiring  from  the  ministry 
of  the  Church  of  England),  which  was  quite 
out  of  keeping  with  the  poems  following  it. 

Mr.  W.  Davies,  mentioned  by  the  querist, 
was  undoubtedly  a  friend  of  D.  G.  Rossetti's, 
as  may  be  proved  on  reference  to  '  D.  G. 
Rossetti,  Letters  and  Memoir,'  edited  by 
W.  M.  Rossetti,  1895.  R.  A.  POTTS. 

The  book  was  written  by  W.  M.  W.  Call 
(1817-1890),  of  whom  there  is  a  notice  in 
Boase's  '  Modern  English  Biography,'  iv.  580. 

C.  W.  S. 

Wathen  Mark  Wilks  Call,  the  author, 
died  on  20  August,  1890,  aged  73.  See 
Athenceum,  30  August,  1890,  p.  288. 

C.   D. 

HENBY  VIII.  (US.  ii.  88).— H.  A.  refers 
probably  to  Sir  Christopher  More,  the  founder 
of  the  Mores  of  Loseley  in  Surrey,  a  son  of 
John  More  or  Moore  of  Norton  in  Derby- 
shire. He  held  the  office  of  King's  Remem- 
brancer of  the  Exchequer  to  Henry  VIII., 
and  acquired  by  purchase  the  Manor  of 
Loseley,  where  he  and  his  descendants 
afterwards  settled.  He  was  Sheriff  of  Sussex 
and  Surrey  in  1532-3  and  1539-40  ; 
knighted  after  November,  1538,  probably 
about  1540  ;  M.P.  for  Surrey  1547  until  his 
death  16  August,  1549.  Will  pr.  in  P.C.C. 
1550.  He  was  twice  married  :  first  to 
Margaret,  daughter  and  heir  of  Walter 
Mugge  of  Guildford  ;  secondly  to  Constance, 
daughter  of  Richard  Sackville  of  Buck- 
hurst,  who  survived  him. 

W.  D.   PINK. 

S.  JOSEPH,  SCULPTOB  (11  S.  ii.  81). — MB. 
RALPH  NEVILL'S  acquaintance  with  the 
granddaughters  of  Samuel  Joseph  might 
help  to  confirm  the  following  entry  in  an 
old  notebook  of  mine,  unfortunately  without 
references  : — 

"  Samuel  Joseph  the  sculptor  and  George  Francis 
Joseph,  R.A.,  the  painter,  were  the  sons  of  two 
brothers  who  early  in  life  abandoned  Judaism. 
James  Joseph  Sylvester,  the  eminent  mathema- 
tician, and  a  member  of  the  Hebrew  community, 
was  a  relative." 

I  should  be  pleased  to  have  a  pedigree  of 
the  family,  with  .dates,  &c. 


118,  Sutherland  Avenue,  W. 

(11  S.  ii.  68). — I  would  recommend  the 
perusal  of  the  following  works  : — 

Gomer    Williams,    '  History    of    the    Liv< 
Privateers '  (London,  1906). 

Henri  Malo,  'Les  Corsaires'  (Paris,  1908). 

E.  P.  Statham,  *  Privateers '  (London,  1910). 

L.  L.  K. 

ii  B.  ii.  AUG.  is,  1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


11  S.  ii.    68,     115). — Reference    may    also 
made  to  Staley,  '  Hierurgia  Anglicana,1 
i.  248-9,  iii.  106-10. 


In  the  extract  I  gave  at  the  latter  reference 
from  the  Derbyshire  parish  register  the  name 
of  the  recipient  of  the  licence  should  have 
been  spelt  Francis  Mundy,  and  the  parish  as 
Mackworth,  not  "  Machworth." 

P.  D.  MUNDY. 

THE  SLEEPLESS  ARCH  (11  S.  ii.  88). — 
The  following  quotation  from  J.  Fergusson's 
'  History  of  Indian  and  Eastern  Architec- 
ture,' 1899,  p.  210,  will  explain  MR.  RUS- 
SELL'S question  : — 

"As  the  Hindus  quaintly  "express  it,  'an  arch 
never  sleeps ' ;  and  it  is  true  that  a  radiating  arch 
does  contain  in  itself  a  vis  viva  which  is  always 
tending  to  thrust  its  haunches  outwards,  and  goes 
far  to  ensure  the  ultimate  destruction  of  every 
building  where  it  is  employed;  while  the  hori- 
zontal forms  employed  by  the  Hindus  are  in  stable 
equilibrium,  and,  unless  disturbed  by  violence, 
might  remain  so  for  ever." 


That  the  arch  never  sleeps  is  an  archi- 
tectural aphorism.  Instead  of  being  deeply 
dormant  like  the  lintel  in  a  trabeated  style, 
it  is  ever  on  the  qui  vive  to  do  its  duty,  as 
long  as  it  is  kept  up  to  it,  and  to  give  way 
should  opportunity  occur.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

The  idea  is  that,  no  single  stone  being  in  a 
position  to  stand  without  its  fellows  on  each 
side,  the  equilibrium  of  the  whole  arch  is 
very  unstable.  "  The  arch  never  sleeps " 
is  the  refrain  of  a  delightful  novel  by  Mr.  J. 
Meade  Falkner,  '  The  Nebuly  Cloud/  which 
I  strongly  commend  to  all  lovers  of  good 
fiction.  NEL  MEZZO. 

[MR.  J.  BAQNALL  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

ii.  88).— The  poem  'Art  in  the  Market- 
Place,'  which  begins  "Hear  ye  the  sellers 
of  lavender  ?  n  was  written  by  E.  Urwick, 
the  "Poster  Poet.11  M.  S.  O. 

COL.  SKELTON  OF  ST.  HELENA  (US.  ii.  48, 
l3)-— To  the  information  furnished  at  the 
latter  reference  the  following  details  may  be 
added.     Only  three  allusions  to  Col.  Skelton, 
or  to  his  wife  and  family,  occur  in  O'Meara's 
Napoleon  in  Exile,'  6th  ed.,  1827,  2  vols. 
From  these  it  may  be  gathered  that  Mrs. 
bkelton  and  family  had  resided   at   Long- 
wood  (afterwards  Napoleon's  residence)  dur- 
ing a  few  months  in  each  year  for  four  or 

five  years  previous  to  the  illustrious  captive's 
arrival  in  the  island.  Mrs.  Skelton  is  accused 
of  having  prejudiced  the  Emperor's  mind 
against  Longwood  on  the  ground  of  its 
unhealthiness.  Her  husband,  Col.  Skelton, 
was  in  all  likelihood  in  the  service  of  the 
East  India  Company,  St.  Helena  being  at  the 
time  one  of  the  Company's  possessions. 
He  was  probably  the  same  as  the  John 
Skelton  who  in  June,  1814,  was  returned  as 
Lieutenant-Colonel  commanding  the  6th 
Bengal  Native  Infantry,  a  regiment  which 
had  acquitted  itself  with  distinction  at  the 
capture  of  Seringapatam.  On  1  November, 
1817,  he  was  gazetted  Colonel  of  the  same 
regiment,  and  on  19  July,  1821,  was  raised 
to  the  rank  of  Major -General.  In  1832 
he  was  returned  as  being  on  furlough,  but 
after  that  date,  so  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  all 
trace  of  him  disappears.  He  was  probably 
descended  from  the  Skeltons  of  Cumberland. 


(US.  ii.  7,  50,  98).— In  Mark  Noble's  '  Bio- 
graphical History  of  England  from  the 
Revolution  to  the  End  of  George  I.'s  Reign,' 
1806,  vol.  iii.  p.  258,  s.v.  William  Hucks, 
is  another  version  of  the  second  epigram 
which  I  gave  at  the  last  reference  : — 

The  king  of  Great  Britain  was  reckon'd  before, 

The  head  of  the  church,  by  all  good  Christian 

people : 
But  his  brewer  has  added  still  one  title  more 

To  the  rest,  and  has  made  him  the  head  of  the 

According  to  Noble,  William  Hucks  was 
"  brewer  to  the  household "  ;  M.P,  for 
Abingdon  in  1701  and  1714,  and  for  Walling- 
ford  in  the  three  following  Parliaments  ;  and 
died  4  November,  1740. 

Noble  says  : — 

"  I  believe  it  was  him  [sic]  who  was  taken  notice 
of,  when  mounted  on  a  beautiful  hunter,  by- 
Lewis  XV.  The  monarch  enquired  who  he  was.  A 
witty  nobleman  replied,  'Sire,  un  chevalier  de 
malt':  thus  punning  upon  the  French  pronunciation 
of  Malta,  and  malt  used  in  brewing." 

William  Hucks  "  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Robert  Hucks,  Esq.,  in  several  Parliaments, 
as  representative  for  Abingdon." 


The  story  of  the  artist  committing  suicide 
because  he  had  forgotten  the  stirrups, 
mentioned  by  V.  D.  P.,  is  told  in  connexion 
with  many  statues.  Such  a  one  was  current 
about  the  figure  of  William  III.,  as  an 
equestrian  Roman,  in  the  market-place  at 
Hull,  but  it  was  wholly  imaginary,  and  of 
no  great  age.  W.  C.  B. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       en  s.  n.  AUG.  13,  mo. 

A  statue  of  George  I.  not  hitherto  referred 
to  by  any  correspondent  stands  now  in  the 
south-west  corner  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Public  Record  Office.  It  is  of  marble,  and 
represents  him  in  Roman  costume.  For- 
merly it  occupied  a  niche  over  the  judicial 
bench  of  the  Court  in  the  old  Rolls  House, 
now  demolished  ;  and  on  its  present  pedestal 
is  a  leaden  tablet  from  the  foundation  stone 
of  that  building,  bearing  the  royal  arms, 
and  inscribed  "  G.  R.  1717." 


ii.  85). — I  should  imagine  that  Pitt's  statue 
is  the  property  of  the  nation,  and  that  the 
recently  appointed  Inspector  of  Ancient 
Monuments  (Mr.  Chas.  R.  Peers)  would  be 
the  most  likely  person  from  whom  to  seek 
advice  concerning  its  renovation.  The  statue 
has  been  described  by  more  than  one  writer 
as  in  many  respects  the  finest  in  London. 
It  was  engraved  in  The  Penny  Magazine  of 
30  June,  1832,  and  in  The  Mirror  of  21  July, 

The  interesting  reference  to  the  statue 
by  Peter  Cunningham  in  his  '  Handbook  of 
London 8  may  perhaps  be  recalled.  He 
states  : — 

"  I  was  present  at  its  erection  with  Sir  Francis 
Chantrey  and  my  father,  who  was  Chantrey's 
assistant.  The  statue  was  placed  on  its  pedestal 
between  7  and  8  in  the  morning,  and  while  the 
workmen  were  away  at  their  breakfast,  a  rope  was 
thrown  round  the  neck  of  the  figure,  and  a  vigorous 
attempt  made  by  several  sturdy  Reformers  to  pull 
it  down.  When  word  of  what  they  were  about 
was  brought  to  my  father,  he  exclaimed,  with  a 
smile  upon  his  face,  '  The  cramps  are  leaded,  and 
they  may  pull  until  doomsday.'  The  cramps  are 
the  iron  bolts  fastening  the  statue  to  the  pedestal. 
The  attempt  was  soon  abandoned." 


FRANCIS  PECK  (US.  ii.  68). — Almost  all 
biographical  and  bibliographical  publica- 
tions confound  the  two  Francis  Pecks.  With 
singular  unanimity  they  describe  the  anti- 
quary as  a  student  at  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, but  assign  his  graduation  dates 
correctly— 1715  and  1727.  G.  F.  R.  B.'s 
discovery  of  two  students  of  the  name  will 
therefore  help  to  correct  many  hoary  mis- 
statements.  Probably  the  Francis  Peck 
about  whom  he  seeks  information  was  also  a 
clergyman.  In  Halkett  and  Laing's  '  Dic- 
tionary *  a  book  entitled  "  To  i^os  ayiov 
or,  an  exercise  upon  the  creation.  Written  in 
the  express  words  of  the  sacred  text,  as  an 
attempt  to  shew  the  beauty  ana  sublimity  of 
Holy  Scripture,'1  is  attributed  to  Francis 
Peck.  It  was  published  in  1717  (Watt  says 

1716) — rather  an  early  and  unlikely  date 
for  the  antiquary  to  have  written  it.  Again, 
in  Halkett  and  Laing  a  poetical  production, 
"  Sighs  upon  the  never  enough  lamented 
death  of  Queen  Anne.  In  imitation  of 
Milton/*  is  also  assigned  to  Peck  the  anti- 
quary. The  work  is  dated  1719,  and  purports 
on  its  title-page  to  be  by  "  a  clergyman  of 
the  Church  of  England.'1  Was  Peck  the 
antiquary  a  clergyman  in  1719  ?  Should  not 
both  works  be  assigned  to  Francis  Peck  of 
Hythe,  Kent,  and  not  to  his  more  famous 
namesake  who  came  from  Stamford,  Lincoln- 
shire ?  W.  SCOTT. 

WINDSOR  STATIONMASTER  (11  S.  ii.  68, 
114). — The  railway  employe  about  whom 
L.  L.  K.  inquires  was  responsible  for  some 
interesting  narratives  in  a  work  entitled 
'  Ernest  Struggles/  or  "  the  Comic  Incidents 
and  Anxious  Moments  in  connection  with  the 
Life  of  a  Station  Master,  by  one  who  endured 
it.'*  It  was  published  in  1879  by  J.  J.  Bee- 
croft,  Market  -  Place,  Reading.  "Ernest 
Struggles  "  was  ot  course  a  pseudonym,  and 
it  would  probably  not  be  of  any  particular 
interest  to  L.  L.  K.  to  disclose  the  identity 
of  the  writer,  though  doubtless  many  of  the 
older  employes  on  the  line  could  enlighten 

TABLE  (US.  ii.  9,  69). — The  passage  quoted 
by  G.  W.  from  Lord  Mahon's  '  History  of 
England  *  accords  exactly  with  what  Steele 
says  in  The  Guardian  (No.  173,  17  Septem- 
ber, 1713).  He  there  prints  a  letter, 
supposed  to  have  been  sent  to  him  by  a 
"  Chaplain  in  a  noble  Family,"  complaining 
of  the  writer's  being  "suffered  to  retire" 
from  table  after  the  toast  "  Prosperity  to  the 
Church "  because  he  was  regarded  as  a 
"  Censor  Morum." 

In  The  Taller  of  23  November,  1710  (No. 
255),  Steele  had  previously  brought  this 
custom  before  his  readers  in  a  letter  from 
another  "  Chaplain  to  an  honourable  Family,'* 
who  says  :  "  for  not  offering  to  rise  at  the 
Second  Course,  I  found  my  Patron  and  his 
Lady  very  sullen  and  out  of  humour.'1  In 
this  case  no  reason  is  given,  but  it  is  clear 
from  the  other,  and  from  what  Eachard  says 
on  the  subject  of  the  clergy  dining  in  great 
houses  (see  '  The  Grounds  and  Occasions  oi 
the  Contempt  of  the  Clergy  and  Religion  l), 
that  it  was  not  (as  one  of  your  correspondents 
alleges)  "pure  stinginess 3?  merely  thai 
gave  rise  to  the  custom.  Eachard,  how- 
ever, in  the  tract  referred  to  says  nothing  oi 
the  custom  itself.  C.  C.  B. 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


DOOR-KNOCKER  ETIQUETTE  (11  S.  i.  487  ; 
ii.  17,  115). — ID  'Poems  of  Robert  Lloyd/ 
vol.  Ixviii.  of  "The  Works  of  the  English 
Poets,  by  Samuel  Johnson,"  is  an  amusing 
account  of  the  importance  attached  in  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  to  door- 
knocker etiquette  : — 


Thomas  perform'd  his  part  with  skill. 
Methinks  I  hear  the  reader  cry, 
His  part  with  skill  ?  why,  You  or  I, 
Or  anybody  else,  as  well 
As  Thomas,  sure,  could  ring  a  bell, 
Nor  did  I  ever  hear  before 
Of  skill  in  knocking  at  a  door. 
Poor  low-liv'd  creature  !    I  suppose, 
Nay,  and  am  sure,  you  're  one  of  those 
Who,  at  what  door  soe'er  they  be, 
Will  always  knock  in  the  same  key, 
Thinking  that  Bell  and  Knocker  too 
Were  found  out  nothing  else  to»do, 
But  to  inform  the  house,  no  doubt. 
That  there  was  somebody  without, 
Who,  if  they  might  such  favour  win, 
Would  rather  chuse  to  be  within. 
But  had  our  servants  no  more  sense, 
Lord  !  what  must  be  the  consequence  ? 

For  if  there  was  not  to  be  found 
8cme  wholesome  difference  of  sound, 
But  the  same  rap  foretold  th'  approach 
Of  him  who  walk'd,  or  rode  in  coach, 
A  poor  relation  now  and  then 
Might  to  my  lord  admittance  gain, 
When  his  good  lordship  hop'd  to  see 
Some  rascal  of  his  own  degree, 
And,  what  is  more  unhappy  still. 
The  stupid  wretch  who  brings  a  bill 
Might  pass  through  all  the  motley  tribe 
As  free  as  one  who  brings  a  bribe. 

Those  evils  wisely  to  prevent, 
And  root  out  care  and  discontent, 
Ev'ry  gay  smart,  who  rides  behind 
With  rose  and  bag  in  taste  refin'd, 
Must  musick  fully  understand ; 
Have  a  nice  ear  and  skilful  hand  ; 
At  ev'ry  turn  be  always  found 
A  perfect  connoisseur  in  sound ; 
Through  all  the  gamut  skilful  fly, 
Varying  his  notes,  now  low,  now  high, 
According  as  he  shifts  his  place  ; 
Now  hoarsely  grumbling  in  the  base, 
Now  turning  tenor,  and  again 
To  treble  raising  his  shrill  strain  ; 
So  to  declare,  where'er  he  be, 
His  master's  fortune  and  degree, 
By  the  distinguishing  address 
Which  he  '11  upon  the  door  express." 


A.  H.  W.  FYNMORE. 

COATS AND  FAIRIES  (11  S.  ii.  65). — Sixty 
years  ago,  when  I  was  a  child  at  Brighton, 
my  elder  brothers  wore  petticoats,  as  I  did 
myself  until  we  were  seven  or  eight  years 

old,  at  which  age  we  were  "  breeched." 
I  have  still  in  my  possession  a  silhouette  of 
us  as  we  appeared  in  those  days  (taken  on 
the  old  Chain  Pier)  ;  and  other  boys  were 
attired  in  a  similar  manner.  I  remember 
one  of  our  playmates  in  Sussex  Square  being 
kept  in  petticoats  by  his  mamma  until  he 
was  twelve  years  old,  which  caused  him  much 
chaff  from  boys  ana  girls  of  his  own  age. 

I  daresay  some  of  your  readers  can  corro- 
borate my  statement  as  to  boys  being 
dressed  similarly  to  girls  at  that  period.  I 
never  heard  that  it  had  anything  to  do  with 
the  fairies,  but  "  knicker-bockers "  were 
then  unknown  in  England.  D.  K.  T. 

MR.  WHITE  will .  find  several  instances, 
from  Achilles  onwards,  of  the  practice  of 
putting  boys  in  petticoats,  in  Clodd's 
4  Tom,  Tit,  Tot,J  where  the  motive  is  fully 
explained.  Evil  spirits  are  easily  deceived. 
I  know  a  Cornishman  who,  having  been 
frightened  by  one  on  his  walk  into  the 
country,  borrowed  a  friend's  hat  and  coat 
and  reached  home  again  unmolested. 


ALDGATE  (US.  ii.  85). — The  succession  of  the 
Priors  can  be  found  from  the  Patent  Rolls. 
The  later  ones  are  : — 

Thomas  Pomeray,  died  1481. 

Thomas  Percy,  elected  1481,  resigned 

Richard  Charnok,  elected  1495,  died  1505. 

Thomas  Newton,  elected  1505,  died  1506. 

Thomas  Percy,  died  1512. 

John  Bradwell,  elected  1512,  died  1524. 

Nicholas  Hancoke,  elected  1524. 

R.  C.  F. 

THE  FOURTH  ESTATE  (10  S.  xii.  184).— 
Another  variant  of  the  meaning  attached  to 
this  familiar  phrase  has  just  come  to  my 
notice.  In  The  Gazetteer  and  New  Daily 
Advertiser  for  30  January,  1789,  was  this 
paragraph  : — 

"  Mr.  Fox's  Board  of  Commissioners,  which  Mr. 
Pulteney  and  Mr.  Pitt  clamoured  against,  as  a 
Fourth  .Estate,  was  to  be  responsible  to  Parliament. 
Mr.  Pitt's  Fourth  Estate,  of  the  Queen  and  her 
Council,  is  to  have  no  responsibility." 


RICHARD  SARE,  BOOKSELLER  (11  S.  ii.  84). 
— Some  particulars  concerning  him,  his 
wife  and  children,  and  one  of  his  grandsons 
are  given  in  Cansick's  '  Epitaphs  of  Middle- 
sex,' 1869,  i.  11,  15.  He  is  mentioned 
several  times  in  Hearne's  '  Collectanea * 
(O.H.S.).  W.  C.  B. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      en  s.  n.  AUG.  13, 1910. 

HOUSE  (11  S.  ii.  29,  89). — In  Sketch  of 
7  October,  1896,  reference  is  made  to  "  some 
capital  measured  drawings  of  York  Water- 
gate "  which  had  appeared  recently  in 
The  Builder.  Two  reproductions  of  old 
engravings  showing  the  Water  Tower  are  also 
given — '  York  Buildings  in  1795  '  and  '  The 
Stairs  at  York  Buildings  in  1795.'-  The 
latter  is  similar  to  the  one  in  '  Old  and  New 
London  ?  (iv.  103),  which  is  there  described 
as  "From  a  print  dated  1780." 


"  PORTYGNE  "  (US.  ii.  88).— This  word  is 
not  correctly  transcribed  :  it  should  be  with 
a  u  instead  of  the  n.  This  gives  "  Portygue,'* 
and  Cotgrave,  1650,  has  "  Portugaise :  f. 
A  Portegue  ;  a  golden  coine  worth  about 
iij7.  xs.  sterl.,'v  which  makes  things  clear 

"  Portingue "  was  a  spelling  of  "  Por- 
tague,"  a  Portuguese  gold  coin,  "  often  kept 
as  an  heirloom  or  keepsake  "  ('  N.E.D.,'  vii., 
which  under  portigue,  portingue,  1144,  refers 
to  portague,  1139).  See  also  Halliwell. 

W.    C.    B. 
[Several  other  correspondents  thanked  for  replies.] 

SOUTH  AFRICAN  SLANG  (11  S.  ii.  63). — 
With  regard  to  "scoff  "  =  eat,  it  is  not  in- 
apposite to  draw  attention  to  the  notes 
at  9  S.  x.  397,  456,  where  the  late  MR.  JAS. 
PLATT  suggested  a  very  early  precursor  of 
the  word  in  the  Gothic  fragment  :  ' '  skapei 
jah  matjan  jah  drigkan."  MR.  PLATT  also 
adduced  a  quotation  of  1785  for  skoft,  a 
word  too  alien,  probably,  for  notice  in  the 
'  N.E.D.*  H.  P.  L. 

TENNYSON'S  '  MARGARET  *  (11  S.  i.  507; 
ii.  94).— Capt.  Marryat,  who,  as  M.  N.  G. 
remarks  at  the  latter  reference,  was  un- 
doubtedly an  authority  on  sea-fights,  was 
clearly  of  opinion  that  a  long  cannonade 
caused  the  wind  to  fall,  and  brought  on  a 
calm.  In  addition  to  the  passage  in  '  Newton 
Forster,'  he  states  that  the  same  effect 
happened  during  a  fight  between  two  frigates, 
which  he  describes  in  the  early  chapters  of 
'  Settlers  in  Canada.'  T.  F.  D. 

"  SEERSUCKER  "  (11  S.  ii.  69).— If  H.  P.  L. 
will  consult  the  second  edition  of  Yule's 
'  Hobson-Jobson,*  p.  708  b,  he  will  find  this 
word,  with  a  suggested  derivation.  Further 
information  about  the  nature  of  this  cloth 
and  the  derivation  of  the  word  will  be  wel- 
come. EMERITUS. 


Frederick  William  Maitland  :  a  Biographical  Sketch. 
By  H.  A.  L.  Fisher.  (Cambridge  University 

As  a  biographer  of  Maitland,  Mr.  Fisher  is  ham- 
pered by  some  disabilities,  as  he  frankly  confesses 
in  his  Prefatory  Note.  The  chief  of  these  is  that 
he  is  an  Oxford  man,  and  never  came  under  the 
influence  of  Maitland  as  a  student  or  colleague  at 
Cambridge.  The  memoir  has  but  179  pages,  and 
we  only  wish  that  the  friends  who  have  added  to 
it  letters  and  details  could  have  been  induced  to 
write  at  greater  length.  A  chapter  from  Dr.  Verrall 
such  as  he  contributed  to  the  Life  of  Jebb  would 
have  been  most  enlightening. 

The  memoir,  however,  is  sufficient  to  show  the 
alert  intelligence  and  unwearied  pursuit  of  scholar- 
ship for  its  own  sake  which  made  Maitland  so 
remarkable  as  an  example  and  an  inspiration  to  a 
host  of  scholars  of  all  sorts.  His  devotion  to  Year- 
Books  lasted  to  the  end,  and  those  who  had  the 
privilege  of  receiving  letters  from  him  or  talking 
with  him  will  recall  the  delightful  way  in  which  he 
would  bring  forth  gems  he  had  abstracted  from  his 
quarrying  of  matter  regarded  by  the  ordinary  man 
as  hopelessly  dull.  Never  was  learning  more  lightly 
worn,  or  more  modestly.  Even  those  who  have 
no  interest  in  such  labours  as  the  foundation  of  the 
Selden  Society,  or  the  complicated  subject  of  the 
early  manor  in  England,  will  appreciate  the  flashes 
of  humour  and  epigram  recorded  in  these  pages. 
Thus  at  the  Cambridge  Union  Maitland  exclaimed, 
"  I  would  I  were  a  vested  nuisance  !  Then  I  should 
be  sure  of  being  protected  by  the  whole  British 
Public.  "  To  Henry  Sidgwick  and  Prof.  Vinogradoff 
Maitland  clearly  owed  much,  and  his  tributes  to 
them  are  characteristic  of  him.  His  writing  was 
admirably  vivid  and  effective,  though  he  disclaimed 
that  "conscious  theory  or  method  of  style"  of 
which  Mr.  Fisher  speaks,  and  which  leads,  we 
think,  occasionally  to  over-  elaboration  in  his  pages. 

Mr.  Fisher  has  certainly  made  the  most  of  his 
material.  Our  chief  wonder  is  that,  as  an  accom- 
plished historian,  he  does  not  realize  that  a  biographj 
requires  an  Index.  At  the  end  we  find  only  a 
'  Bibliographical  Note  '  of  further  sources  of  infor- 
mation concerning  Maitland.  This  is  much  to  the 
point,  but  the  absence  of  an  Index  is  regrettable. 
A  few  notes  at  the  bottom  of  the  page  concerning 
various  people  and  details  mentioned  would  alsc 
we  think,  be  desirable.  If  specialists  would  take 
little  more  trouble,  they  might  reach  the  larger 
public  which  at  present  ignores  their  ministratk 

WE  are  glad  to  see,  besides  the  political  article 
in  The  Fortnightly,  several  interesting  studies  in 
history  and  biography.  '  Talleyrand,'  by  Mr.  W.  S. 
Lilly  ;  '  Byron  and  Mary  Cha  worth,'  by  Mr.  Andrew 
Lang  ;  *  H£e;e'sippe  Moreau,'  by  Mr.  Orlo  Williams  ; 
'John  Calvin  and  Calvinism,'  by  Prof.  J.  M.  Sloan  ; 
'  The  Phrenix  of  Spain,'  which  means  Lope  de 
Vega,  by  Helen  H.  Colvill  ;  and  'The  Extrava- 
gances of  the  Emperor  Elagabalus,'  by  J.  Stuart 
Hay.  Such  papers  as  these  are  far  preferable  to 
the  one-sided  politics  and  the  eternal  statistics 
which  flourish  in  the  magazines  like  weeds.  Mr. 
P.  A.  Vaile,  in  'The  Soul  of  Golf,'  explains,  as 
usual,  that  all  the  experts  have  no  idea  how  their 
shots  are  secured.  We  have  seen  Mr.  Vaile's  views 

n  s.  ii.  AUG.  is,  mo.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


before  in  the  press,  so  they  lack  novelty.  Prof 
Marcus  Hartog  publishes  an  address  'On  the 
Teaching  of  "  Nature  Study," '  which  is  lively,  but 
does  not  always  command  our  assent.  The  Pro- 
fessor has  this  foot-note :  "  Thanks  to  Prof.  Arm- 
stron^'s  enlightened  counsels,  botany  has  been 
recently  introduced  into  some  of  the  great  English 
public  schools  for  boys."  "  Recently  introduced  "  ! 
Temple  introduced  botany  at  Rugby  before  Prof. 
Armstrong  was  heard  of. 

The  last  article  in  the  number  is  fascinating. 
Mr  Basil  Tozer  has  discovered  on  Exmoor  an  old 
man  who  has  spent  years  in  '  Tracking  the  Wild 
Red  Deer,'  not  as  an  aid  to  hunters,  but  tor  pure 
pleasure.  Mr.  Tozer  stayed  with  him  in  his  cottage, 
being  the  only  man  who  has  done  so  since  Sir 
Samuel  Baker,  and  he  gives  some  idea  of  the 
expertness  of.  this  Sherlock  Holmes  of  the  wild 

The  National  Review  opens  with  its  usual  vigorous 
denunciations  of  the  Government,  including  special 
reference  to  Germany  and  the  question  of  the  Navy, 
considered  also  in  another  article.  JThe  editor  per- 
mits himself,  or  a  contributor,  to  speak  of  "the 
blatant  blatherskite  at  the  Exchequer."  Mr.  St.  Loe 
Strachey  dwells  on  the  success  of  a  striking  move 
in  4  How  We  raised  the  Surrey  Veteran  Reserve.' 
'  Some  Experiences  of  a  British  Officer  in  South 
Africa  in  the  Early  Fifties '  has  sundry  interesting 
details  from  a  diary,  combined  with  some  history, 
which  is  dull.  Capt.  Parish,  the  writer  of  the 
diary,  mentions  "that  most  abominable  of  all 
liquors,  Cape  Smoke,  a  beverage  none  but  a  South 
African  can  possibly  drink."  What  this  liquor  is 
we  do  not  know.  Mr.  A.  Wedderburu  has  a  brief 
but  well-written  account  of  'The  Homes  and 
Haunts  of  Ruskin ' ;  and  "  An  Old  Etonian  "  imparts 
a  good  deal  of  human  interest  to  '  In  the  Steerage,' 
mindful,  perhaps,  of  Stevenson's  similar  experi- 
ences. Mrs.  Huth  Jackson  has  a  very  sensible 
plea  for  'Menial  Work,'  suggesting  that  children 
really  enjoy  work  about  the  house  of  various  kinds, 
and  should  be  taught  to  do  it.  "A  Casual  Ob- 
server" has  'Some  Notes  on  India,'  which  are 
striking.  A  few  more  articles  of  this  sort,  giving 
information  as  to  distant  parts  of  the  Empire, 
would  be  really,  we  think,  more  useful  than  the 
strongly  partisan  discussions  of  home  politics  which 
we  meet  everywhere.  Miss  Violet  Markham  is 
against  Woman's  Suffrage,  and  her  article,  '  A  Pro- 
posed Woman's  Council,'  puts  forward  an  alterna- 
tive means  of  getting  women's  views  adequate 
consideration  in  Parliament.  It  is  suggested  that 
the  resolutions  of  this  Council  "  would  inevitably 
mould  and  determine  legislation  when  sent  up  to 
the  House  of  Commons."  The  inevitability  can- 
not, unfortunately,  without  the  direct  force  gained 
by  votes,  be  predicted ;  but  the  futility  of  the 
scheme  can  be  predicted  by  an  examination  of  the 
practical  results  achieved  by  various  Royal  Com- 

The,  Burlington  Magazine  opens  with  the  an- 
nouncement that  Dr.  Bode  has  withdrawn  his 
name  from  its  consultative  committee  on  account 
of  the  views  expressed  concerning  the  wax  bust  of 
Flora.  Dr.  Bode's  own  letter  in  German  is  given, 
and  we  think  the  editorial  comments  on  the  situation 
are  perfectly  just,  representing,  however,  a  view 
which,  human  nature  oeing  what  it  is,  is  not  easily 
maintained.  Mention  is  next  made  of  the  New 
Turner  Gallery  and  of  The  Contemporary  Art 

Society,  which,  we  hope,  will  be  able  to  do  some- 
thing to  counteract  "the  inadequacy  of  the  Ad- 
ministration of  the  Chantrey  Bequest." 

Mr.  L.  Binyon  begins  a  study  of  'Chinese  Paint- 
ings in  the  British  Museum,'  with  illustrations. 
Mr.  Claude  Phillips  deals  with  '  Two  Pictures  at 
the  Hermitage,'  a  Carpaccio  (according  to  him) 
and  a  Palma  Vecchio.  His  remarks  on  the  latter 
painter  are  frank  and  illuminating.  Mr.  G.  F. 
Laking  concludes  his  searching  study  of  the  Noel 
Paton  collection  of  armour,  which  is  well  illustrated ; 
and  Mr.  Sidney  Colvin  considers  '  Drawings  of  the 
French  School'  in  the  Salting  Collection,  which, 
if  they  do  not  hold  a  leading  place  in  it,  are  yet  so 
admirable  as  to  deserve  the  attention  of  every 
art-lover.  Mr.  Roger  Fry  begins  a  notice  of  '  The 
Munich  Exhibition  of  Mohammedan  Art,'  the  rela- 
tions of  which  to  the  West  he  sketches  in  his  usual 
lucid  and  interesting  style.  '  Notes  on  Various 
Works  of  Art '  include  an  account  of  English  medi- 
aeval alabaster  work,  -  the  chief  quarry  for  the 
material  having  been,  it  appears,  near  Derby,  at 

At  the  end  of  the  number,  under  '  Art  in- 
America,'  pictures  in  the  Robert  Hoe  Collection 
are  noticed  by  a  contributor  whose  views  as  to- 
two  ascriptions  do  not,  it  is  pointed  out,  coincide- 
with  the  editorial  judgment.  It  is  this  strict 
standard  of  connoisseurship  which  makes  The 
Burlington  so  valuable  as  a  guide,  and  once  again 
we  congratulate  the  editors  on  the  firmness  with 
which  they  insist  on  expert  judgment. 


MB.  BERTRAM  DOBELL'S  Catalogue  contains 
a  good  general  collection.  Under  London  is  ani 
extra-illustrated  copy  of  Thompson's  '  London 
Bridge,'  1827,  21.  10s.  There  are  early  editions  of 
Tennyson  and  Thackeray.  Among  rarities  is  a 
large-paper  copy  of  Milton's  '  Pro  Populo  Angli- 
cano  Defensio,'  folio,  1651,  a  presentation  copy 
with  inscription  in  Milton's  handwriting,  original 
calf,  90f.  Mr.  Dobell  tells  us  that  only  one  other 

S'esentation  copy  is  known.  Under  Sir  Thomas 
ore's  Works  is  the  first  collected  edition,  fine 
copy,  1557,  40Z.  Manuscripts  from  the  collection 
of  Sir  Thomas  Phillipps  include  Alabaster's 
'  Elisaeus,'  a  Latin  poem,  folio,  calf,  sixteenth 
century,  10Z.  10s.  This  poem  is  mentioned  by 
Spenser,  but  has  never  been  printed.  It  contains  a 
review  of  the  principal  events  of  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth  as  well  as  of  earlier  reigns.  Johnson 
speaks  of  the  author  in  high  terms. 

Mr.  Francis  Edwards  sends  Part  II.  of  his 
Catalogue  of  Topography  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.  This  section  is  devoted  to  London. 
Under  Ackermann  is  a  handsome  copy  of  the 
'  Microcosm,'  in  full  red  morocco,  3  vols.,  1811, 
30Z.  ;  and  under  Besant  is  'Mediaeval  London,' 
2  vols.,  4to,  1906,  21.  Boydell's  '  Scenery  of  the 
Thames,'  2  vols.,  folio,  full  calf,  1794-6,  is  12Z.  10s. 
Directories  include  '  Mogg's  Omnibus  Guide,'  also 
the  '  New  Hackney  Coach  and  Cabriolet  Fares,' 
1845,  3s.  ;  and  Robson's  '  Street  Key,'  1833, 
12s.  Under  Evans's  Supper  Rooms  is  an  original 
programme  containing  the  words  of  126  songs 
sung  there,  1865,  2s.  There  is  a  complete  set  of  the 
Huguenot  Society,  131.  10s.  Other  items  include 
Jesse's  '  London,'  4  vols.,  original  cloth,  61.  ; 
Lysons's  '  Environs,'  45Z.  ;  Rowlandson's  '  Volun- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        m  s.  n.  AUG.  is,  1910. 

teers,'  1799,  34Z.  ;  the  sixth  and  best  edition  of 
Stow's '  Survey,'  2  vols.,  large  folio,  1754-5, 11. 15s.  ; 
and  Tallis's  '  Views,'  79  parts,  original  wrappers, 
bound  in  4  vols.,  with  all  the  interesting  advertise- 
ments, Tallis,  1838,  4Z.  The  rare  treatise  pub- 
lished in  1641  on  the  subject  of  bringing  water  to 
London  is  4Z.  4s.  ;  and  an  extra-illustrated 
Wheatley's  '  London,'  extended  to  6  vols.,  half 
green  morocco,  1891,  161.  There  is  an  early  and 
clean  copy  of  Wilkinson's  '  Londina  Illustrata,' 
2  vols.,  1819, 61. 5s.  Among  maps  is  that  of  Ralph 
Agas,  1874,  Is.  Qd.  This  reproduction  contains 
a  biography  of  Agas  by  Overall  and  an  account 
of  early  maps,  which  will  be  helpful  In  settling 
the  dates  of  them.  Among  the  views  is  a  fine 
copperplate  of  the  Adelphi,  by  Pastorini,  1770, 
11.  10s.  Chelsea  includes  the  Botanic  Gardens, 
the  Hospital,  the  College,  and  the  old  church  ; 
while  under  Clapham  are  six  coloured  views  of  the 
Common  by  Powell,  1825,  51.  Under  Garra  way's 
Coffee-House  is  an  original  water-colour,  mounted, 
10s.  Garraway's  is  celebrated  as  the  first  house 
where  tea  was  retailed  in  England,  "  from  sixteen 
to  fifty  shillings  the  pound "  ('  Curiosities  of 
Literature  ').  There  are  many  views  of  Hackney. 
Under  Horse  Guards  is  a  fine  large  coloured 
aquatint  by  Stadler  after  Shepperd,  1816,  4J. 
Under  London  Bridge  is  Martin  s  collection  of 
rare  prints,  reproduced  on  India  paper,  in  1  vol., 
oblong  folio,  21. 

The  Addenda  of  Books  include  The  Annual 
Register  '  to  1908,  157  vols.,  full  calf  gilt,  301.  ; 
Bentley's  Miscellany,  complete  set,  64  vols., 
half -calf,  161.  ;  "  Gentleman's  Magazine  Library," 
28  vols.,  11.  10s.  ;  the  Edition  de  Luxe  of  Ainger's 
'  Lamb,'  12  vols.,  cloth,  51.  15s.  ;  and  Lodge's 

*  Portraits,'  large  paper,  12  vols.,  royal  4to,  whole 
morocco,  1823,  14Z.     Mr.  Edwards  has  also  fine 
collections  of  the  publications  of  Learned  Societies. 

Mr.  William  Glaisher's  Catalogue  372  is  a  supple- 
mentary one  of  remainders  at  greatly  reduced 
prices.  We  note  a  few :  Budge's  '  The  Paradise  or 
Garden  of  the  Holy  Fathers,'  2  vols.,  4s.  Qd. ;  Clinch's 

*  Bloomsbury,'  2s.  Qd. ;  Menpes's  '  Brittany,  6s.  Qd. ; 
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',  [Notices  of  other  Catalogues  held  over.] 

EDITORIAL  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries '"—Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "The  Pub- 
lishers " — at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

J.  W.  JARVIS  ("Leases  of  99  and  999  Years ").- 
Much  has  appeared  on  this  subject  in  'N.  &  Q.' ; 
see,  for  instance,  9  S.  xii.  25,  134,  193,  234,  449,  513 ; 
10  S.  i.  32. 

W.  M.  ("St.  Leodegarius").— Anticipated  ante 
p.  112. 

CORRIGENDA  —  Ante,  p.  118,   col.  2,  1.  28,   fc 
"Utenham"  read    Utenheim;    1.  34,  for  "Schl 
Buseck  "  read  Schloss  Birseck. 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.— No.  34. 

NOTES:— Date  of  Saint- EVremond's  Birth,  141— Earliest 
Pirated  Edition  of  'Hudibras,'  142—  "  Unecungga  "  : 
"Ynetunga,"  143— Jacobite  Garters  — The  Warden  of 
Wadham  and  Matrimony— The  Order  of  Merit—"  Sweet 
Lavender,"  144— "Sorning"— The  Neglected  Old  Father, 
145  —  Robert  Singleton  —  "  Ora  "  =  "  Noria  "  —  Burton's 
'  Anatomy ' :  Quotation  in  Reprints,  146. 

•QUERIES  :—' Pride  and  Prejudice' — 'Vertimmus' — Sir 
John  Ivory— Buddha  in  Christian  Art^'  The  Diaboliad ' 
—Wendell  Holmes  and  'N.  &  Q.,'  147— Directory,  c.  1660 

—  "  Usona"=U.S.A.  —  Trial  in  1776  —  Obvention  Bread 
— 'Arno    Miscellany,'    1784  — Adling    Street,     Bernard's 
Castle -Mazes,  148— Vicars  of  Dartmouth— Apple   Tree 
flowering  in  Autumn— Cocker— J.  M.  Crosby— R.  Delisle 
— Seventeenth  -  Century     Clergy — "  Collins  "=Letter    of 
Thanks— Lardiner  at  the  Coronation— Vavasour  Surname 
—"High  Days,  Holidays,  and  Bonfire  Nights,"  149— T. 
Kingston— Jacob  Henriquez  and  his  Seven  Daughters— 
"If  you  ask  for  salt,  you  ask  for  sorrow  " — Storrington— 
"  Blest  He  and  She  "—Bath  and  Henrietta  Maria,  150. 

BEPLIES :— Inscription  at  Hyeres,  15J)— Edward  Hatton, 
151— Duchess  of  Palata— Amaneuus  as  a  Christian  Name 
— Sir  S.  Duncombe — Moses  and  Pharaoh's  Daughter,  152 

—  Chideock  —  Denny    and     Windsor     Families,    153  — 
'Drawing-Room    Ditties'  —  English    Sepulchral    Monu- 
ments— " Leap  in  the  Dark " — "Denizen "  :    " Foreign  "  : 
-"Stranger,"  154— "The  Holy  Crows,"  Lisbon,  155— The 
King's    Butler— Red    Lion    Square    Obelisk — Stone    in 
Pentpnville    Road  — John    Brooke,    Fifteenth  -  Century 
Barrister — "Dispense  Bar,"  156 — E.I.C.'s  Marine  Service 
—Manor :  Sac  :  Soke— China  and  Japan— General  Haug, 
157— Folly,  158— French  Church  Registers— Dean  Alford's 
Poems— Liardet>-Capt.  R.  J.  Gordon,  159. 

NOTES     ON     BOOKS:-' Hungary    in    the    Eighteenth 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


THERE  is  considerable  uncertainty  as  to  the 
«xact  date  of  Saint-^vremond's  birth,  and 
it  may  be  doubted  whether  he  knew  that 
date  himself.  Thus,  in  a  letter  written  by 
him  in  the  name  of  Duchess  Mazarin,  in 
1696,  he  gives  his  age  as  80  (date  of  birth 
1616,  Giraud's  Edition,  iii.  317)  ;  in  one 
letter  to  Ninon  de  Lenclos,  of  1698,  he 
gives  his  age  as  100  (date  of  birth  1598, 
ibid.,  p.  394)  ;  and  in  another  letter  of  the 
same  year  as  88  (date  of  birth  1610,  ibid., 
p.  400)  ;  while  in  a  letter  of  the  same  year 
to  Barbier,  the  publisher,  he  says  he  is  85 
(date  of  birth  1613,  ibid.,  p.  431). 

Silvestre,  his  physician,  was  in  the  same 
«tate  of  uncertainty.  In  his  preface  to 
Saint-Evremond's  works,  dated  1  April,  1705 
(see  London  Edition  of  1705),  he  says  : — 

"  Saint-iTvremond  died  on  the  8/20  Sept.,   1703. 

...What  was  his  exact  age  has  never  been  as- 
certained, but  according  to  the  best  calculations 
made,  he  cannot  have  been  less  than  92  years  old," 
which  would  place  the  date  in  1611. 

Desmaizeaux,  Saint-Evremond's  acquain- 
tance and  biographer,  is  more  specific.  In 
the  first  edition  of  the  Life,  prefixed  to  the 
Amsterdam  Edition  of  the  works  issued 
in  1706,  he  states  definitely  that  Saint- 
Evremond  was  born  on  1  April,  1614  ;  but 
he  must  afterwards  have  seen  reason  to 
change  his  mind,  as  in  the  Edition  of  the  Life 
prefixed  to  the  London  edition  of  the  works 
of  1709,  the  date  is  altered  to  1  April,  1613  ; 
and  this  date  has  since  been  accepted  in 
most  biographical  notices. 

Unfortunately,  I  have  not  been  able  to 
discover  on  what  grounds  Desmaizeaux 
arrived  at  his  conclusions.  Though  devoid 
of  any  particular  gifts  as  a  writer,  he  was  a 
careful  compiler,  and  had  evidently  taken 
great  pains  to  obtain  exact  particulars  as  to 
Saint-Evremond's  birth  and  parentage, 
placing  himself,  for  that  purpose,  in  com- 
munication with  the  Abbe  Fraguier,  editor, 
or  one  of  the  editors,  of  the  Journal  des 
Savants,  a  man  of  learning,  and  about  to 
become  a  member  of  the  French  Academy. 
Fraguier,  in  turn,  placed  himself  in  com- 
munication with  one  of  the  professors  at 
Caen,  and  after  some  months,  on  14  August, 
1707,  wrote  to  Desmaizeaux  as  follows  : — 

"  Here  is  a  memo,  which  one  of  my  friends  has 
sent  me  from  Caen  touching  his  [S.-12.  s]  family  and 
the  year  of  his  birth  ;  and  this  is  all  that  a  man  of 
great  industry,  who  is  in  close  touch  with  the 
people  of  M.  de  Saint-lSvremond's  country,  has 
been  able  to  obtain  for  you.  As  to  the  certificate 
of  baptism,  it  has  not  been  discovered." — Birch 
MSS.  British  Museum,  vol.  283,  letter  signed 
"Denet,"  dated  11  June,  1706,  and  letters  of 
Fraguier,  dated  28  November,  1706,  and  14  August, 

The  memo,  in  question  I  have  not  been 
able  to  discover.  It  is  not,  so  far  as  I  can 
trace — and  I  have  looked  carefully — in  the 
nine  volumes  which  contain  the  Desmaizeaux 
MSS.  in  the  Birch  Collection  ;  nor  has  M. 
Daniels,  who  seems  to  have  gone  over  the 
same  ground,  been  able  to  discover  it  either 
(see  Appendix  A,  p.  147  of  '  Saint -Evremond 
en  Angleterre,'  1907).  The  edition  of 
Desmaizeaux's  Life  as  published  in  1709 
differs  in  certain  particulars  from  that 
published  in  1706,  and  though  the  Life  in  the 
edition  of  1709  is  dated  15  November,  1706, 
yet  I  have  no  doubt,  from  internal  evidence, 
that  Desmaizeaux  had  utilized  the  memo, 
of  1707  in  making  some  at  least  of  the 
changes  in  question.  But  whether  the 
memo,  had  helped  him  to  change  1  April, 
1614,  to  1  April,  1613,  it  is  impossible  to  say, 

If,  then,  wre  accept  the  latter  date  as  the 
real  date  of  birth,  we  do  so  on  Desmaizeaux's 
ipse  dixit  alone.  Nor  did  that  satisfy 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      [n  s.  n.  A™.  20, 1919. 

Giraud,  the  most  learned  and  elaborate  of 
Saint-^vremond's  biographers.  He  throws 
the  birthday  back  to  1  April,  1610,  assigning  for 
reason  the  letter  to  Ninon  of  1698,  in  which 
S.-]£.  says  he  was  then  88  ('  (Euvres  melees 
de  S.-^l.,'  par  Charles  Giraud,  1865,  tome  i. 
p.  xiii.).  But,  as  already  stated,  S.-E.'s 
own  letters  give  an  uncertain  sound  ;  and 
also  it  is  pretty  clear  that  he  took  an  old 
man's  pride  in  bearing  his  years  so  well. 

Giraud  wrote  in  1865.  Three  years  later, 
Leopold  Quenault — or  Quenault,  the  name 
is  given  either  way — a  local  antiquary  and 
administrator,  consulted  what  remained  of 
the  registers  of  the  Commune  of  Saint - 
Denis-le-Gast,  and  discovered  the  following 
entry  : — 

"  On  5  January,  1614,  was  baptized  a  son  of  the 
noble  and  puissant  lord  Charles  de  Saint-Denis  de 
Hambye,  chdtelain  of  Saint-Denis-le-Gast,  and  the 
said  son  was  not  named." 

On  this  Quenault  judiciously  observes  that 
if  S.-^.'s  mother  had  brought  him  into  the 
world  on  1  April,  1613,  she  could  not  well 
have  produced  another  child  by  the  5th  of  the 
following  January  ;  so  that  the  former  date 
is  rendered  at  least  improbable.  Proceeding 
further,  Quenault  found  the  following  entry 
in  the  register  : — 

"  On  the  20th  day  of  January,  1616,  was  baptized 
a  son  of  the  noble  sire  of  Saint-Denis,  lord  and 
chdtelain  of  the  place,  and  was  named  Charles  by 
the  noble  and  puissant  lord,  Charles  of  Matignon, 
Count  of  Thorigny,  Governor  of  Normandy ;  and 
the  godmother  was  the  lady  wife  of  the  Baron  de 
Honmel,  daughter  of  the  lord  of  Carrisy— the  whole 
in  the  presence  of  several  gentlemen  and  noble 

Now  it  seems  just  possible  that  S.-3iJ.  was 
born  in  1613  ;  baptized,  but  without  all  the 
due  formalities — say  for  sudden  sickness — 
on  5  January,  1614  ;  and  the  ceremony 
completed  with  fuller  rites — the  presence  of 
the  Governor*  of  the  province,  &c. — on 
20  January,  1616.  But  such  long  delays 
seem  improbable.  It  appears  to  be  more 
likely  that  the  Charles  christened  in  1616 
was  born  at  a  later  date  than  1613,  and 
a  fortiori,  at  a  later  date  than  Giraud' s  1610. 
Then  comes  the  question  of  the  identity  of 
the  "  Charles  "  of  1616  ;  and  with  regard  to 
this,  it  is  to  be  observed  that,  so  far  as  is 
known,  the  only  son  of  the  chdtelain  of  Saint- 
Denis  named  Charles  was  S.-6.  Thus,  be- 
yond the  probability  that  it  was  he  who  was 

*  The  Count  of  Thorigny  had  been  recently  ap- 
pointed. He  made  his  official  entry  into  Caen  in 
1614.  See  G.  Vanel's  'Une  grande  Ville  au  dix- 
septieme  Siecle '  (Paris,  1910),  p.  44.  The  christen- 
ing may  have  been  delayed  to  secure  his  presence. 

christened  on  20  January,  1616,  we  are  in 
the  dark. 

Nor  do  subsequent  dates  help  us  much* 
The  first  precise  date  which  we  afterwards 
come  across  in  Desmaizeaux's  narrative  is 
that  of  the  siege  of  Landrecy,  when  S.-li). 
got  his  company.  This  was  in  1637,  a  date 
when,  according  to  Giraud,  S.-fi.  would  be 
27  ;  according  to  Desmaizeaux  himself,  24  ; 
and,  if  we  take  1616  as  the  date  of  birth, 
21  or  22  ;  and  all  these  ages  are  possible, 
for  soldiers  began  young  in  those  days. 

Sainte-Beuve,  whom  few  things  escaped, 
reviewing  Giraud's  book  in  1868,  refers  to 
Quenault's  investigations — which  will  be 
found  recorded  in  the  Bulletin  de  la  Societi 
des  Antiquaires  de  Normandie,  January, 
February,  and  March,  1868,  tome  v.  p.  226, 
&c. — but  came  to  no  conclusion  (see  article 
on  S.-E.  in  *  Nouveaux  Lundis,*  vol.  xiii., 
edition  of  1870,  p.  428).  And  where  Sainte- 
Beuve  hesitated,  we  may,  I  think,  hesitate 
too.  Personally,  I  incline  to  think  S.-E. 
was  born  somewhere  between  1614  and  1616. 
As  to  the  1st  of  April,  it  seems  to  rest  on  no 
evidence  that  we  can  check.  Even  in 
Fraguier's  time  parochial  records  were  known 
to  be  imperfect,  and  to  have  been  badly  kept, 
and  I  doubt  if  further  light  will  be  derived 
from  them.  FRANK  T.  MARZIALS. 

9,  Ladbroke  Square,  W. 


;      EARLIEST 


IN  the  most  up-to-date  biographical  account 
of  Samuel  Butler  it  is  said  : — 

"On  11  Nov.,  1662,  was  licensed,  and  early  in 
1663  appeared,  a  small  anonymous  volume  entitled 
*  Hudibras :  the  first  part  written  in  the  time  of 
the  late  wars.'  This  is  the  first  genuine  edition, 
but  the  manuscript  appears  to  have  been  pirated, 
for  an  advertisement  says  that  '  a  most  false  and 
imperfect  copy'  of  the  poem  is  being  circulated 
without  any  printer's  or  publisher's  name.  Exactly 
a  year  later  a  second  part  appeared,  also  heralded 
by  a  piracy." — '  D.  N.  B.,'  vol.  viii.  p.  75. 

The  concluding  words  indicate  that,  in 
the  case  of  the  first  as  well  as  of  the  second 
part,  the  pirated  appeared  before  the 
authorized  edition ;  and  the  occurrence 
is  so  strange  that  fuller  details  should  prove 
interesting.  A  little  confusion  on  the  point 
may  be  caused  at  the  outset  by  the  fact  that 
the  advertisement  of  the  piracy  of  the  first 
part  appeared  in  The  Kingdom^ s  Intelligencer 
....  From  Monday,  Decem.  29.  to  Monday, 
January  5.  1662;  but  that  is  the  old 
civil  year,  and  the  issue  in  reality  was  the 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


earliest  of  1663.  It  appears  upon  inspection 
that  The  Kingdome's  Intelligencer  was  num- 
bered weekly,  and  in  1661  the  numbers  ran 
from  1  to  53,  the  last  being  "  from  Monday, 
Decemb.  23.  to  Monday,  Decemb.  30. 
1661."-  No.  1  of  1662  is  dated  "From 
Monday,  Decemb.  30.  to  Monday,  lanuary  6. 
1661  "  ;  but  in  the  British  Museum  Collec- 
tion (vol.  58)  it  is  bound  in  the  first  volume 
for  1662,  and  immediately  after  the  No.  1  for 
1663,  which  is  "From  Monday,  Decem.  29, 
to  Monday,  January  5.  1662."  It  was  on 
p.  9  of  the  latter  (which,  of  course,  is  the 
earliest  issue  of  1663)  that  the  following 
advertisement  appeared  : — 

"There  is  stol'n  abroad  a  most  false  imperfect 
Coppy  of  a  Poem  (called  Hudibras]  without  name 
either  of  Printer  or  Bookseller,  as  fit  for  so  lame 
and  Spurious  an  Impression.  The  true  and  perfect 
Edition  printed  by  the  Authors  Originall  is  sold  by 
Richard  Marriott  under  St.  Dunstan's  Church  in 
Fleet-street ;  that  other  nameless.  Impression  is  a 
Cheat,  and  will  but  abuse  the  buyer  as  well  as  the 
Author,  whose  Poems  deserves  to  have  falri  into 
better  hands." 

Posterity  decidedly  has  endorsed  the 
compliment  paid  in  these  last  words  ;  and 
that  is  not  the  only  unusual  feature  of  this 
very  striking  advertisement. 


"  UNECUNGGA  »  :    "  YNETUNGA." 

IN  the  oldest  copy  of  the  '  Tribal  Hidage,' 
that,  namely,  which  was  written  in  the 
Harley  MS.  No.  3271,  about  the  year  1000, 
there  appears  the  uncouth  land-name 
unecungga.  In  the  Cotton  MS.  Claudius 
D  II.,  of  the  twelfth  century,  we  find  the 
more  intelligible  ynetunga.  Another  British 
Museum  MS.,  Hargreave,  No.  313,  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  yields  wnetunga,  in 
which  the  initial  y  is  displaced  by  the  runic 
letter  for  w.  The  MSS.  are  surprisingly 
corrupt,  but  they  agree  in  assessing  the 
district  at  1,200  hides. 

Dr.  Birch,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for 
many  details  (cf.  '  Cartularium  Saxonicum,' 
iii.  672),  suggested  that  "Unecungga"  was 
either  near  the  Onny,  in  Shropshire,  or  in  the 
Hundred  of  Ongar,  in  Essex.  Mr.  Brown- 
bill,  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  in  1901  (8  June  and  3  Aug.) 
identified  it  with  Wanating,  i.e.,  Wantage. 
But  none  of  these  is  suitable.  The  ending  is 
clearly  gd,  "  region,"  as  in  "  Ohtna  ga  "  and 
"  Oxiia  ga  "  ;  and  the  u  and  c*  of  the  earliest 

*  The  letters  c  and  t  have  collided  in  MS.  since 
the  third  century  (De  Vaines,  *  Dictionnaire 
raisonne  de  Diplomatique,'  1774,  ii.  382).  They 
have  been  confounded  one  with  the  other  since  the 
thirteenth  (ibid.,  i.  216). 

manuscript  form  may  be  amended  to  y  and  £ 
respectively.  Grammatical  form  is  wanting, 
however  ;  and  even  if  we  inserted  the  a 
of  the  genitive  plural  (as  if  ynetunga  ga)^ 
we  could  not  assign  a  meaning  to  -unga* 
There  are  reasons  for  supposing  that 
"  ynetun  "  represents  "  yneta."  In  some 
tenth-century  A.-S.  MSS.  the  letter  a  was 
first  formed  like  u,  and  then  finished  by  a 
stroke  set  transversely  across  the  two  limbs 
of  that  letter  ;  vide  B.  Thorpe's  facsmilei 
of  the  Corpus  MS.  of  the  '  Saxon  Chronicle,* 
where  half-a-dozen  instances  of  this  a  may 
be  found  in  the  last  eight  lines  of  annal  922. 
This  peculiarity  led  to  mistakes  in  copying, 
the  most  frequent  being  ti  and  it  for  a.* 
Another  possible  result  of  the  careless 
crossing  of  the  limbs  of  the  u  would  be  the 
expansion  of  the  supposed  compendium 
1  u  l  as  un.  This,  I  believe,  is  the  error  that 
lies  before  us,  and  for  ynetun  ga  I  would 
substitute  Yneta  ga,  provisionally.  This- 
form,  though  grammatical,  is  obscure. 

We  will  now  inquire  what  region  of 
1,200  hides  appears  to  have  been  omitted 
from  the  list.  In  his  '  Historia  Ecclesias- 
tica,'  IV.  xiv.,  Bede  allots  1,200  hides  to  the 
Wight.  But  this  does  not  seem  probable. 
The  Wight  contains  only  94,068  acres,, 
whereas  Anglesey,  which  Bede  reported  to 
be  assessed  at  960  hides  (II.  ix.),  has 
176,630  acres.  In  one  case  78  acres  go  to 
the  hide,  in  the  other  184.  Both  islands  are 
agricultural,  and  whatever  may  be  said  for 
the  fruitfulness  of  the  Wight,  there  can  be 
no  question  of  the  fertility  of  Anglesey.  It 
was  anciently  the  granary  of  North  Wales, 
and  its  name  in  Welsh  is  Mdn  mam  Gymru, 
"Mona  the  mother  of  Cambria."  More- 
over, the  list  includes  the  Isle  of  Wight 
under  the  name  of  Wihtgara  [land],  and 
assesses  it  at  600  hides.  I  conclude,  there- 
fore, that  Bede  fell  into  some  error  in  this 

Speaking  of  the  Jutes  (I.  xv.),  Bede  dis- 
criminates between  "  ea  gens  quse  Uectam 
tenet  insulam  "  and  "  ea,  quse. . .  .lutarum 
natio  nominatur,  posita  contra  ipsam  in- 
sulam. .."•  We  have  here,  I  believe,  the 
explanation  of  Bede's  mistake  :  either  the 
hidage  is  that  of  the  whole  lutna  cyn  ( '  Saxon 
Chron.,*  a,  scr.  ca.  1100),  and  so  includes  the 
island  ;  or  it  excludes  the  island,  and  is  the 
assessment  of  the  Jutes  of  the  mainland  only. 
I  assume  the  latter  to  be  the  case,  and  I 
would  assign  the  1,200  hides  to  the  lutarum 

*  See  Archiv  fiir  cdtische  Lexicographic,  ii.  185, 
where  I  give  the  following  instances  with  their 
documentation  :  tibir :  abir  ;  tingle :  angle  ;  giti :  gai. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  IT.  AUG.  20, 1910. 

prouincia  ('  H.E.,'  u.s.),  the  Eota  land  of  the 
A.-S.  version.  Florence  of  Worcester  uses 
Bede's  phrase  in  one  place  (i.  276).  In 
another  (ii.  44)  he  says  the  New  Forest 
"  lingua  Anglorum  *  Ytene  *  nuncupatur," 
and  "Ytene"  here  equals  the  older  Ytena 
{y},  which  is  the  weak  genitive  plural. 

Our  correction  of  Bede,  then,  taken 
together  with  Florence's  report,  gives  us 
Ytena  [gd  or  land],  MCC.  hidarum.  Now  this 
assessment  ought  to  appear  in  the  '  Tribal 
Hidage.'  The  Jutish  name,  as  we  have  just 
now  seen,  maintained  itself  down  to  the 
twelfth  century ;  and  Jutish  autonomy 
survived  until  the  end  of  the  ninth,  if  we  may 
believe  John  of  Wallingford,  who  reports 
that  JElbert,  son  of  Aistulf,  the  last  king 
of  the  Jutes  of  Wight,  died  in  the  reign  of 
King  Alfred.  For  these  reasons  I  regard  the 
corrupt  words  we  are  considering  as  a  record 
of  the  Jutes  of  Hampshire,  and  instead  of 
"yneta  ga,"  the  provisional  emendation 
arrived  at  above,  I  read  Ytena  gd,  i.e.,  the 
qa  of  the  Jutes.  There  are  many  instances 
of  metathesis  like  ytena  :  yneta,*  and  it  is 
noteworthy  (1)  that  "  Ynetun  ga  "  comes 
next  before  "  Aro  saetna  [land],"  i.e.,  Dorset- 
shire, in  the  list  ;  and  (2)  that  the  other 
land -names  in  gd  therein  are  Jutish  also. 

JACOBITE  GARTERS. — In  the  First  Series 
of  '  N.  &  Q.'  (viii.  586)  is  a  query  relative 
to  the  origin  of  Jacobite  garters,  which  I 
have  never  seen  answered. 

Only  two  years  after  the  revolt  of  Charles 
Edward  in  1745-6  The  Gentleman's  Magazine 
(xviii.  461)  published  an  anonymous  '  Essay 
on  the  Garter,'  at  the  close  of  which  is 
suggested  the  origin  of  the  Jacobite 
garter  : — 

"  After  having  so  lavishly  spoken  in  praise  of  the 
garter,  I  cannot  but  disapprove  of  it,  when  it  is 
made  the  distinguishing  badge  of  a  party.  It  ought 
to  be  like  the  caestus  of  Venus,  so  beautifully 
described  in  my  motto,  and  not  to  be  daubed  with 
plaid,  and  crammed  with  treason.  I  am  credibly 
informed,  that  garters  of  this  sort  were  first  intro- 
duced in  the  late  rebellion  by  some  female  aid  de 
camps  ;  and  whether  or  not  such  ladies  are  to  be 
imitated,  is  worth  the  serious  consideration  of  the 
virtuous  part  of  the  fair  sex." 


Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

*  E.g.,  Argabafite :  Arbogaste ('HistoriaBrittonum,' 
cap.  xxix.) ;  Bedenestedun  :  Benedestedun  ('  Domes- 
day Book,'  ii.  54a,  85b) ;  Goronilla  :  Gonorilla  ('  The 
Red  Book  of  Hergest,'  ed.  Rhys  and  Evans,  ii.  65) ; 
<amphilabi :  amphibali  ('  Vita  Scti.  Columbse,'  ed. 
Reeves,  p.  113). 

MONY.— A  few  days  ago  I  received  a  letter 
from  a  friend  in  which  he  tells  me  that  there 
is  a  Railway  Act  that  contains  a  provision 
authorizing  the  Warden  of  Wadham  to 
marry.  My  friend  feels  certain  of  the  fact, 
as  he  remembers  turning  up  the  Act  itself 
some  years  ago  and  copying  the  clause.  He 
also  tells  me  that  this  Railway  Act  with  the 
matrimonial  clause  is  mentioned  in  one  of  the 
books  on  railways.  Unfortunately,  this 
book  has  been  mislaid  in  consequence  of 
dusting,  and  no  date  of  the  Railway  Act  is 
mentioned  by  my  friend. 

In  the  short  history  of  Wadham  written 
by  Mr.  J.  Wells,  p.  156,  mention  is  made 
of  a  special  Act  of  Parliament  allowing 
the  Warden  of  Wadham  to  marry,  passed  in 
1806.  Mr.  Wells  says  :  "It  need  hardly  be 
added  there  is  no  truth  in  the  college 
tradition  that  the  change  was  accom- 
plished by  a  clause  '  tacked  on  *  to  a  Canal 
Bill."  "The  Act  for  enabling  a  Married 
Person  to  hold  and  enjoy  the  Office  of 
Warden  of  Wadham  College  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Oxford  ?>  is  recorded  in  Private  Acts, 
1806.  It  maybe  found  near  the  end  of  that 
year's  second  volume.  I  can  give  no  more 
precise  reference  as  the  Private  Acts  are  not 
numbered,  are  dated  only  by  the  session 
(46  George  III.),  and  the  volumes  are  un- 
paged. The  Act  of  1806  disposes  of  the 
matter  as  far  as  Wadham  is  concerned. 
Does  the  tradition  refer  to  the  head  of  some 
other  college  ?  A.  L.  MAYHEW. 

Wadham  College,  Oxford. 

THE  ORDER  OF  MERIT. — In  connexion 
with  the  institution  of  this  Order  and  the 
recent  appointment  to  it  of  new  members, 
it  may  be  interesting  to  qoute  the  following 
from  Irving's  '  Annals  of  our  Time  '  : — 

1873.  June  27. — "  Lord  Stanhope's  motion  for  an 
address  to  the  Queen,  praying  her  Majesty  to  take 
into  consideration  the  institution  of  an  Order  of 
Merit  to  be  bestowed  by  her  Majesty  as  a  sign  of 
her  royal  approbation  upon  men  who  have  deserved 
well  of  their  country  in  science,  literature,  and  art, 
negatived  after  a  brief  discussion." 

W.  B.  H. 

[The  foundation  of  an  Order  of  Civil  Merit  was 
suggested  by  '  N.  &  Q.'  on  1  November,  1851.  See 
1  S.  iv.  337,  and  MR.  A.  F.  ROBBINS'S  note  at  9  S.  x. 

"  SWEET  LAVENDER."  (See  10  S.  x.  146 ; 
xii.  176.) — Suburban  London  has  received 
its  annual  July  visit  from  the  vendors  of  this 
fragrant  herb.  The  melodious  refrain  "  Buy 
my  sweet  la-ven-der  "•  has  been  chant 
once  more  throughout  streets  and  avenues, 
proclaiming  the  virtues  of  those  purple 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


bunches  so  esteemed  by  the  careful  house- 
wife. Trade  therein  is,  however,  not  what 
it  was,  as  one  dusky  female  almost  tearfully 

I    informed   the  writer   in   salubrious   Hamp- 

1  stead.  Her  stock  was  the  product  of  a 
"  cut  "  from  the  fields  at  Mitcham,  once  noted 

<  for  a  prolific  supply,  now  unfortunately 
stated  to  be  on  the  wane.  >  It  is  to  be  hoped 

j  that  fresh  enterprise  may  be  available  for 
the  continued  cultivation  of  so  pleasant  and 
useful  a  plant  in  the  few  counties  of  England 
where  it  is  still  grown.  Anyway,  the  song  of 
"Sweet  Lavender"-  is  always  welcome. 
Let  us  hope  it  will  be  a  long  while  before  it 
ceases,  as  many  another  familiar  old  London 
cry  has  done.  CECIL  CLARKE. 

Junior  Athenaeum  Club. 

"  SORNING." — In  an  article  in  the  current 
number  of  The  Cornhill  Magazine  the 
following  sentence  occurs  : — 

"  He  remembered  to  have  heard  that  Burma  was 
a  country  of  immense  possibilities,  if  only  the  Indian 
Government  would  stop  sorning  on  it,  to  use  the 
Scottish  term  for  extortion." 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  instance  of,  or 
authority  for,  the  use  of  this  well-known 
Scotch  word  in  the  sense  of  "  extortion.'* 
The  original  meaning  was  to  take  up  free 
quarters,  or,  as  Jamieson  has  it,  "  to  ob- 
trude one's  self  on  another  for  board  and 
lodging.'1  See  Jamieson's  '  Scottish  Dic- 
tionary,1 Longmuir's  edition,  1882.  Nowa- 
days this  objectionable  custom  is,  I  hope, 
seldom  carried  to  such  a  length  as  to  merit 
the  punishment  of  death,  to  which  sornaris 
were  at  one  time  liable  under  an  old  Act  of 
James  II.,  but  is  confined  to  sponging  upon 
one's  friends,  and  playing  the  unwelcome 
guest.  The  word,  however,  would  never 
convoy  to  a  Scotchman  the  idea  of  extor- 
tion. T.  F.  D. 

PARALLEL. — A  Gaelic  story  is  quoted  as 
follows  from  J.  F.  Campbell  in  Mr.  Gomme's 
'  Folk-lore  as  an  Historical  Science,*  London, 
n.d.,  pp.  67-8  :— 

"There  was  a  man  at  some  time  or  other  who 
was  well  off,  and  had  many  children.  When  the 
family  grew  up  the  man  gave  a  well-stocked  farm  to 
each  of  his  children.  When  the  man  was  old  his 
wife  died,  and  he  divided  all  that  he  had  amongst 
his  children,  and  lived  with  them,  turn  about, 
in  their  houses.  The  sons  got  tired  of  him  and 
ungrateful,  and  tried  to  get  rid  of  him  when  he 
came  to  stay  with  them.  At  last  an  old  friend 
found  him  sitting  tearful  by  the  wayside,  and, 
learning  the  cause  of  his  distress,  took  him  home  ; 
there  he  gave  him  a  bowl  of  gold  and  a  lesson 
which  the  old  man  learned  and  acted.  When  all 
ie  ungrateful  sons  and  daughters  had  gone  to  a 
preaching,  the  old  man  went  to  a  green  knoll  where 

his  grandchildren  were  at  play,  and,  pretending  to 
hide,  he  turned  up  a  flat  hearthstone  in  an  old 
stance  [  =  standing-place],  and  went  out  of  sight. 
He  spread  out  his  gold  on  a  big  stone  in  the  sun- 
light, and  he  muttered,  'Ye  are  mouldy,  ye  are 
hoary,  ye  will  be  better  for  the  sun.'  The  grand- 
children came  sneaking  over  the  knoll,  and  when. 
they  had  seen  and  heard  all  that  they  were 
intended  to  see  and  hear,  they  came  running  up 
with,  'Grandfather,  what  have  you  got  there?' 
'  That  which  concerns  you  not ;  touch  it  not,'  said 
the  grandfather,  and  he  swept  his  gold  into  a  bag 
and  took  it  home  to  his  old  friend.  The  grand- 
children told  what  they  had  seen,  and  henceforth 
the  children  strove  who  should  be  kindest  to  the 
old  grandfather.  Still  acting  on  the  counsel  of  his 
sagacious  old  chum,  he  got  a  stout  little  black  chest 
made,  and  carried  it  always  with  him.  When  any 
one  questioned  him  as  to  its  contents  his  answer 
was,  '  That  will  be  known  when  the  chest  is 
opened.'  When  he  died  he  was  buried  with  great 
honour  and  ceremony,  and  the  chest  was  opened  by 
the  expectant  heirs.  In  it  were  founa  broken ; 
potsherds  and  bits  of  slate,  and  a  long-handled 
white  wooden  mallet  with  this  legend  on  its 
head : — 

Here  is  the  fair  mall 

To  give  a  knock  on  the  skull 

To  the  man  who  keeps  no  gear  for  himself, 

But  gives  all  to  his  bairn." 

Whether  or  not  it  has  one  and  the  same 
origin  with  this  Scottish  tale,  a  Chinese 
anecdote  of  a  similar  stamp  is  related,  with 
all  his  characteristic  eagerness,  by  Sze-ma 
Tsien,  the  greatest  historian  China  has  ever 
produced.  It  occurs  in  the  *  Life  of  Lu  Kia  * 
in  his  *  Shi-ki,*  written  c.  B.C.  97.  It  tells 
us  how  in  the  year  196  B.C.  the  Emperor  Hau- 
tsu  sent  Lu  Kia,  the  great  literate  and 
diplomat,  to  Tchao  To,  the  self-made 
monarch  of  Nang-yue,  in  order  to  subdue 
him  without  the  use  of  arms  (for  the  latter's 
life  see  Gamier,  *  Voyage  d'Exploration  en 
Indo-Chine,'  Paris,  1873,  torn.  i.  p.  469).  The 
eloquent  Lu  Kia  completely  brought  over 
Tchao  To,  so  that  the  latter  presented  the 
former  on  his  farewell  with  a  bag  containing 
valuables  worth  a  thousand  pieces  of  gold, 
to  which  he  added  another  thousand  for 

After  the  Emperor  Hiao-hui  succeeded  his 
father  Hau-tsu  (B.C.  194),  the  Dowager -Em- 
press Lu  was  hankering  to  make  kings  of 
her  own  kindred,  quite  contrary  to  the  will 
of  her  deceased  husband.  Well  knowing 
his  incompetence  to  stop  this,  Lu  Kia 
pretended  to  be  unwell,  and  retired  to 
Hao-chi,  there  to  live  by  keeping  excellent 

"  As  he  had  five  sons,"  the  narrative  continues, 
"  he  took  out  of  the  bag  the  valuables  Tchao-To  had 
given  him,  and  sold  them  for  one  thousand  pieces 
of  gold.  These  he  divided  amongst  his  sons,  telling 
each  to  thrive  with  the  fund  of  two  hundred  pieces. 
Lu  Kia  procured  for  himself  a  comfortable  carriage 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  20, 1910. 

drawn  by  four  horses,  ten  attendants,  all  skilful  in 
music  and  dancing,  and  a  sword  which  cost  him 
one  hundred  gold  pieces.  Then  he  spoke  to  his 
sons  thus  :  *  Now  I  covenant  with  you  that  when- 
ever I  come  to  any  one  of  you,  you  shall  supply  me. 
my  attendants,  and  my  horses,  with  enough  of  food 
and  drink,  and  I  will  go  off  after  enjoying  them  for 
ten  consecutive  days.  Should  I  happen  to  die  in 
the  house  of  any  one  of  you,  my  sword,  my  carriage 
with  horses,  and  my  attendants,  will  all  fall  into 
Ihis  possession.  But  I  will  not  visit  any  one  of  you 
more  than  twice  or  thrice  a  year,  because  to  call  on 
you  more  frequently  would  make  you  entertain  me 
with  less  will,  whilst  a  prolonged  stay  in  one  and 
the  same  house  would  inevitably  be  followed  by 

your  getting  tired  of  me.' He  died  after  enjoying 


Tanabe,  Kii,  Japan. 

ROBEBT  SINGLETON. — The  account  in  the 
*  D.N.B.1  is  very  unsatisfactory.  Singleton 
was  not  a  "  Roman  Catholic  divine.'*  It  is 
true  that  Antonio  Possevino,  S.J.,  treats 
him  as  such  in  his  *  Apparatus  Sacer  * 
(Cologne,  1608),  ii.  345-6,  and  adds  "he  is 
thought  to  have  died  a  martyr  in  London," 
and  that  Wood  and  Dodd  are  doubtful ;  but 
I  feel  sure  that  Dodd  had  never  seen 
Bale's  '  Scriptorum  Illustrium ....  Catalogus  * 
(Basle,  1557-9),  ii.  105,  if  Wood  had  (which 
I  doubt),  and  that  neither  had  seen  Fox's 
'  Actes  and  Monuments  *  on  the  subject.  See 
Townsend's  edition,  iii.  367  and  v.  600,  696, 
and  the  Appendix  to  the  latter  volume,  No. 
XII.  Singleton  had  got  into  difficulties 
together  with  Robert  Wisdom  and  Thomas 
Becon,  and  ail  three  made  their  recantations 
on  14  May,  1543,  which  can  be  read  in  the 
Appendix  to  vol.  v. 

Bale  says  he  was  executed  on  account  of  his 
work  *  On  Certain  Prophecies.1  Fox  says 
he  was  falsely  accused  of  the  murder  of 
Robert  Packington,  a  mercer  of  London,  and 
also  of  stirring  up  sedition,  but  really  suffered 
for  his  Protestant  opinions.  He  had  been 
chaplain  to  Anne  Boleyn,  and  that  was  not 
improbably  the  real  cause  of  his  death,  if  he 
were  guiltless  of  sedition.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  his  Christian  name  was  Robert. 

"OBA??  =  "  NORIA."— In  The  Athenaeum 
of  16  July  there  is  a  review  of  '  Hinching- 
brooke,?  by  the  Earl  of  Sandwich.  In  it 
I  read  : — 


new  waterwor 
not  explain  what  this  word  really  meant,  but  the 
best  explanation  is  that  it  is  the  Spanish  noria,  a 
water-wheel  worked  by  a  mule.  There  is  no 
difficulty  as  to  the  loss  of  the  n,  as  the  confusion  of 
the  article  an  with  substantives  having  an  initial 
vowel  is  common  in  English,  and  a  noria  naturally 

[Pepys]  refers  on  June  15th,  1664,  to  the 
ater  works  and  the  Or  a.    The  author  does 

becomes  an  oria,  the  dropping  of   the  »  easily  fol- 
lowing this  corruption." 

This  tentative  explanation  is  not  satis- 
factory ;  even  if  we  pass  over  the  dropped  n, 
about  which  much  might  be  said,  there 
is  the  dropped  i.  I  has  never  dropped  in 

oriel,'2  "orient,"  or  "oriole.51  But  if  it 
be  remembered  that  noria  was  taken  into 
Spanish  from  the  Arabic  naura,  it  seems 
possible  that  the  word  ora  may  be  the 
second  syllable  of  the  Arabic  form.  The 
earliest  '  N.E.D.*  quotation  of  noria  is 
1792,  and  the  three  quotations  all  apply  to 
the  Spanish  word.  Searchers  may  possibly 
find  traces  of  the  word  having  come  into 
English  in  its  Arabic  form,  only  to  become 
lost  after  a  time. 

Noria  is  the  usual  French  name  for  the 
wheel  and  bucket  pump.  In  Southern 
France  this  pump  is  extensively  used  for 
irrigation  ;  it  was,  until  lately,  made  with 
ropes  and  earthen  pots,  like  the  sakia  of 
Egypt  or  the  Persian  wheel  of  India,  and 
it  creaked  like  these.  This  primitive  form 
has  been  superseded  by  the  modern  form, 
all  of  iron,  and  the  French  name  has  been 
imported,  but  good  Provencaux  do  not  use 
this  name ;  they  keep  to  the  old  word 
pouso-raco,  literally  the  "  spew- well,"  only 
using  the  imported  name  when  speaking 
French.  To  the  word  noria  citizenship 
is  refused  in  Mistral's  '  Tresor,1  the  great 
dictionary  of  the  Occitanian  language. 



QUOTATION  IN  REPBINTS. — Under  the  frontis- 
piece (engraved  by  E.  Warren  after  Thurston) 
of  vol.  i.  of  the  ninth  edition  of  the  *  Ana- 
tomy,* London,  1800 — the  first  of  those  re- 
prints than  which  Charles  Lamb  knew  no 
more  "  heartless  sight  " — is  a  quotation  in 
verse  over  the  name  Penrose.  The  picture 
with  the  same  words  is  repeated  in  several 
later  editions.  The  author  is  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Penrose  (1742-79,  see  *D.N.B.?), 
and  the  source  is  stanza  7  of  *  Madness  *  in 
his  posthumous  '  Poems/  London,  1781.  I 
complete  the  quotation  by  adding  the  ; 
adjoining  words  : — 
[No  pleasing  memory  left — ]  forgotten  quite 
All  former  scenes  of  dear  delight, 
Connubial  love — parental  joy — 
No  sympathies  like  these  his  soul  employ, 
—But  all  is  dark  within,  [all  furious  black  despair.] 

The  last  line  rimes  with 

In  rage  he  grinds  his  teeth,  and  rends  his  streaming 

at  the  end  of  the  preceding  stanza. 

ii  s.  IL  AUG.  20, 1910.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Byron  did  Penrose  the  honour  of  quoting 
two  lines  from  the  second  stanza  of  this  same 
poem  in  his  '  Second  Letter  to  John  Murray, 
Esq.,  on  the  Rev.  W.  L.  Bowles1  Strictures 
on  the  Life  and  Works  of  Pope,1  dated 
25  March,  1821,  first  published  in  1835. 
See  Lord  Byron's  '  Letters  and  Journals,* 
«d.  R.  E.  Prothero,  vol.  v.  p.  578. 


Bad  Wildungen. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  in- 
formation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  answers  may  be  sent  to  them  direct. 

MISTAKE. — Mr.  Collins  in  his  letter  (chap, 
xiii,)  states  that  the  18th  of  November  is 
Monday.  When  in  the  next  year  Mr. 
Gardiner  writes  (chap,  xlix.)  a  letter,  he 
dates  it  "  Monday,  August  2."  If,  however, 
we  compute  from  Monday,  18  November, 
we  find  that  2  August  of  the  next  year  falls 
on  a  Saturday.  After  chap.  xlix.  the 
assumption  that  2  August  is  a  Monday  is 
continued,  and  the  events  are  arranged 
accordingly.  How  are  we  to  account  for 
this  discrepancy,  which  is  surprising,  as 
Jane  Austen  takes  all  through  the  novel 
particular  care  of  the  dates  ? 


1  VERTIMMUS.'— Will  any  reader  kindly 
give  me  more  particulars  about  a  play  named 
4  Vertimmus,*  of  which  all  I  know  is  that  it 
was  acted  by  the  students  of  St.  John's  when 
James  I.  visited  Oxford  ?  I  shall  also  be 
thankful  to  be  referred  to  books  from  which 
I  may  gather  more  information. 


SIR  JOHN  IVORY.— I  should  be  grateful  for 
any  biographical  details  of  this  gentleman, 
who  was,  I  believe,  knighted  in  1682.  He 
married  in  the  April  of  that  year  Anne, 
eldest  daughter  of  Sir  .John  Talbot  of 
Lacock  Abbey,  co.Wilts,  and  it  was  from  their 
son,  John  Ivory,  who  subsequently  took  the 
name  of  Talbot,  that  the  future  possessors  of 
that  property  were  descended.  I  believe, 
but  am  not  sure,  that  Sir  John  Ivory's 
father  was  named  William,  and  his  mother 
Anne.  The  family  property  was  situated 
at  New  Ross,  co.  Wexford. 


BUDDHA  IN  CHRISTIAN  ART. — On  a  holy- 
water  vat  or  bowl  of  bronze,  preserved  at 
Hojland  House,  bearing  an  inscription  that 
shows  that  it  was  cast  in  1484  by  one 
Michele  Caselli,  is  a  small  figure  of  Buddha 
in  his  usual  attitude  surmounted  by  a  right- 
handed  svastica,  the  symbol  of  life  and 
light.  On  another  part  of  the  bowl  is  a 
figure  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  and  between 
them  the  beginning  of  the  verse  in  the 
Miserere  "  Asperges  me,"  which  shows  that 
the  bowl  was,  from  the  first,  intended  for 
Christian  religious  use. 

Do  any  of  your  readers  know  of  a  similar 
representation  of  Buddha  in  Christian  art  ? 
A  great  authority  on  Indian  archaeology  has 
suggested  that  this  particular  instance  may 
be  accounted  for  by  the  close  mercantile 
connexion  which  existed  between  Florence, 
whence  this  bowl  was  brought  by  Lord 
Holland,  and  the  East,  and  the  fact  that 
Buddha  was  introduced  into  the  calendar  of 
saint  under  the  name  of  St.  Joasaphat. 

5,  Burlington  Gardens,  Chiswick. 

(See  10  S.  ix.  227  ;  xi.  458  ;  xii.  14,)— Part 
II.  of  '  The  Diaboliad  *  was  published  by  J. 
Bew,  28,  Paternoster  Row,  in  April,  1778. 
Like  'The  Diabolady,'  it  was  "dedicated 
to  the  Worst  Woman  in  His  Majesty's 
dominions."  It  is  noticed  in  Gent.  Mag., 
xlviii.  178.  Nine  ladies  are  satirized  in  its 
pages.  On  p.  19  Gertrude,  Duchess  of 
Bedford,  is  indicated  ;  on  p.  25  Elizabeth 
Chudleigh,  Duchess  of  Kingston  ;  on  p.  38 
Caroline,  Countess  of  Harrington.  On  p.  34 
Anne  Luttrell,  Duchess  of  Cumberland,  may 
be  hinted  at.  Can  any  correspondent  of 
'  N.  &  Q.1  fill  in  the  blanks  ? 


WENDELL  HOLMES  AND  'N.  &  Q.' — I 
do  not  know  if  the  following  allusion  has  yet 
been  traced  in  '  N.  &  Q.*  In  '  The  Autocrat 
of  the  Breakfast  Table,'  section  12,  Holmes, 
speaking  of  personal  incidents  and  memorials 
which  strike  the  imagination,  writes  : — 

"  You  remember  the  monument  in  Devizes  Market 
to  the  woman  struck  dead,  with  a  lie  in  her  mouth. 
I  never  saw  that,  but  it  is  in  the  booka.  Here  is 
one  I  never  heard  mentioned  ;  if  any  of  the  '  Note 
and  Query '  tribe  can  tell  the  story,  I  hope  they 
will.  Where  is  this  monument?  I  was  riding  on 
an  English  stage-coach  when  we  passed  a  handsome 
marble  column  (as  I  remember  it)  of  considerable 
size  and  pretensions.— What  is  that?  I  said.— 
That, — answered  the  coachman, — is  the  hangman's 
pillar.  Then  he  told  me  how  a  man  went  out  one 
night,  many  years  ago,  to  steal  sheep.  He  caught 
one,  tied  its  legs  together,  passed  the  rope  over  his 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.      pi  s.  n.  AUG.  20,  mo. 

head,  and  started  for  home.  In  climbing  a  fence 
the  rope  slipped,  caught  him  by  the  neck,  and 
strangled  him.  Next  morning  he  was  found  hang- 
ing dead  on  one  side  of  the  fence  and  the  sheep  on 
the  other;  in  memory  whereof  the  lord  of  the 
manor  caused  this  monument  to  be  erected  as  a 
warning  to  all  who  love  mutton  better  than  virtue." 

With  the  record,  of  the  Sapphira  of  Devizes, 
who  has  now,  I  think,  reached  picture  post- 
card honours,  I  am  familiar,  but  I  do  not 
know  where  the  "  Hangman's  Pillar  "  is. 

Holmes  has  another  reference  to  our  paper 
in  Section  3,  where  he  jokingly  compares 
Homer's  melas  oinos  with  molasses  : — 

"Ponder  thereon,  ye  small  antiquaries  who  make 
barn-door-fowl  flights  of  learning  in  Notes  and 
Queries  !  " 

I  dare  say  there  is  an  annotated  edition 
of  '  The  Autocrat, l  but  I  do  not  know  of  it. 


['  N.  &  Q.'  has  not  overlooked  the  sheepstealer 
hanged  by  a  sheep ;  see  8  S.  viii.  106, 170,  236,  334 ; 
ix.  475  ;  xi.  11.] 

DIBECTOBY,    c.    1660. — Can   any   of   your 
readers   tell  me   where   the   following   lines 
come  from  ?     They  were  written  about  1660  : 
Who 's  this  that  comes  from  Egypt  with  a  story 
Of  a  new  pamphlett  call'd  a  directory? 
His  cloke  is  something  short,  his  looks  demure, 
His  heart  is  rotten  and  his  thoughts  impure. 
In  this  our  land  this  Scottish  hell-hatch'd  brat, 
Like  Pharaoh's  lean  kine,  will  devour  ye  fatt. 
Lord,  suffer  not  thy  tender  vine  to  bleed  ; 
Call  home  thy  shepherd  which  thy  lambs  may  feed. 

[The  allusion  in  the  first  two  lines  is  probably  to 
'  The  Directory  for  the  Publick  Worship  of  God  ; 
agreed  upon  by  the  Assembly  of  Divines  at  West- 
minster,' and  adopted  by  the  Scottish  General 
Assembly  in  1645.] 

"USONA"  =  U.S.A. — Can  any  reader 
say  who  was  the  author  of  the  title  Usona  as 
applied  to  the  U.S.A.,  also  when  and  where 
it  was  first  used  ?  The  word  appears  to  be 
derived  from  the  initial  letters  of  United 
States  Of  North  America.  The  eminent 
Danish  philologist  Prof.  Otto  Jespersen 
seeks,  in  a  Continental  monthly,  for  facts 
about  the  title  ;  but  the  information  would 
be  of  interest  to  many  besides.  J.  M.  D. 

TBIAL  IN  1776. — Do  any  of  your  readers 
know  of  a  trial  in  the  early  months  of  1776 — 
probably  February — for  which  peers  would 
have  the  right  of  giving  tickets  ?  In  a  letter 
which  I  have  from  the  Lord  Rosebery  of 
that  date  he  promises  a  "  ticket  for  the 
trial "  to  my  great -grandfather  Walter 
Spencer-Stanhope,  M.P.,  and  explains  what  a 
great  demand  there  is  among  his  friends  for 

these  tickets  of  admission.  I  should  be 
much  obliged  if  any  of  your  readers  could 
throw  light  on  what  trial  it  can  have  been^ 
Answers  may  be  sent  to  me  direct. 

(Mrs.)  A.  M.  W.  STIBLING. 

30,  Launceston  Place,  Kensington,  W. 

[The  notorious  Elizabeth  Chudleigh,  Duchess  of 
Kingston,  was  tried  for  bigamy  by  the  House  of 
Lords  in  April,  1776.] 

OBVENTION  BBEAD. — The  income  of  a 
Salop  vicarage  before  the  Reformation  is 
quoted  in  Owen  and  Blakeway's  '  History 
of  Shrewsbury'  (vol.  ii.  p.  268).  In  the 
schedule  is 

"  Tithe  of  a  culture  called  Hencotesley  10s.  (A 
culture  is  a  large  ploughed  field.) 

"  His  altarage  is   worth   10*.   a  year,  which  is. 
capable  of  proof,  because  he  leases  half  of  it  for 
5s.,  reserving  to  himself  obvention  bread." 
Was  this  a  gift  made  by  the  parishioners  to 
their  priest  ?  R.  B. 


[The  'N.E.D.'  says  that  an  obvention  in  ecclesias- 
tical law  is  an  incoming  fee  or  revenue,  especially 
one  of  an  occasional  or  incidental  character.] 

'  ABNO  MISCELLANY,*  1784. — Is  there  any 
definite  information  with  regard  to  the 
authorship  of  the  above  ?  It  is  a  thin 
octavo,  printed  at  Florence,  at  the  Stamperia 
Bonducciana,  in  1784.  Halkett  and  Laing 
('Diet.  Anonymous  and  Pseudonymous 
Lit.,1  Edin.,  1882)  mention  it  as  the  "  Arno 
Miscellany  :  a  collection  of  fugitive  pieces- 
By  a  Society  called  the  Oziosi,"  and  then 
add  in  brackets  "  Robert  Merry,  —  Roscoe, 
&c."  They  also  state  that  it  was  privately 
printed,  and  was  the  precursor  of  the 
'  Florence  Miscellany.*  I  am  aware  of 
Walpole's  mention  of  it.  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

Where  precisely  was  this  street  in  the  City 
of  London  ?  Has  it  been  renamed,  or  what 
building  or  space  occupies  its  site  ?  Pre- 
sumably by  "  Bernard's  "  is  meant  Barnard's 
Castle.  I  cannot  find  it  in  any  topo- 
graphical dictionary  of  London.  Jol 
Windet,  printer  and  bookseller,  dwelt  at 
"The  White  Bear"  in  Adling  Street. 


MAZES. — A  maze  marked  out  in  the  pave  - 
ment  of  the  west  porch  of  Ely  Cathedral  has- 
been  there  since  1870.  It  is  said  to  be  a  copy 
of  some  foreign  example.  Can  anybody 
tell  me  of  which  ? 

In  '  Secret  Chambers  and  Hiding-Places, 
by  Allan  Fea,  mention  is  made  of  a  curious 
maze  of  evergreens,  planted  in  the  form  of  a 


ii  B.  11.  AUG.  20,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


cross,  which  exists  in  the  grounds  of  Myddle- 
ton  Lodge,  near  Ilkley.  Has  the  design  of 
this  ever  been  published  ? 

Does  any  plan  survive  of  the  labyrinth  at 
Woodstock  associated  with  Fair  Rosamond, 
which,  in  ruins,  was  yet  discernible  in 
Dray  ton's  time  ?  ST.  S  WITHIN. 

VICABS  OF  DARTMOUTH. — Can  any  one 
favour  me  with  any  details  of  the  following 
Vicars  of  Dartmouth  ? 

1653,  John  Flavell. 

1662,  Nicholas  Battersby. 

1685,  Humphrey  Smith. 

1709,  William  Prichard. 

1723,  Richard  Kent. 

1726,  Henry  Holdsworth. 

1763,  John  Nosworthy. 

1779,  George  Gretton. 

In  particular,  I  want  references  to  any 
portraits  of  or  works  by  them.  Kindly 
reply  direct. 

T.  CANN  HUGHES,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

There  are  two  apple  trees  on  a  farm  not  far 
from  here  which  frequently  produce  a  few 
flowers  in  October  or  November.  Some 
years  ago  I  drew  the  attention  of  a  working- 
man  on  the  property  to  them,  and  he  told 
me  in  a  very  grave  tone  that  he  did  not  like 
to  see  them,  for  they  forboded  'misfortune, 
and  perhaps  even  death.  Is  this  super- 
stition widely  prevalent,  or  is  it  confined  to 
this  neighbourhood  only  ? 


Kirton  -in  -Lindsey . 

COCKER. — Saxon  James  Nicholas  Cocker 
and  George  Thomas  Cocker  were  admitted 
to  Westminster  School  9  Oct.,  1817.  I  am 
desirous  of  obtaining  particulars  of  their 
parentage  and  career.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

JOHN  MONTAGUE  CROSBY  was  admitted 
to  Westminster  School  23  June,  1783.  I 
should  be  glad  to  learn  the  names  of  his 
parents,  any  particulars  of  his  career,  and 
the  date  ot  his  death.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

ROBERT  DELISLE  left  Westminster  School 
at  Bartholomew-tide,  1805.  Any  informa- 
tion about  him  would  be  useful. 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

any  one  supply  the  Christian  names  (as  an 
aid  to  identification)  of  the  respective 
ministers  of  SS.  Anne  and  Agnes  or  of  St. 
John  Zachary  surnamed  as  follows  ? — 

Boulte  (1620),  Kennett  (1622),  Rogers  (1635), 
Bolton  (1641),  Wells  (1645),  Poole  (1649), 
Creswell  (1651),  and  Harrison  (1652). 

Can  the  fourth  be  the  Dr.  Samuel  Bolton 
of  the  Westminster  Assembly,  and  the  sixth 
Matthew  Poole,  the  Biblical  commentator  ? 
I  should  be  glad  to  connect  the  second  in 
some  way  with  the  famous  White  Kennett, 
Bishop  of  Peterborough. 


is  the  origin  of  this  name  for  the  customary 
letter  of  thanks  after  having  stayed  with 
friends  ?  The  more  common  term  would 
appear  to  be  "  bread-and-butter  letter. J* 


[We  have  heard  "roofer"  also  used  for  such  a 

den's  '  Britannia  *  (ed.  Gibson,  2nd  ed., 
n.d.,  vol.  i.  p.  459)  the  following  statement 
appears  : — • 

"  At  a  little  distance  [from  Hingham,  co.  Norfolk] 
is  Skulton  (now  Scoulton),  otherwise  called  Burdos, 
which  was  held  on  condition  that  the  lord  of  it  at 
the  Coronation  of  the  Kings  of  England  should  be 
chief  Lardiner,  as  they  call  him." 

No  trace  of  this  word  is  to  be  found  in  Skeat 
or  Wright. 

Can  any  of  your  readers  supply  information 
as  to  the  duties  of  the  Chief  Lardiner  ?  When 
was  the  claim  to  appear  at  the  Coronation 
last  exercised  ?  L.  G.  R. 

Reform  Club.   - 

[The  Lardiner  is  a  venerable  official,  as  his 
Coronation  duties  date  at  least  from  the  fourteenth 
century.  See  the  quotations  in  the  'N.E.D.,'  rang- 
ing from  that  date  to  1887,  and  including  the  one 
from  Camden.] 

Mr.  Vavasour  says  in  the  novel  '  Two  Years 
Ago  *  that  the  surname  Vavasour  means  a 
tenant  farmer,  "neither  more  nor  less." 
Could  you  inform  me  on  what  basis  this 
assertion  rests  ?  What  is  the  derivation  of 
the  surname  Vavasour  ? 


NIGHTS." — In  my  young  days  in  Cornwall 
it  was  a  regular  saying,  when  one  bought 
any  article  of  clothing  or  ornament  that  was 
somewhat  out  of  the  common,  that  it  was  to 
be  used  only  on  "high  days,  holidays,  and 
bonfire  nights.'*  Was  this  saying  common 
elsewhere  ?  R.  ROBBINS. 

[It  has  been  familiar  for  many  years  to  us  in 
London.]  - 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  20, 1010. 

THOMAS  KINGSTON. — Thomas  Kingston, 
cousin  of  Charlotte  Bronte,  and  son  of 
John  Kingston  (born  at  Towcester)  and  Jane 
Branwell,  died  in  London  in  1855.  What 
was  his  profession  ?  Did  he  leave 
descendants  ?  and  who  was  the  husband  of 
a  sister  of  his  who  is  said  to  have  emigrated 
to  America  ?  J.  HAMBLEY  ROWE,  M.B. 


DAUGHTEBS. — Goldsmith  says  in  Essay  X.  : 
' '  I  will  still  persist  like  that  venerable,  un- 
shaken, and  neglected  patriot  Mr.  Jacob 
Henriquez,  who,  though  of  the  Hebrew 
nation,  hath  exhibited  a  shining  example 
of  Christian  fortitude  and  perseverance.'* 
Henriquez  has  publicly  advertised  his  willing- 
ness to  serve  the  State  by  allowing  his  ' '  seven 
blessed  daughters  "  to  take  up  arms  in  its 
defence.  I  gather  that  from  the  tenor  of  the 
essay  on  '  Female  Warriors.*  Who  was  this 
worthy,  and  what  became  of  his  seven 
daughters  ?  M.  L.  R.  BBESLAB. 

"IF    YOU    ASK    FOB    SALT,     YOU    ASK    FOB 

SOBBOW." — I  returned  to  my  house  here 
on  the  day  before  August  Bank  Holiday  after 
an  absence  of  nearly  six  months.  On  Bank 
Holiday  it  was  found  that  the  caretakers  had 
left  hardly  any  salt  behind  them.  The  shops 
being  closed,  I  proposed  to  borrow  some 
from  a  neighbour.  One  of  my  servants, 
a  girl  from  Stockton  Heath,  Cheshire,  close 
to  Warrington,  expressed  a  hope  that  this 
would  not  be  done,  saying,  "  If  you  ask  for 
salt,  you  ask  for  sorrow." 

Is  this  a  general  proverbial  saying  ? 


St.  Austin's,  Warrington. 

STOBBINGTON. — What  is  the  origin  of  the 
name  of  this  Sussex  town  ? 


"  BLEST  HE  AND  SHE." — Where  may  the 
following  lines  be  found  ? 

How  blest  is  he,  above  all  doubt, 
That  never  puts  himself  about ! 
Thrice  blest  is  she,  above  all  doubt, 
That  never  puts  herself  about. 


learn  in  what  year  the  houses  attached  to  th 
Abbey  Church,  Bath,  were  pulled  down,  an< 
if  it  is  true  that  Henrietta  Maria  in  he 
flight  to  Bristol  slept  in  one  of  those  houses. 

(US.  ii.  109.) 
'HEBE  is  not,  and  there  never  has  been,  a 
athedral  at  Hyeres,  and  the  inscriptions 
ecorded  by  W.  H.  S.  are  in  the  interior  of 
he  church  of  St.  Louis,  which,  though  of 
ligh  antiquity,  cannot  claim  to  be  the  parish 
hurch  of  Hyeres.  That  honour  belongs  to 
he  church  of  St.  Paul,  which  is  situated 
>n  the  slope  of  the  hill  below  the  ruins  of  the 
astle.  The  church  of  St.  Louis  appears  to 
lave  been  built  by  the  Templars,  and  after 
he  fall  of  that  body  it  passed  into  the 
lands  of  the  Cordeliers  or  Franciscans, 
t  is  now  one  of  the  district  churches  of 

The  first  inscription  quoted  by  W.  H.  S. 
was  engraved  in  Gothic  letters  upon  a 
:ablet  which  was  let  into  the  wall  above  the 
;omb  of  Guillaume  or  Amelin  de  Fos, 
^enerally  known  as  the  c'  Grand-Marquis." 
Chis  tomb,  which  was  originally  placed  on 
;he  left  of  the  principal  door  of  the  church, 
las  completely  disappeared  ;  but  the  tablet 
was  taken  down  in  1855,  when  the  doorway 
was  widened,  and  placed  in  the  sacristy, 
where  it  still  remains.  It  is  fairly  legible, 
t  the  copy  given  by  W.  H.  S.  has  one  or 
two  misreadings.  The  following  is  the  correct 
Tanscription  : — 

t  HIC  :  JACET  : 

DOMNVS  :  G  :  D 

:  :  E  FOSIS  :  DO 


RVM  :  QVI  :  OB 

IIT  :  ANNO  :  DOM 

INI  :  M  :  CC  :  nil  :  O 

RATE  I  PRO  :  EO  t 

which  may  be  translated  into  English : 
"  Here  lies  the  Lord  Guillaume  de  Fos,  Lord 
of  Hyeres,  who  died  in  the  year  of  the  Lord 
1204.  Pray  for  him.w 

When  the  port  of  Olbia  was  destroyed  in 
the  sixth  century,  the  inhabitants  are 
believed  to  have  taken  refuge  on  the  hill  on 
which  the  town  of  Hyeres  was  afterwards 
built,  and  on  which  were  the  ruins  of  several 
Roman  villas  and  farms,  to  which  threshing- 
floors  were  attached.  The  refugees  therefore 
called  the  fortified  village  which  they  built 
Castrum  Arearum.  In  Provencal  lero,  de- 
rived from  area,  signified  a  threshing-floor, 
and  thence,  through  Eiras,  Ahires,  leres, 
and  other  forms  that  are  found  in  ancient 
charters,  the  name  of  the  modern  town 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Hyeres  is  derived.  The  family  of  Fos  or  Foz 
(in  Latin  de  Fossis,  from  the  fossae,  or  fosses, 
which  gave  their  name  to  Fossce-Mariance, 
near  Fos-les-Martigues)  was  traditionally 
believed  to  be  descended  from  Pons,  a 
younger  brother  of  Boson  the  elder,  Count 
of  Provence  and  King  of  Aries,  who  died  in 
the  year  948.  This  family  of  Fos  held  the 
seigneury  of  Hyeres  from  about  that  date 
to  1257,  when  it  was  ceded  to  Charles  of 
Anjou,  whose  statue,  which  formerly  occu- 
pied the  spot  on  which  the  statue  of  Massillon 
now  stands,  will  be  remembered  by  visitors 
to  Hyeres  as  dominating  the  public  garden 
in  the  Boulevard  d'Orient. 

Of  the  other  inscription  in  the  church  of  St. 
Louis  I  cannot  offer  a  translation.  It  was 
mutilated  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution, 
when  the  church  was  temporarily  converted 
into  an  oil-mill.  M.  Alphonse  Denis,  in 
his  valuable  work,  *  Hyeres  Ancien  et 
Moderne,*  says  that  he  found  it  impossible 
to  decipher  it ;  and  the  old  Gothic  letters  are 
certainly  not  plainer  now  than  when  he 
published  the  first  edition  of  his  book  in  1835. 

EDWARD  HATTON  (US.  ii.  9,  54,  96). — 
The  following  items  appear  in  *  A  Catalogue 
of  English  Heads  '  by  Joseph  Ames,  1748  : — 

"  E.  Hatton,  ^Etatis  SUJB  35.  1669.  R.  White  del. 
&  sc.  Oval  Frame,  Wig,  Neckcloth,  Arms."— P.  85. 

"Edward  Hatton.  W.  Sherwin  sc.  Oval  Frame, 
long  Wig,  Neckcloth."-?.  89. 

This  Catalogue  is,  according  to  the 
dedication  to  the  Honourable  James  West 
(himself  apparently  a  collector  of  portraits), 
a  ' '  small  Endeavour  to  perpetuate  the 
Memory  of  such  English  Persons,  as  had 
been  collected  by  Mr.  Nicholls,  F.R.S." 

The  following  is  in  'A  Catalogue  of  En- 
graved British  Portraits  from  Egbert  the 
Great  to  the  Present  Time,'  by  Henry 
Bromley,  1793,  p.  190:— 

Edward  Hatton, 

prefixed      to     his 
4  Index  to  Interest  ' 

Painter  or 

Engraver  or 

W.  Sherwin. 
G.  Vertue. 

R.  White. 

—  ret.  32,    1696,    pre- 
fixed to  his  Arith- 
metick, 4to 

ad  vivum 

Excepting  that   the  description   "Arith- 
met." is  omitted,  the  above,  in  almost  the 

same  words,  is  in  Mark  Noble's  '  Biographical 
History  of  England,*  1806  (in  continuation  of 
Granger's),  ii.  312.  Noble  adds  : — 

"  The  first  print  is  one  of  the  best  specimens  of 
Sherwin's  manner,  as  the  last  is  one  of  the  worst 
of  White's. 

"Hatton  wrote  many  books  on  arithmetic: 
amongst  which  were,  the  *  Merchant's  Magazine,' 
the  *  Comes  Commercii ;  or  the  Trader's  Com- 
panion.' There  is  an  improved  edition  of  the  latter 
by  Dunn  and  Luckcombe." 

It  will  be  noticed  that,  according  to  Ames, 
White's  portrait  was  drawn  in  Hatton's 
thirty-fifth  year,  whereas  Bromley  and  Noble 
say  in  his  thirty-second  year — not  when  he 
was  32  years  old  (see  ante,  p.  96).  Further, 
Ames  gives  1669  as  the  date  of  the  portrait, 
no  doubt  erroneously. 

In  a  '  Catalogue  of  Engraved  Portraits  ' 
for  sale,  dated  1909,  issued  by  Suckling  & 
Co.,  of  13,  Garrick  Street,  is  the  following  : — 

"Hatton  (Edward),  Arithmetician,  born  1664, 
8vo,  engraved  by  Sherwin." 

In  the  Warrington  Museum  Library  is  a 
copy  of  *  An  Index  to  Interest J  by  E. 
Hatton,  Philomath,  1711.  The  portrait  is 
missing.  The  dedication  to  Hugh,  Lord 
Willoughby  of  Parham,  is  signed  Edward 
Hatton.  At  the  end  is  a  leaf  containing  the 
following  advertisements  : — 

Books  Written  by  E.  Hatton.     price  in 

Calves  Leather. 

1694.  The  Merchants  Magazine,  or  Trades-  8.    d. 

man's  Treasury           04    6 

1696.  Decus  &  Tutamen  (of  Enlish  [sic]  coin)  01    6 

1697.  The  Collectors    Companion   for    the  [No  price 

Capitation  Tax given.] 

1699.  Comes   Commercii,    or   the    Traders 

Companion        02    6 

1708.  A  New  View  of  London  or  an  ample 

Account  of  the  Antient  and  Present 
State  thereof  in  2  Vol.  8°  with  Maps 
and  Cuts 12  0 

1709.  A  Divine  Help  to  Happiness  ...        ...      02    6 

1710.  An  Index  to  Interest     06    0 

Records  Arithmetick,  Revised  and  much  Improv'd, 

particularly  as  to  the  Rules  of  Practice.  Dedicated 
and  Presented  to  the  Duke  of  Gloucester  : 

This  advertisement  leaf,  although  pasted  in, 
is  apparently  contemporary  with  the  book. 
Several  of  the  above  are  not  mentioned  in 
Watt's  *  Bibliotheca  Britannica,'  notably 
'  A  New  View  of  London,''  a  very  interesting 
and  valuable  book  of  reference.  Of  this 
book,  published  anonymously,  Halkett  and 
Laing  give  the  author's  name  as  Edward 
Hatton,  and  add  :  "  See  Gough's  Topogr. 
i.  572.  See  an  account  of  the  author  in 
Sir  J.  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  music,  vol.  4.  504." 

The  Dominican  suggested  by  MB.  MAY- 
COCK  (ante,  p.  54)  cannot,  apparently,  be  the 
subject  of  the  query,  as  he  was  only  about 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  20, 1910. 

fourteen  years  old  when  William  Sherwin, 
the  engraver  of  the  portrait  mentioned,  is 
believed  to  have  died. 

The  *  Dictionary  of  National  Biography  * 
does  not  give  Edward  Hatton,  arithmetician  ; 
and  Allibone  only  says  "Works  on  Arith- 
metic, 1699-1728."  1699  is  obviously  in- 
correct. ROBEBT  PlEBPOINT. 

St.  Austin's,  Warrington. 

DUCHESS  or  PALATA  (11  S.  ii.  29,  99).— 
The  reply  by  LEO  C.,  stating  that  the  title 
Duke  of  Palata  was  conferred  in  1793  on  the 
Azlor  family,  is  incorrect.  Francisco  Toralto 
(or  Toraldo)  di  Aragona,  Prince  of  Massa 
(Naples),  was  created  Duke  of  Palata  (prov. 
of  Molise)  by  Philip  IV.  of  Spain  in  1646.  I 
notice  the  query  is  as  to  a  duchess  ;  and  it  is 
peculiar  to  the  title  that  for  about  a  century 
it  descended  through  four  generations  of 
females,  being  finally  inherited  by  the  house 
of  Azlor,  Counts  of  Guara  in  Aragon,  which 
also,  in  the  person  of  the  fourth  Count, 
succeeded  to  the  Dukedom  of  Villahermosa 
in  1761. 

Francisca,  daughter  and  heiress  of  the 
first  Duke  by  a  Frezza-Orsini,  married 
(1662)  Melchior  de  Navarra  y  Rocafull 
(d.  1691),  Viscount  of  La  Torrecilla,  Governor 
of  Peru,  the  Tierra  Firme,  and  Chile,  who 
belonged  to  the  Marquises  of  Cortes,  ille- 
gitimate scions  of  Navarre-Evreux.  Their 
daughter  Cecilia,.  Duchess  of  Palata,  mar- 
ried a  Count  of  Alba  de  Liste,  and  again 
left  an  heiress,  Francisca  Elena,  wife  of  a 
Zapata  de  Calatayud,  Count  del  Real 
(Valencia).  The  daughter  by  this  union,  Ines 
Maria  Zapata,  &c.,  was  wife  of  Juan  Jos6  de 
Azlor  de  Aragon,  third  Count  of  Guara 
(d.  1748).  Since  the  succession  of  his  son, 
Juan  Pablo  de  Azlor  (d,  1790),  fourth  Count, 
to  the  Villahermosa  dukedom,  that  of  Palata 
has  been  merged  in  it,  and  will  so  continue, 
unless  detached  at  some  time  or  another  in 
favour  of  a  cadet,  the  laws  of  succession  in 
both  cases  being,  I  believe,  identical. 

The  original  grantees,  Toraldo  or  Toralto, 
added  the  patronate  name  "  di  Aragona  " 
to  their  own  by  alliance  with  a  female 
Piccolomini,  descended  from  the  Aragonese 
line  of  Naples,  who  were  prodigal  of  the 
distinction.  There  is  a  short  account  of 
them  in  Aldimari's  '  Historia  genealogica 
della  famiglia  Carafa,1  vol.  iii.  p.  343,  Naples, 
1691  ;  also  in  Mazzella's  '  Descrittione  de] 
regno  di  Napoli/  p.  743,  1601.  In  Aldimari's 
day  the  Naples  branch  was  on  the  wane, 
but  he  states  that  a  male  line  still  flourished 
at  Tropea,  which  is  of  interest  in  view  of  a 
work  published  at  Pitigliano,  in  1898,  by  F 

Toraldo,  '  II  sedile  e  la  nobilta  di  Tropea/ 
which  might  possibly  give  some  account  of 
the  first  and  second  Duchesses  of  Palata, 
and  might  not  be  very  difficult  to  obtain. 
The  usual  Spanish  nobiliaries  should  give 
details  of  the  others  under  the  families 
named  (see  Fernandez  de  Bethencourt, 
'  Historia  Genealogica,*  iii.  580,  for  Azlor 
alias  Aragon  and  the  Palata  title). 

The  transit  of  ducal  titles  between  Italy 
and  Spain  is  a  curious  subject :  Andria, 
Bivona,  Solferino,  Taurisano,  and  many 
others  are  in  Spanish  hands.  V.  D.  P. 

ii.  88). — This  is  probably  a  copyist's  mistake 
for  Andrews  (Andreuus),  whose  manor  was 
formed  from  part  of  a  much  earlier  one. 
It  still  exists  in  Cheshunt  (Hertfordshire), 
which  is  the  present  spelling  of  the  name 
Chesthunt,  Chestenhunt,  Chesterhunt,  &c. 

SIB  SAUDEB  DUNCOMBE  (11  S.  ii.  87). — 
This  is  undoubtedly  Sir  Saunders  Duncombe, 
Knight ;  but  I  can  find  no  evidence  as  to  the 
branch  of  the  Duncombe  family  to  which  he 
belonged,  nor  as  to  his  patent  for  the 

famous  powder."  There  is  a  patent,  how- 
ever, relating  to  the  "  Fighting  of  Wild  and 
domestic  Beasts,"  "  de  anno  Quarto  decimo 
Caroli  Rs.,"  Part  4,  No.  15,  as  follows  : — 

"  tt.  xj°  die  Oct.  con  Sanders  Duncombe  milit. 
The  sole  practisinge  &  makinge  profitt  of  the 
combatinge  &  figh tinge  of  wild  &  domestick  beasts 
within  the  Realme  of  England  for  fowerteneyeres." 

What  wild  beasts  were  these  ? 

His  patent  as  to  sedan  chairs  is  (Part  9, 
No.  2,  "  de  anno  decimo  Caroli  Regis  ")  : — 

"R.  primo  die  Octobris  con  Saunders  Duncombe 
mil.,  the  sole  useing  and  putting  forth  to  hyre  cer- 
taine  covered  Chaires  called  Sedans  for  xiiijen 

Again,  "  Paten  de  anno  Rs.  Caroli  un- 
decimo,"  Part  11,  No.  15  : — 

"  R.  vij  die  Dec.  con  Saunders  Duncombe  mil'  the 
sole  benefitt  of  using  or  putting  to  hire  all  covered 
Chairs  or  hand  littors  within  the  Citty  of  London  & 
Westm'  &  the  p'cints  thereof  for  the  term  of  fower- 
tene  years." 


Brief  notes  of  his  portrait  and  his  pedigree 
are  at  3  S.  vii.  133.  W.  C.  B. 

[W.  S.  S.  also  thanked  for  reply.] 

i.  469  ;  ii.  95). — In  addition  to  the  artist 
named  at  the  latter  reference  the  followii 
have  chosen  this  subject :  Veronese  (severa 
times),  Pietro  Berrettini,  Pieter  de  Grebbei 
De  la  Fosse,  Delaroche,  Franceschirii,  am 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20,  mo.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


doubtless  many  more  ;  but  I  happen  to  have 
reproductions  of  pictures  by  all  of  those 
named.  Did  Raphael  ever  paint  a  picture 
of  this  event  ?  He  designed  a  fresco,  but 
it  was  executed  by  his  pupils.  C.  C.  B. 

CHIDEOCK  (US.  ii.  49). — Turning  over  the 
leaves  of  an  old  peerage  book  in  an  endeavour 
to  discover  the  genesis  of  the  unusual  name 
Chideock,  I  came  upon  a  passage  in  the 
records  of  the  Winchester  family  which 
seemed  somewhat  peculiar.  The  first 
Marquis  of  that  noble  house,  who  enjoyed 
a  career  of  uninterrupted  prosperity  during 
several  successive  reigns,  was  fond  of 
accounting  for  his  good  fortune  by  saying 
"  I  am  a  willow,  not  an  oak."  This  saying 
was  amplified  by  the  godson  of  the  Marquis, 
Sir  Julius  Caesar,  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and 
versified  in  the  following  terms  : — 

Late  supping  I  forbear ; 

Wine  and  women  I  forswear ; 

My  neck  and  feet  I  keep  from  cold ; 

No  marvel  then  though  I  be  old. 

I  am  a  willow,  not  an  oak  ; 

I  chide,  but  never  hurt  with  stroke. 

Of  course,  it  would  be  beneath  the  dignity 
of  philology  to  suppose  that  "  chide  oak," 
indicated  above,  was  the  source  of  the  name 
Chideock.  At  the  same  time,  the  appearance 
of  the  name  and  the  rime  about  the  same 
period  in  English  history  is,  to  say  the 
least,  a  somewhat  curious  coincidence. 
Chideock,  whatever  it  may  signify,  is  a 
family  name,  as  well  as  a  place-name.  As 
a  surname,  it  was  borne  by  Sir  John  Chideock, 
mentioned  in  '  The  Early  History  of  the 
[London]  Merchant  Taylors'  Company.*  As 
a  place-name,  it  is  still  used  to  designate  a 
parish  in  Dorsetshire.  SCOTUS. 

xii.  424).— I.  The  theory  that  many  families 
named  variously  Denny,  Dean,  Deden,  Dene, 
Dyne,  &c.,  all  have  a  common  origin  seems 
improbable.  More  than  ten  years  ago  a 
lady  named  Mary  Deane  wrote  a  book  called 

The  Book  of  Dene,  Deane,  Adeane  '  (Elliot 
btock).  In  the  course  of  a  somewhat 
severe  critique  of  this  in  The  Genealogist 
(Js.S.  xvi.  71)  the  reviewer  wrote  :— 

"We  must  confess,  too,  to  a  feeling  of  sadness  on 

hnding  the  author  indulging  in  a  belief  that  the 

nes,    Adeanes,    Deanes,    and    others    bearing 

similar  surnames,  derive  their  cognomen   from   a 

ommon  ancestor,  as  such  a  belief  in  these  latter 

tys     taken    in    conjunction    with    some    curious 

eraldic  and  genealogical  statements  and  deduc- 
tions, put  a  serious  criticism  of  her  work  out  of  the 

The  similarity  of  the  arms  borne  by  the 
various  families  of  Dean,  &c.,  at  first  sight 

seems  to  support  the  theory  of  a  common 
origin,  but  can  be  quite  as  easily  explained  by 
the  well-known  tendency  of  new  families  to 
appropriate  the  arms  of  older  families  of  the 
same  or  a  similar  name.  The  heralds' 
custom  of  allowing  or  granting  the  same 
arms  to  different  families  of  the  same  name 
has  been  severely  attacked  by  leading 
genealogists,  like  Messrs.  Round,  Barron,  and 

II.  The  statement  that  Walter  Fitz  Other, 
"  temp.  Conquest  '*  (I  believe  that  his  name 
is  not  found  before  Domesday),  bore  arms  is 
surprising.     Surely    it    is    now    universally 
agreed  that  heraldry  did  not  originate  until 
towards   the   middle   of   the   next   century. 
Not  to  waste  valuable  space,  may  I  refer 
H.  L.  L.  D.  to  my  letter  in  The  Academy  of 
11  September    last   year   (p.    520)    on    this 
subject  ?       (In  this  letter  Quincy  has    been 
misprinted    as     "Quiney.")        What   really 
happened  was  that  the  heralds  assigned  arms 
to  Walter    and   his   immediate  descendants 
some    centuries  after   their    death,   as    Dr. 
Round  has  pointed  out  (Ancestor,  v.  42-6). 
And  the  alleged  descent  of  the  Fitzmaurices 
from  the  same  family  has  been  questioned 
by   the  same   eminent   authority   (Monthly 
Review,  No.  9,  pp.  102-3). 

III.  The  similarity  of  the  arms  of  Denny 
and  Windsor  is  curious,  and  it  will  be  very 
interesting  if  H.  L.  L.  D.  is  able  to  discover 
the  reason  of    this.       He   suggests   that   a 
Denny  married  a  Windsor  heiress,  or  that 
a  Windsor     married  a  Denny  heiress,   the 
descendants  assuming  her  name  ;    but  there 
are  at  least  five  other  possible  explanations  : 

(1)  If   the   Dennys   were   tenants   of   the 
Windsors,    they    might    have    assumed    a 
shield  based  on  that  of  their  lords,  as  there  is 
little  doubt  that  the  arms  of  Le  Despencer 
('  Studies  in   Peerage  and   Family  History,* 
pp.   328-9)  and  Loring  ('Memorials  of  the 
Order  of  the  Garter,'  p.  65)  were  formed  from 
the  arms  of  the  Beauchamps  of  Bedford. 

(2)  Marriage  with  a  Windsor  who  was  not 
an  heiress,  as  Henry  de  Percy  is  supposed  to 
have   assumed  his   lion  rampant   in   conse- 
quence of  his  marriage  with  a  daughter  of 
the    Earl   of   Arundel,    who      bore    a   lion 
rampant  (though  the  colours  were  altered). 

(3)  A   Windsor   might    have    granted    or 
bequeathed  his  arms  to   a  Denny  ;    for   a 
number  of  such  cases  see  The  Ancestor,  ix. 

(4)  Baseless  assumption  to  support,  or  in 
consequence  of,   an   imaginary  descent,   as 
the  Lancashire  family  of  Gerard  concocted 
a  descent  from  the  Fitzgeralds,  and  assumed 
their  arms  (Ancestor,  vii.  22-4  ;  xii.  179). 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  20, 1910. 

^..(5)  Mere  coincidence  ;  thus  the  arms  of 
Percy  (v.  sup.)  were  identical  with  those 
of  Redvers,  Gold,  a  lion  azure  ;  and  in  the 
fourteenth  century  the  arms  Azure,  a  bend 
gold  ("  dazure  ove  une  bende  dore  "),  were 
borne  by  four  different  families — Scrope, 
Grosvenor,  Carminow,  and  Danyers.  In 
the  last  case,  it  was  only  the  accident  of  a 
Scrope  and  a  Grosvenor  serving  in  the  same 
military  expedition  which  led  to  a  dispute 
and  to  the  question  of  right  being  adjudi- 
cated on,  so  far  as  those  two  families  were 
concerned.  G.  H.  WHITE. 


'DRAWING-ROOM  DITTIES'  (11  S.  ii.  48, 
94). — The  Coster  song  "  If  I  had  a  donkey," 
&c.,  consisting  of  six  verses,  by  Jacob  Beuler, 
was  published  in  the  '  Comic  Song-Book  '  by 
J.  E.  Carpenter  of  Netting  HiU  in  1864.  The 
verses  relate  the  story  of  Coster  Bill  Burn, 
who  was  brought  with  his  donkey  before 
a  London  magistrate.  In  the  concluding 

Bill  said,  "  Your  worship,  it's  very  hard, 

But  'tisn't  the  fine  that  I  regard ; 

But  times  has  come  to  a  pretty  pass 

When  you  mustn't  beat  a  stubborn  ass." 

I  think  some  portion  of  the  old  ditty  did 
duty  in  Shropshire  as  a  nursery  rime  nearly 
a  century  ago.  About  seventy  years  ago  my 
mother  used  to  repeat  it  thus  : — 

If  I  had  a  donkey  and  he  would  not  go, 
Do  you  think  I  'd  wollop  him  ?    No,  no,  no  ! 
1  'd  give  him  hay,  and  I 'd  give  him  grass. 
And  then  he'd  go  like  another  man's  ass. 



As    I  knew  this  more  than  fifty  years  ago 
it  ran  : — 

If  I  'd  a  donkey  wot  wudn't  go — a, 
D'yo  think  I'd  wallop  him  ?    No,  no,  no. 
I'd  give,  him  corn,  an'  shout  "  Gee-wo  ! 
Come  up,  Neddy  ! " 


My  version  in  nursery  days  was 
If  I  had  a  donkey  wot  wouldn't  go, 
Wouldn't  I  wallop  him  !    Oh,  dear,  no  ! 

I.  I.  H. 

1350  (11  S.  ii.  47).— If  the  querist  will  glance 
over  the  entries  in  Sonnenschein's  *  Best 
Books,'  2nd  ed.,  1891,  p.  473,  and  his 
'  Reader's  Guide,'  1895,  pp.  359-61,  he  may 
perhaps  discover  something  on  sepulchral 
monuments  and  monumental  brasses  that 
may  be  of  service.  The  work  of  Meyrick 
on  *  Ancient  Arms '  is  to  some  extent 

covered  and  carried  on  by  a  later  publication, 
Brett's  '  Ancient  Arms  and  Armour,'  London, 
Sampson  Low,  1894,  which  is  described  as 
"  a  pictorial  and  descriptive  record  of  the 
origin  and  development  "  of  ancient  weapons 
and  warlike  accoutrements.  W.  S.  S. 

[The  Athenceum  of  23  July  contained  a  notice  of 
Mr.  C.  H.  Ashdown's  '  British  and  Foreign  Arms 
and  Armour.'] 

PHRASE  (11  S.  ii.  86). — The  earliest  recorded 
Parliamentary  use  of  this  phrase  that  I  have 
been  able  to  trace  I  gave  at  7  S.  xii.  452.  It 
was  that  of  the  late  Mr.  Newdegate,  then 
Conservative  Member  for  North  Warwick- 
shire, who,  speaking  on  12  May,  1846,  on  the 
Corn  Importation  Bill,  said  : — 

"  However  determined  the  Government  might  be 
to  take  this  *  leap  in  the  dark,'  it  was  important 
to  communicate  all  the  information  that  could  be 
obtained  as  to  the  probable  amount  of  corn  to  be 
exported  from  abroad  in  the  event  of  the  abolition 
of  the  Corn  Laws."— 'Hansard,' Third  Series,  vol. 
Ixxxvi.  f .  422. 

The  phrase,  it  will  be  observed,  is 
quoted,  as  if  it  had  been  used  previously  in 
the  debate.  For  other  than  Parliamentary 
uses  see  5  S.  vi.  29,  94,  151,  273  ;  vii.  252, 
358  ;  viii.  237  ;  7  S.  xii.  328,  394,  452  ;  9  S. 
xi.  466.  A.  F.  R. 

(11  S.  i.  506  ;  ii.  71,  111). — Apart  from  the 
etymology  of  these  terms,  they  present 
difficulties  of  differentiation  in  connexion 
with  the  freedom  of  the  City  of  London. 
In  Letter-Book  K,  for  instance,  a  petition 
is  recorded  in  which  the  commons  complain 
to  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  difficulty 
of  raising  money  for  municipal  and  other 
purposes  in  the  City,  the  chief  cause  being 
"the  resceiving  in  to  craftes  of  )>8  cite  of  diverse 
and  grete  nombre  of  Foreines  aswell  strangiers  as 
denizeins  which  come  Inne  bi  Maires  of  J>8  Citee  and 
bi  Wardeines  of  Craftes  some  for  lucre  to  \ 
Chambre  and  to  Craftes  and  some  for  lucre  sengell 
to  Jie  Mair  and  for  Je  vous  pries.1" 
The  italics  are  my  own,  and  the  date  of  the 
petition  is  1433. 

Long  familiarity  with  the  City's  records 
has  led  me  to  believe  that  a  "  foreigner  "  and 
a  "  stranger  "  were  alike  in  their  not  having 
been  admitted  to  the  freedom,  but  they 
differed,  inasmuch  as  a  foreigner  (forinsecus) 
might  be  living  outside  the  realm,  whilst  a 
stranger  (extraneus)  lived  within  the  realm, 
but  outside  the  City.  A  denizen  was  one 
who  lived  within  the  City,  but  was  not 
necessarily,  although  most  probably  he  was 
a  freeman. 

ii  s.  ii.  AUG.  20,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


The  individual  gain  here  mentioned  as 
attaching  to  the  Mayor  for  je  vous  pries  refers 
to  the  custom,  long  prevalent,  for  the  Mayor 
for  the  time  being  to  enfranchise  six  persons 
by  prayer  (par  prier),  as  recorded  elsewhere 
in  the  Letter -Book.  This  I  take  to  mean 
that  the  Mayor  could  grant  the  freedom  of 
the  City  to  any  six  persons  who  liked  to  ask 
him  for  it.  In  the  year  following  that  of  this 
petition  this  privilege  was  abolished,  the 
Mayor  being  allowed  four  casks  of  Gascony 
wine  for  its  loss. 


Guildhall,  E.C. 

I  have  good  reason  to  believe  that  many 
English  words  have  come  from  the  Occitanian 
language  in  one  of  its  Proven^al-Langue- 
docian-Gascon  forms,  and  not  necessarily 
through  French,  for  it  is  the  language  of 
lands  long  under  the  dominion  of  our  Planta- 
genet  kings.  And  when  the  words  came 
through  French  they  did  not  always  leave 
traces  of  their  passage.  We  find  to  this  day 
in  Lancashire,  as  in  Toulouse,  the  term 
"  parapet ll  used  for  a  side-walk,  for  the 
paved  strip  provided  in  narrow  streets  per 
se  para  Ii  ped,  to  protect  one's  feet  from  mud 
and  cartwheels.  The  term  is  lost  in  French, 
and  it  is  not  mentioned  by  Littre. 

That  there  is  no  trace  of  desnisein  in 
Proven£al  is  not  surprising,  for  the  ending 
of  the  word  is  French-English,  as  in  O.F. 
citien,  Eng.  citein,  citeseyn.  In  Proven9al 
the  word  is  desnisa,  deinisa,  one  who  has 
lost  or  changed  nest ;  z  may  be  substituted 
for  s  in  the  root  (nis,  nizal),  and  the  prefix 
is  either  des  or  dei,  as  reference  to  the 
*  Tresor  dou  Felibrige  *  would  show. 

Because  citein  of  1273  had  become  citeseyn 
by  1363,  it  does  not  necessarily  follow  that 
the  change  was  due  to  a  previous  denzien  or 
denzeyn  ;  the  influence  may  have  been  the 
other  way,  though  the  latter  words  be  found 
in  a  statute  of  1 32 1 .  As  regards  the  meaning 
of  deinzein,  there  seems  to  be  insufficient 
evidence  that  it  was  originally  "  native,'2  and 
not  "meteque."  "He  that  was  born 
among  them  "  (Josh.  viii.  33)  is  more  likely  to 
mean  the  child  of  a  "meteque,"  indigena, 
because  born  among  the  Israelites,  than  a 
true  child  of  Israel. 

To  the  questions  at  the  end  of  PROF. 
SKEAT'S  reply  the  answers  are  :  1,  that  the 
word  is  not  from  O.F.,  but  from  Proven9al 
in  the  general  sense  of  the  Occitanian 
language  of  the  South  ;  2,  that,  as  I  have 
already  stated,  the  word  is  from  the  Laneue- 
docian  form  deinisa,  the  z  being  due  to  the 
root  being  nia,  nisau,  in  Lengado  nizal. 

When  the  birth  of  a  child  is  announced,  it  is 
usually  termed  a  nistoun,  and  the  children 
of  the  family  are  the  nisado.  "  Qu'es  beu, 
moun  nisau  !  "  ("  How  lovely  is  my  home  ! ??) 
exclaims  Batisto  Bounet,  the  peasant  of 
Bellogardo,  in  his  memoirs.  A.  Foures,  a 
quite  modern  Languedocian  writer,  lamenting 
that  his  friend  the  poet  Peyrat  was  obliged 
to  live  in  Paris,  says  of  him  "  1'istourian- 
troubaire,  forobandit  dempuei  tant  de  terns 
de  soun  nizal,  joubs  las  nivouls  del  nord  " 
("  the  historian -poet,  exiled  for  so  long  from 
his  home,  under  the  clouds  of  the  north  "). 
The  exile  is  figurative,  but  the  expression 
shows  that  Peyrat,  foronisa  from  his  country 
near  the  Pyrenees,  .had  become  a  deiniza  in 


"  THE  HOLY  CROWS,"  LISBON  (US.  ii.  67, 
116). — In  Baring-Gould's  life  of  St.  Vincent 
('  Lives  of  Saints,'  January,  p.  334)  we  are 
told  that,  by  the  order  of  Dacian,  Vincent's 
body  was  cast  into  a  field  to  become  the 
prey  of  wild  beasts  and  birds,  but  was 
defended  by  a  raven. 

St.  Meinrad,  the  hermit,  of  Swabia,  who 
is  commemorated  the  day  before  St.  Vincent, 
on  21  January,  had  two  pet  ravens,  which 
followed  his  two  murderers,  attacking  them 
with  beaks  and  claws,  and  then,  dashing 
against  the  windows  of  a  house  which  they 
had  entered,  caused  their  capture  and  execu- 
tion. The  life  is  authentic,  and  is  charmingly 
told  by  Baring-Gould,  January,  pp.  321-33. 
St.  Meinrad  is  included  in  John  and  Raphael 
Sadeler's  '  Sylvse  Sacrse,1  Munich,  1594, 
and  a  raven  is  perched  above  the  saint's  dead 
body,  watching  it ;  but  the  Abbots  of 
Einsidlen  do  not  seem  to  have  admitted 
these  birds  into  their  heraldic  insignia,  in 
which  we  find  stags,  lions,  storks,  dogs,  and 
squirrels,  as  shown  in  Steinegger's  interesting 
series  of  plates  in  his  '  Idea  Vitse  et  Mortis  S. 
Meinradi,1  "  Typis  Monasterii  Einsidlensis,'* 
1681.  C.  DEEDES. 


In  their  interesting  query  N.  M.  &  A.  ask 
if  there  are  other  "instances  of  birds  or 
mammals  being  kept  in  this  fashion  in  other 
parts  of  Europe."  I  am  reminded  of  the 
raven  I  saw  some  eight  years  ago  at  Merse- 
burg,  a  small  cathedral  town  about  ten 
miles  south  of  Halle  a.  S.  It  was  kept  in  a 
large  stone  cage  in  front  of  the  palace,  and 
the  following  story,  recalling  the  well- 
known  one  of  the  jackdaw  of  Rheims,  was 
told  to  account  for  its  presence  :  A  certain 
Bishop  of  Merseburg,  whose  name  I  forget, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       tn  s.  11.  AUG.  20, 1910. 

lost  a  valuable  ring,  and  suspected  one  of  his 
servants  of  having  stolen  it.  The  man 
vehemently  denied  all  knowledge  of  the 
theft,  but  he  was  not  believed,  and  was 
beheaded ;  the  stone  block,  with  blood- 
stains, is  still  shown  in  the  palace  court- 
yard. Afterwards  the  ring  was  discovered 
in  a  raven's  nest,  and  the  bishop,  in  remorse, 
set  apart  a  sum  of  money  to  maintain  for 
ever  a  raven  as  a  memorial  of  his  crime  and 
a  warning  against  hasty  judgments. 

In  looking  over  the  cathedral  I  saw  (I 
believe  in  a  window)  the  arms  of  the  bishop 
in  question,  into  which  a  raven  entered. 
Possibly  they  are  to  be  held  responsible  in 
some  way  for  the  presence  of  the  raven,  the 
legend  being  invented  when  the  original 
reason  had  been  forgotten ;  but  at  any 
rate.. the  raven  is  (or  was)  undoubtedly 
there,  and  furnishes  an  analogy  to  the  Lisbon 
crows.  I  was  informed  that  the  allowance 
for  the  raven's  maintenance  is  now  made 
by  the  Government.  H.  I.  B. 

THE  KING'S  BUTLER  (11  S.  ii.  108).— 
The  Duke  of  Norfolk  is  Hereditary  Chief 
Butler  of  England  as  Earl  of  Arundel  and 
Lord  of  Keningal  or  Kenninghall  Manor, 
which  is  not  far  from  Buckenham,  to  which 
Camden  alludes. 

The  Lord  Mayor  and  citizens  of  London 
(generally  eight)  claimed  the  right  of  assisting 
the  Chief  Butler  in  his  Butlership  ;  and  the 
Mayor,  bailiffs,  and  commonalty  of  Oxford 
also  claimed  to  serve  in  the  office  of  Butler  - 
ship  to  the  King,  with  the  citizens  of  London. 
Both  claims  were  usually  allowed,  the  Oxford 
citizens  being  rewarded  with  a  fee  of  lesser 
value  than  that  which  was  given  to  the 
Londoners.  For  historical  details  as  to  the 
City  claim,  see  *  Ceremonials  to  be  observed 
by  the  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  Sheriffs,  and 
Officers  of  the  City  of  London,'  London, 
1850,  8vo,  chap.  lx.,  '  Coronations,*  pp.  157- 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  other  claimants  for 
the  office  referred  to  than  those  specified 
above.  JOHN  HODGKIN. 

RED  LION  SQUARE  OBELISK  (US.  ii.  109) 
— It  was  supposed  to  cover  the  remains  of 
Oliver  Cromwell,  Ireton,  and  Bradshaw 
when  they  were  disinterred  from  their 
graves  in  Westminster  Abbey.  Rede  in  his 
'  Anecdotes  and  Biography,'  as  alluded  to 
by  Wheatley,  repeated  in  1799  what  was  even 
then  merely  a  tradition.  Mr.  Wheatley 
observes,  however,  that  "no  contemporary 
or  early  writer,  so  far  as  we  know,  alludes 

0  any   such   tradition,   which  has   all  the 
appearance  of  being  a  late  invention."     He 
does  not  mention  that  the  obelisk  bore  the 

ollowing  inscription  : — 




87). — The  base  of  the  column  noticed  by 
MR.  A.  LE  BLANC  NEWBERY  does  not,  I 
regret  to  say,  belong  to  the  fourteenth 
century,  but  dates  from  circa  1850,  when  the 
premises  numbered  278  were  built.  Their 
design  was  quite  ambitious  for  the  com- 
mercial architecture  of  that  period  :  there 
were  two  columns  supporting  the  facia  on  the 
Pentonville  Road  side,  and  in  Caledonian 
Road  two  half-round  pilasters  supported  a 
pediment.  The  style  was  approaching  to 

RISTER (11  S.  ii.  69,  111).— MR.  W.  D. 
PINK  and  the  inquirer  may  like  to  read  the 
following  translation  by  George  Pryce,F.S.A.y 
made  for  his  '  Popular  History  of  Bristol ' 
(1861)  from  the  Latin  of  the  Brook  brass 
in  St.  Mary  Redcliff  : — 

Here  lies  the  body  of    the  venerable  man  John 

Brook,  once  servant-at-law 
to  the  illustrious  prince  of  happy  memory.  King 

Henry  the  Eighth,  Judge  of  Assize 
to  the  said  king  in  the  eastern  parts  of  England,. 

and  chief  steward  of 
that  honourable  house  and  monastery  of  the  blessed 

Virgin  of  Glastonbury, 
in  the  county  of  Somerset ;  which  said  John  died 

on  the  25th  day  of 
December,  Anno  Domini  1552.    And  near  him  rests 

Johanna  his  wife, 

daughter  and  heir  of  Richard    Americke,  whose 
souls  God  propitiate.    Amen. 


(US.  ii.  66).— At  the  Windham  Club,  St. 
James's  Square,  of  which  I  have  been  a 
member  for  forty  years,  there  is,  and,  as  far  as 

1  know,  there  always  has  been,  a  dispense 
cellar,  where  the  butler  keeps  his  few  bottles 
of  all  wines  in  the  Club  for  instant  issue, 
the  large  stocks  being  in  the  main  cellar, 
controlled  by  the  secretary.     I  should  think 
that  this  is  a  common  practice  in  London 
clubs,   and   that   the  word    "  dispense "   is 
used  generally.     The  Windham  was  founded 
in  1828.     The  secretary  tells  me  that  when  - 


ii  s.  ii.  A™.  20,  i9io.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


small  quantity  of  wine  is  ordered  from  a  wine 
merchant  for  immediate  drinking,  it  is  sent 
!  into   "  dispense."         ROBERT  PIERPOINT. 


!   (11  S.  ii.  68,  134). — Perhaps  MR.  DENHAM  is 

I  referring   to   the  journal   of   Capt.  Woodes 

I   Rogers,   edited  by  A.   C.   Leslie  under  the 

j   title  '  Life  aboard  a  British  Privateer  in  the 

Reign  of  Queen  Anne,'   and  published  by 

Chapman  &  Hall  in  1889.     The  only  dubious 

point  about  the  matter  is  that  the  expedition 

of  Rogers  was  fitted  out  by  a  company  of 

Bristol  merchants,  and  not  by  the  East  India 

Company.     In    other    respects    the    book, 

which   gives  a   singularly   graphic   account 

of  the  captain's  encounters  with  enemies  in 

various  parts  of  the  world,  may  well  be  the 

publication  sought.  •     W.  S.  S. 

MANOR  :  SAC  :  SOKE  (US.  ii.  108).— 
The  answer  to  this  query  will  be  found  in 
Maitland's  *  Domesday  Book  and  Beyond,' 
pp.  80-128.  The  term  manerium  came  in 
with  the  Conqueror,  taking  the  place  of 
mansa,  mansio  (p.  108).  Prof.  Maitland  has 
defined  a  manor  as  a  house  against  which 
geld  is  charged  (p.  120)  ;  and  although  Dr. 
Round  adduces  reasons  for  the  rejection  of 
this  definition  (English  Historical  Review,  xv. 
293),  his  objections  bear  a  close  resemblance 
to  "  exceptions  which  prove  the  rule.'* 
"Soke"-  was  used  for  "jurisdiction,"  "the 
right  to  hold  a  court  "  (Maitland,  op.  cit., 
p.  86).  Where  a  lord  had  soke  over  men 
and  land,  justice  had  to  be  sued  in  that  lord's 
court,  so  that  "  soke  "  meant  not  only  the 
lord's  jurisdiction,  but  also  the  protection  of 
his  sokemen  from  vexation  in  numberless 
other  and  distant  courts.  "  Soke "  also 
means  "  seeking  **  (qucestio),  hence  the  duty 
known  as  "  soca  faldse  "  is  the  duty  of  seeking 
the  lord's  fold,  where  the  tenants'  sheep  or 
cattle  will  make  manure  for  the  lord's  use. 
So  also  "  soca  molendini  "  is  the  duty  of 
taking  grist  to  the  lord's  mill  to  be  ground 
there  for  his  particular  profit. 

' '  Sake  "  has  a  less  comprehensive  significa- 
tion than  "  soke.'1  The  word  means  a 
"  matter  "  or  "  cause,"  and  so  grew  to  mean 
"  the  right  to  have  a  court  and  to  do  justice  " 
(Maitland,  op.  cit.,  p.  84). 

Reference  to  the  *  N.E.D.1  shows  that 
"  manor,'*  "manse,1'  and  "  mese,'1  the 
archaic  form  of  "  messuage,"  are  all  allied 
to  the  Latin  manere,  to  remain.  The  earliest 
instance  of  the  use  of  the  word  "manor" 
which  I  have  seen  occurs  in  a  charter  of 
William  de  Muntchenesy  belonging  to  the 

last  decade  of  the  twelfth  century.  One 
of  the  witnesses  to  this  deed  was  William 
"del  Maner,"  possibly  a  member  of  the 
Cambridgeshire  family  "  de  Manerio." 
Eustace  de  Manerio  held  two  knights'  fees 
in  1166  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely.  See  '  Ancient 
Deeds,'  A.  3023 ;  '  Red  Book  of  the  Ex- 
chequer,1 p.  364.  W.  FARRER. 

INTERCOURSE  (11  S.  i.  8,  154,  397,  511). — 
ROCKINGHAM  asks  whether  any  certain 
information  can  be  given  as  to  Li  Hung- 
Chang's  English.  If  ROCKINGHAM  was 
under  the  impression  that  Li  Hung-Chang 
understood  English  well  and  that  his  pre- 
tended ignorance  was  only  a  diplomatic 
device,  he  was  giving  that  statesman  credit 
for  an  accomplishment  he  did  not  possess. 
He  neither  spoke  nor  understood  English. 
No  Chinese  official  of  viceregal  rank  does. 

Neither  was  the  late  Dowager  Empress 
conversant  with  our  tongue.  It  was  said 
that  the  late  Emperor  Kuang  Hsu  had 
studied  English  to  a  considerable  extent, 
though  I  fancy  no  one  knew  how  far  his 
knowledge  extended. 

Li  Hung-Chang  had  one  diplomatic 
"dodge"-  of  which  ROCKINGHAM  may 
perhaps  have  heard.  It  was  not  an  affected 
ignorance  of  English  (that  was  genuine 
enough),  but  a  pretended  inability  to  speak 
any  Chinese  except  the  dialect  of  Anhui, 
his  native  province.  This,  of  course,  made 
him  unintelligible  to  such  visitors  as  spoke 
only  the  Mandarin  dialect.  Li  Hung- 
Chang  frequently  resorted  to  this  device 
when  inclined  to  be  evasive.  As  a  matter  of 
fact  he  spoke  "  Mandarin  '*  perfectly. 

G.  M.  H.  PLAYFAIR,  H.M.  Consul. 
H.M.  Consulate,  Foochow. 

GENERAL  HAUG  (11  S.  ii.  66).— Dr. 
Constant  von  Wurzbach's  '  Biographisches 
Lexikon  des  Kaiserthums  Oesterreich,'  8th 
part,  Vienna,  1862,  has  an  article  on  an  Ernst 
Haug  or  Hauk,  formerly  an  Austrian  officer, 
afterwards  a  political  refugee,  who  is  said  to 
have  been  a  general  in  the  Sardinian  service 
in  1848  and  1849.  It  is  stated  in  this  article 
that  after  leaving  Italy  he  went  to  London, 
where  he  edited  a  geographical  periodical 
called  Cosmos,  and  that  the  English  papers 
in  1854  reported  that  the  British  Govern- 
ment were  subsidizing  an  expedition  which 
he  was  undertaking  in  the  interior  of 
Australia.  Can  this  be  the  man  asked  for  ? 

The  Haugs  seem  to  have  been  rather 
mixed  up  at  the  time  when  this  volume  was 
written ;  for  we  are  told  that  the  above 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [ii  s.  n.  AUG.  20,  mo. 

Haug  was  sometimes  confused  with  Ludwig 
Haug  (1799-1850),  also  an  Austrian  officer, 
who  was  an  insurgent  leader  in  the  Hungarian 
revolution,  and  that  the  head  of  the  geo- 
graphical expedition  may  have  been  the 
Ernst  Haug  who  was  a  sub -lieutenant  in  the 
Tirolese  Jager  Regiment  in  1843. 

Bad  Wildungen. 

FOLLY  (11  S.  ii.  29,  78,  113).— On  the  site 
of  the  present  Folly  Bridge,  anciently  called 
Grandpont,  over  the  Isis  or  Thames  at 
Oxford,  was  a  tower  said  to  have  been  used 
as  an  observatory  by  Friar  Roger  Bacon, 
and  after